Not to be confused with the Tombs of the Sanhedrin. Sanhedria Cemetery is a 27-dunam Jewish burial ground in the Sanhedria neighborhood of Jerusalem, adjacent to the intersection of Levi Eshkol Boulevard, Shmuel HaNavi Street, Bar-Ilan Street. Unlike the Mount of Olives and Har HaMenuchot cemeteries that are located on the outer edges of the city, Sanhedria Cemetery is situated in the heart of western Jerusalem, in close proximity to residential housing, it is operated under the jurisdiction of the Kehilat Yerushalayim chevra kadisha and accepts Jews from all religious communities. As of the 2000s, the cemetery is nearly filled to capacity; until 1948, Jewish burials in Jerusalem were conducted in the centuries-old Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives. In January 1948, the Arab siege of Jerusalem made the Mount of Olives inaccessible, as the route to the cemetery passed through hostile Arab villages; the catalyst for the opening of Sanhedria Cemetery was the March 23, 1948 explosion of three British army trucks filled with kerosene on Ben Yehuda Street in downtown Jerusalem.
The explosion collapsed the Atlantic Hotel and damaged adjacent buildings. Forty-two Jewish men and children were killed in the blast, but there was nowhere to bury them. While the bodies lay in the courtyard of the Bikur Holim Hospital for five days, representatives of the Kehilat Yerushalayim chevra kadisha scoured the city for a suitable location for a new cemetery. An empty lot next to the Sanhedria neighborhood, in the vicinity of a government agricultural experiments station, was deemed appropriate, permission was obtained from British Mandate authorities; the site was hastily consecrated by Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog and Sephardi Chief Rabbi Ben-Zion Hai Uziel, the bodies were buried on the fifth day in the presence of thousands. In April 1948, 47 victims of the Hadassah medical convoy massacre, burned beyond recognition, were buried in a mass grave in the Sanhedria Cemetery. In the 1970s the son of one of the victims discovered that only 25 victims had been buried here and 22 had been declared missing.
With the outbreak of war in May 1948, Sanhedria Cemetery was located close to the front line on the northern border. Burials resumed after the first cease fire on June 11, 1948, but four weeks the pallbearers at a funeral were targeted by Arab sniper fire and one died, causing a cessation of burials once again. Two small burial grounds in central Jerusalem – Sheikh Badr Cemetery in the Sheikh Badr neighborhood, Shaare Zedek Cemetery behind the first Shaare Zedek Hospital – were opened and used until the end of the war. Following the 1949 Armistice Agreement, with the Mount of Olives remaining under Jordanian control, Sanhedria Cemetery became a regular burial ground. With the opening of the new neighborhoods of Shmuel HaNavi, Maalot Dafna, Ramat Eshkol, the cemetery was encircled by residential housing. After the establishment of the State of Israel, it emerged that the cemetery was not registered with the government land-ownership office and was in violation of certain building codes. While Israeli law mandates a minimum distance of 100 metres between graves and apartment houses, in some sections of Sanhedria Cemetery the distance is only 20 metres.
As a result of procedural violations, the cemetery was tied up in litigation for many years. Sanhedria Cemetery is operated under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Kehilat Yerushalayim chevra kadisha; this burial society was founded in 1939 by Zionist leaders and moderate rabbis of the Old Yishuv, leading many Haredi residents of the Old Yishuv to shun the Sanhedria Cemetery. Graves are topped by a horizontal, rectangular limestone gravestone engraved with the name and accolades of the deceased; the gravestones of Eleazar Sukenik, a noted Israeli archeologist who researched the nearby Tombs of the Sanhedrin, his wife Chassia, are uniquely decorated with carvings and motifs of the Second Temple era. The cost of burial at Sanhedria Cemetery is not subsidized by the state, as in other cemeteries. In September 2008 the price of a double plot stood at 75,000 shekels. At the southern end of the cemetery stands the Sanhedria Funeral Parlor, which conducts funeral services for burials in other cemeteries.
