Haredi Judaism is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture. Its members are referred to as Orthodox or ultra-Orthodox in English, although the term "ultra-Orthodox" is considered pejorative by many of its adherents. Haredim regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews, although this claim is contested by other streams. Haredi Judaism is a reaction to societal changes, including emancipation, the Haskalah movement derived from the Enlightenment, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements, etc. In contrast to Modern Orthodox Judaism, which hastened to embrace modernity, the approach of the Haredim was to maintain a steadfast adherence both to Jewish Law and custom by segregating themselves from modern society. However, there are many Haredi communities in which getting a professional degree or establishing a business is encouraged, contact exists between Haredi and non-Haredi Jews, as well as between Haredim and non-Jews.
Haredi communities are found in Israel, North America, Western Europe. Their estimated global population numbers 1.5–1.8 million, due to a virtual absence of interfaith marriage and a high birth rate, their numbers are growing rapidly. Their numbers have been boosted by a substantial number of secular Jews adopting a Haredi lifestyle as part of the Baal teshuva movement; the term most used by outsiders, including most American news organizations, is "ultra-Orthodox" Judaism. Hillel Halkin suggests the origins of the term may date to the 1950s, a period in which Haredi survivors of the Holocaust first began arriving in America. However, Isaac Leeser was described in 1916 as "ultra-Orthodox". Haredi is a Modern Hebrew adjective derived from the Biblical verb hared which appears in the Book of Isaiah and is translated as " trembles" at the word of God; the word connotes an awe-inspired fear and anxiety to perform the will of God, is used to describe staunchly Orthodox Jews and to distinguish them from other Orthodox Jews.
The word Haredi is used in the Jewish diaspora in place of the term "ultra-Orthodox", which many view as inaccurate or offensive, it being seen as a derogatory term suggesting extremism. Others, dispute the characterization of the term as pejorative. Ari L. Goldman, a professor at Columbia University, notes that the term serves a practical purpose to distinguish a specific part of the Orthodox community, is not meant as pejorative. Others, such as Samuel Heilman, criticized terms such as "ultra-Orthodox" and "traditional Orthodox", arguing that they misidentify Haredim as more authentically Orthodox than others, as opposed to adopting customs and practises that reflect their desire to separate from the outside world; the community has sometimes been characterized as "Traditional Orthodox", in contradistinction to the Modern Orthodox, the other major branch of Orthodox Judaism. Haredi Jews use other terms to refer to themselves. Common Yiddish words include Yidn or erlekhe Yidn, Ben Torah and heimish.
In Israel, Haredi Jews are sometimes called by the derogatory slang words dos, that mimics the traditional Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation of the Hebrew word datim, meaning religious, more "blacks", a reference to the black clothes they wear. According to its adherents, the forebears of the contemporary Haredim were the traditionalists of Eastern Europe who fought against modernization. Indeed, adherents see their beliefs as part of an unbroken tradition dating from the revelation at Sinai. However, most historians of Orthodoxy consider Haredi Judaism, in its modern incarnation, to date back no earlier than the start of the 20th century. For centuries, before Jewish emancipation, European Jews were forced to live in ghettos where Jewish culture and religious observance were preserved. Change began in the wake of the Age of Enlightenment when some European liberals sought to include the Jewish population in the emerging empires and nation states; the influence of the Haskalah movement was evidence.
Supporters of the Haskalah held that Judaism must