In 1992, former Prime Minister Menachem Begin eschewed a state funeral in favor of eulogies at the Sanhedria Funeral Parlor and burial at the Mount of Olives. The side of the funeral parlor overlooking the busy commercial intersection of Shmuel HaNavi and Bar-Ilan Streets displays large metal letters that read: בית מועד לכל חי. A sign posted on the outer wall of the cemetery, facing Levi Eshkol Boulevard, warns Kohanim not to pass under the trees overhanging the wall in order to avoid tumat ohel. Ben Zion Abba Shaul, rosh yeshiva of Porat Yosef Yeshiva, Jerusalem Shmuel Berenbaum, rosh yeshiva of the Mir yeshiva, Brooklyn, NY Yaakov Moshe Charlap, rabbi of Sha'arei Hesed neighborhood of Jerusalem and rosh yeshiva of Mercaz HaRav Kook Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog, Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel Yisrael Elazar Hopstein, Kohnitzer Rebbe Sadqa Hussein, rabbi of Shemesh Sedaqah Synagogue, Jerusalem Avraham Kalmanowitz, rosh yeshiva of the Mir yeshiva, Brooklyn, NY Shraga Moshe Kalmanowitz, rosh yeshiva of the Mir yeshiva, Brooklyn, NY Aryeh Levin, Jerusalem tzadik and "Rav of the Prisoners" Shimshon Aharon Polanski, Rav of Teplik, Ukraine Avraham Elimelech Shapira, Grodzhisker Rebbe David Feuerwerker, Chief Rabbi of Lyon, Rabbi in Neuilly-sur-Seine and Paris, Dayan
Samuel is a figure who, in the narratives of the Hebrew Bible, plays a key role in the transition from the period of the biblical judges to the institution of a kingdom under Saul, again in the transition from Saul to David. He is venerated as a prophet by Jews and Muslims. In addition to his role in the Hebrew Scriptures, Samuel is mentioned in the New Testament, in rabbinical literature, in the second chapter of the Qur'an, although here not by name, he is treated in the fifth through seventh books of Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews, written in the first century CE. He is called Samuel the Seer in 1 Chronicles. Samuel's mother was Hannah and his father was Elkanah. Elkanah lived at Ramathaim in the district of Zuph, his genealogy is found in a pedigree of the Kohathites and in that of Heman the Ezrahite his grandson. According to the genealogical tables in Chronicles, Elkanah was a Levite - a fact not mentioned in the books of Samuel; the fact that Elkanah, a Levite, was denominated an Ephraimite is analogous to the designation of a Levite belonging to Judah.
According to 1 Samuel 1:1-28, Elkanah had two wives and Hannah. Peninnah had children. Nonetheless, Elkanah favored Hannah. Jealous, Penninah reproached Hannah for her lack of children; the relationship of Penninah and Hannah recalls that between Sarah. Elkanah was a devout man and would periodically take his family on pilgrimage to the holy site of Shiloh; the motif of Elkanah and Hannah as devout, childless parents will reoccur with Zachariah and Elizabeth and the birth of John the Baptist, with Joachim and Saint Anne and the birth of Mary, mother of Jesus. On one occasion Hannah prayed for a child. In tears, she vowed that were she granted a child, she would dedicate him to God as a Nazirite. Eli, sitting at the foot of the doorpost in the sanctuary at Shiloh, saw her mumbling to herself and thought she was drunk, but was soon assured of her motivation and sobriety. Eli was the priest of Shiloh, one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel, he had assumed the leadership after Samson's death.
Eli blessed her and she returned home. Subsequently Hannah gave birth to Samuel. Hannah's exultant hymn of thanksgiving resembles in several points Mary's Magnificat. After the child was weaned, she left him in Eli's care, from time to time she would come to visit her son. According to 1 Samuel 1:20, Hannah named Samuel to commemorate her prayer to God for a child. "... called his name Samuel, Because I have asked him of the Lord". The Hebrew root rendered as "asked" in the KJV is "sha’al", a word mentioned seven times in 1 Samuel 1. Once it is mentioned in the form "sha’ul", Saul’s name in Hebrew. According to the Holman Bible Dictionary, Samuel was a "ersonal name in the Ancient Near East meaning,'Sumu is God' but understood in Israel as'The name is God,"God is exalted,' or'son of God.'" Samuel worked under Eli in the service of the shrine at Shiloh. One night, Samuel heard a voice calling his name. According to the first-century Jewish historian Josephus, Samuel was about 11 years old. Samuel assumed it was coming from Eli and went to Eli to ask what he wanted.
Eli, sent Samuel back to sleep. After this happened three times, Eli realised that the voice was the Lord's, instructed Samuel on how to answer: If He calls you you must say, "Speak, for Your servant hears". Once Samuel responded, the Lord told him that the wickedness of the sons of Eli had resulted in their dynasty being condemned to destruction. In the morning, Samuel was hesitant about reporting the message to Eli, but Eli asked him to recount to him what he had been told by the Lord. Upon receiving the communication, Eli said that the Lord should do what seems right unto him; this event established that Samuel was now "established as a prophet of the Lord" and "all Israel from Dan to Beersheba" became aware of his prophetic calling. Anglican theologian Donald Spence Jones comments that "the minds of all the people were thus prepared when the right moment came to acknowledge Samuel as a God-sent chieftain" During Samuel's youth at Shiloh, the Philistines inflicted a decisive defeat against the Israelites at Eben-Ezer, placed the land under Philistine control, took the sanctuary's Ark for themselves.
Upon hearing the news of the capture of the Ark of the Covenant, the death of his sons, Eli collapsed and died. When the Philistines had been in possession of the Ark for seven months and had been visited with calamities and misfortunes, they decided to return the Ark to the Israelites. According to Bruce C. Birch, Samuel was a key figure in keeping the Israelites' religious heritage and identity alive during Israel's defeat and occupation by the Philistines. "t may have been possible and necessary for Samuel to exercise authority in roles that would not converge in a single individual."After 20 years of oppression, who had gained national prominence as a prophet, summoned the people to the hill of Mizpah, led them against the Philistines. The Philistines, having marched to Mizpah to attack the newly amassed Israelite army, were soundly defeated and fled in terror; the retreating Philistines were slaughtered by the Israelites. The text states that Samuel erected a large stone at the battle site as a memorial, there ensued a long period of peace thereafter.
Samuel appointed his two sons as his successors. The Israelites rejected them
Jewish Agency for Israel
The Jewish Agency for Israel is the largest Jewish nonprofit organization in the world. Its mission is to "inspire Jews throughout the world to connect with their people and land, empower them to build a thriving Jewish future and a strong Israel."It is best known as the primary organization fostering the immigration and absorption of Jews and their families from the Jewish diaspora into Israel. Since 1948 the Jewish Agency for Israel has brought 3 million immigrants to Israel, offers them transitional housing in "absorption centers" throughout the country; the Jewish Agency played a central role in the development of the State of Israel. David Ben Gurion served as the Chairman of its Executive Committee from 1935, in this capacity on May 14, 1948 he proclaimed independence for the State of Israel, he became Israel's first Prime Minister. In the years before and after the founding of the state, the Jewish Agency oversaw the establishment of about 1,000 towns and villages in Mandate Palestine.
It serves as Jewish communities around the world. As of 2017 the Jewish Agency operates and/or funds programs worldwide that: bring Jews to Israel on "Israel Experiences" trips, such as Masa Israel Journey and Onward Israel bring "Israel in your community" through a variety of Jewish education and communal programs, such as Shlichim, Partnership2Gether and programming for Jews in Russian-language countries help vulnerable Israelis and encourage "Jewish Social Action" in programs such as Youth Villages, Youth Futures, Young Activism, Amigour subsidized housing facilitate Aliyah and help immigrants integrate into Israeli society. For example, it conducts intensive Hebrew-language immersion programs in Israel and residential programs for immigrants aged 18 to 35. By law, the Jewish Agency is a para-statal organization, but it does not receive core funding from the Israeli government; the Jewish Agency is funded by the Jewish Federations of North America, Keren Hayesod, major Jewish communities and federations, foundations and donors from Israel and around the world.
In 2008 the Jewish Agency won the Israel Prize for its historical contribution to Israel and to the worldwide Jewish community. As of 2016, The Jewish Agency sponsors dozens of programs that connect Jews to Israel and to each other; the Agency organizes the programs into four different categories: Israel Experiences, Israel in Your Community, Jewish Social Action, Aliyah. Some programs: The Israel Experience programs bring young Jews from around the globe to Israel to get to know the country and deepen their Jewish identities. Taglit-Birthright Israel provides ten-day educational trips to Israel for Jews ages 18 to 26 from around the world free of charge; the Jewish Agency is the largest organizational partner in the initiative and is directly involved in bringing over 9,000 participants on Taglit-Birthright each year, with a special focus on facilitating Taglit-Birthright experiences and related programming for communities in need and for Russian-speaking Jews in the former Soviet Union and Germany.
Onward Israel organizes 6- to 10-week professional internships in Israel for students and young professionals who have visited Israel on Taglit-Birthright or another group tour. Participants come in all from the same community or organization. Masa Israel Journey is a public-service organization founded in 2004 by the Government of Israel's Office of the Prime Minister, together with The Jewish Agency, it includes a portfolio of more than 200 programs in Israel for Jews aged 18–30, including study programs, service programs, career development. Programs last from 2–12 months, it sponsors over 10,000 participants per year. Masa provides significant scholarships to participants, performs outreach, operates alumni activities. Israel Tech Challenge is a partnership of The Jewish Agency with the National Cyber Bureau and other partners and donors, it offers trips to Israel of varying lengths for students and young professionals with knowledge in the field of computer science and programming. The programs offer visits with Israeli hi-tech professionals and academics, along with experience or training in coding, cyber security and/or data science.
Machon Le'Madrichim trains, in Israel, Jewish counselors of Zionist youth movements around the world, to give them tools for running educational Zionist programs in their home communities when they return. It was founded in 1946 by the World Zionist Organization; as of 2013, it had 12,000 alumni from South America, the United States, South Africa, North Africa, Europe. Na'ale allows Jewish teenagers from the diaspora to earn a high school diploma. Students start the program in ninth or tenth grade and graduate after the twelfth grade with a full Israeli matriculation certificate. During the first year, students follow an intensive Hebrew-language program so that they become able to speak and write in Hebrew; the program is subsidized by the Israeli government. The Na'ale scholarship includes: subsidized tuition, free ticket to Israel and board, health insurance and extra curricular activities. Na'ale offers a variety of schools all over Israel from which candidates may choose, including secular, national religious, ultra-orthodox and urban boarding schools.
In its mission to strengthen the ties between Israel and worldwide Jewry and to promote Jewish culture and identity, The Jewish Agency sends out shlichim, or emissaries, to Jewish communities across the globe.
Israel Antiquities Authority
The Israel Antiquities Authority is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities. The IAA regulates excavation and conservation, promotes research; the director-general is Shuka Dorfmann and its offices are housed in the Rockefeller Museum. The Israel Antiquities Authority plans to move into a new building for the National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel in Jerusalem, next to the Israel Museum; the Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums of the Ministry of Education was founded on July 26, 1948, after the establishment of the State of Israel. It took over the functions of the Department of Antiquities of the British Mandate in Israel, its activities were based on the British Mandate Department of Antiquities ordinances. IDAM was the statutory authority responsible for Israel's antiquities and for the administration of small museums, its functions include curation of the state collection of antiquities, storing of the state collection, maintaining a list of registered antiquities sites, inspecting antiquities sites and registering newly discovered sites, conducting salvage and rescue operations of endangered antiquities sites, maintaining an archaeological library, maintaining an archive.
It published the results of excavations in three journals: Booklet of the Department of Antiquities Hebrew, now defunct, still published, Hadashot Arkheologiyot --still published, online. IDAM funded and managed the Archaeological Survey of Israel and published the results of its work in maps covering 10 km² of the State of Israel; the Israel Antiquities Authority was created from the IDAM by the Knesset in a 1990 statute. Amir Drori became its first director; the IAA fulfilled the statutory obligations of the IDAM and in its early days was expanded from the core number of workers in IDAM to a much larger complement, to include the functions of the Archaeological Survey of Israel. The period of expansion lasted for a number of years, but was followed by a period in which diminished fiscal resources and a reduction in funding led to large cutbacks in the size of its work force and its activities; the Jay and Jeanie Schottenstein National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel is the future building of the IAA, aiming to concentrate all centralized administrative offices into one structure.
The campus is planned on 20,000 square meters between the Israel Museum and the Bible Lands Museum in Jerusalem by Architect Moshe Safdie. The IAA's organization consists of: Management Deputy Director for Archaeology IAA Regional Offices Excavations and Surveys Department Artifacts Treatment Department Conservation Department National Treasures Department Information Technology Department Publications Department Antiquities Robbery Prevention Unit Archives Department library IAA Internet Sites Unit Finance Administration Planning and Control Administration Administrative and Security Services Branch Staff Officer for Archaeology – Civil Administration of Judea and Samaria Shmuel Yeivin, 1948–1961 Avraham Biran, 1961–1974 Avraham Eitan, 1974–1988 Amir Drori, 1988–2000 Yehoshua Dorfman, 2000–July 31, 2014 Yisrael Hasson, 2014– Levi Rahmani and Chief Curator during the 1980s The IAA's six-member restoration team restores potsherds, metal objects and other objects related to the material culture of the country discovered in archaeological excavations.
Unlike their peers around the world, the team in Israel is barred by Israeli law from working with human remains. Israel Antiquities Authority - official website. Eisenbrauns - Official distributor for IAA publications in North America The Jay and Jeanie Schottenstein National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel on the Israel Antiquities Authority website
Kiryat HaYovel is a neighborhood in southwestern Jerusalem on Mount Herzl. It was built in the early 1950s to house new immigrants. Today, Kiryat HaYovel has a population of 25,000 residents. Kiryat HaYovel is located on the main road to Hadassah Hospital, Ein Kerem, between Ramat Denya and Kiryat Menachem. Kiryat HaYovel was established in the 1952 to house thousands of Jews from Arab countries who fled their homes when the State of Israel was declared. In the early days it was a tent city, as public housing projects, called shikunim, were hastily built to accommodate them. Kiryat HaYovel was built on the land of the Palestinian village Beit Mazmil, occupied during the Nakba of 1948, it was renamed Kiryat Hayovel to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the Jewish National Fund. The need for housing was so urgent that a British mandatory ordinance requiring that all buildings in Jerusalem be faced with Jerusalem stone was waived in Kiryat Hayovel. Functional architecture, with flat roofs, stucco facades and no ornamentation, was characteristic of early construction in the neighborhood, many examples remain until today.
The neighborhood's immigrant population was supplemented with young couples. In the 1960s, they were joined by teachers and professors, offsetting the proletarian character of the neighborhood and creating more upscale sections, such as the large private homes lining Shmaryahu Levin Street. In 2002, it was described as a blue-collar neighborhood. On March 29, 2002, Ayat al-Akhras, an 18-year-old Palestinian, blew herself up at the entrance of Kiryat HaYovel's main supermarket, killing two people and injuring 28. Kiryat HaYovel has a commercial center, a community center, three public swimming pools and a library; the neighborhood's claim to fame is "The Golem", a whimsical playground sculpture set in Rabinovich Park. Called "The Monster", the sculpture's three red tongues serve as slides; the Golem was designed by the French sculptor Niki de Saint-Phalle. Many of the streets in Kiryat HaYovel are named for countries in Latin America, whose United Nations representatives voted in favor of the establishment of Israel in 1947.
ALYN Hospital, a comprehensive rehabilitation center for physically challenged and disabled children and young adults, is located in Kiryat HaYovel. Teddy Kollek, mayor of Jerusalem 1965 to 1993Eli Ohana, Soccer Player Short fundraiser filmed in the neighborhood in the 1950s Kiryat HaYovel WebSite Jerusalem WebSite on Kiryat HaYovel
A gang is a group of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, in illegal, violent, behavior. Some criminal gang members are "jumped in", or they have to prove their loyalty and right to belong by committing certain acts theft or violence. A member of a gang may be called a gangster, a gang banger, or, less a thug. A number of gangs have gained notoriety throughout history, including the Italian Mafia, the Russian mafia, the Irish mob, the Polish mob, the Jewish mob, the Albanian mafia, the Yakuza in Japan, the Kkangpae in Korea, the Triad in China, the gangs of New England, the Jamaican Shower Posse and Yardies, the African-American Crips and Bloods, Latino gangs such as Latin Kings, MS-13, Sureños, Trinitarios, white supremacist gangs such as the Aryan Brotherhood, Aryan Nations and biker gangs like Hells Angels; the word "gang" derives from the past participle of Old English gan, meaning "to go".
It is cognate with Old Norse gangster, meaning "journey." It means a group of people, may have neutral, positive or negative connotations depending on usage. In discussing the banditry in American history Barrington Moore, Jr. suggests that gangsterism as a "form of self-help which victimizes others" may appear in societies which lack strong "forces of law and order". A wide variety of gangs, such as the Order of Assassins, the Damned Crew, Adam the Leper's gang, Penny Mobs, Indian Thugs, Chinese Triads, Japanese Yakuza, Irish mob, Pancho Villa's Villistas, Dead Rabbits, American Old West outlaw gangs, Bowery Boys, the Italian Mafia, Jewish mafia, Russian mafia crime families have existed for centuries; the 17th century saw London "terrorized by a series of organized gangs", some of them known as the Mims, Hectors and Dead Boys. These gangs came into conflict with each other. Members dressed in the following way: "with colored ribbons to distinguish the different factions."Chicago had over 1,000 gangs in the 1920s.
These early gangs had reputations for many criminal activities, but in most countries could not profit from drug trafficking prior to drugs being made illegal by laws such as the 1912 International Opium Convention and the 1919 Volstead Act. Gang involvement in drug trafficking increased during the 1970s and 1980s, but some gangs continue to have minimal involvement in the trade. In the United States, the history of gangs began on the East Coast in 1783 following the American Revolution; the emergence of the gangs was attributed to the vast rural population immigration to the urban areas. The first street-gang in the United States, the 40 Thieves, began around the late 1820s in New York City; the gangs in Washington D. C. had control of what is now Federal Triangle, in a region known as Murder Bay. In 2007, there were 785,000 active street gang members in the United States, according to the National Youth Gang Center. In 2011, the National Gang Intelligence Center of the Federal Bureau of Investigation asserted that "There are 1.4 million active street and outlaw gang members comprising more than 33,500 gangs in the United States."
230,000 gang members were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2011. According to the Chicago Crime Commission publication, "The Gang Book 2012", Chicago has the highest number of gang members of any city in the United States: 150,000 members. Traditionally Los Angeles County has been considered the Gang Capital of America, with an estimated 120,000 gang members. There were at least 30,000 gangs and 800,000 gang members active across the USA in 2007. About 900,000 gang members lived "within local communities across the country," and about 147,000 were in U. S. prisons or jails in 2009. By 1999, Hispanics accounted for 47% of all gang members, Blacks 31%, Whites 13%, Asians 7%. In December 13, 2009, The New York Times published an article about growing gang violence on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and estimated that there were 39 gangs with 5,000 members on that reservation alone. There are between 50,000 gang members in Central America's El Salvador. More than 1,800 gangs were known to be operating in the UK in 2011.
The FBI estimates that the four Italian organized crime groups active in the United States have 25,000 members in total. The Russian, Azerbaijani, Georgian and other former Soviet organized crime groups or "Bratvas" have many members and associates affiliated with their various sorts of organized crime, but no statistics are available; the Yakuza are among one of the largest criminal organizations in the world. As of 2005, there are some 102,400 known members in Japan. Hong Kong's Triads include up to 160,000 members in the 21st century, it was estimated. One of the most infamous criminal gangs are the Sicilian Cosa Nostra and the Italian-American Mafia; the Neapolitan Camorra, the Calabrian'Ndrangheta and the Apulian Sacra Corona Unita are similar Italian organized gangs. Other criminal gangs include the Russian mafia, Colombian Drug Cartels, the Aryan Brotherhood, the Mexican Mafia, the Texas Syndicate, the Black Guerrilla Family, the Nuestra Familia, the Mara Salvatrucha, the Primeiro Comando da Capital, the Irish Mob, the Puerto Rican Mafia, Nuestra familia, the Chinese Triads, the Japanese Yakuza, the Jamaican-British Yardies, the Haitian gang Zoe Pound, other crime syndicates.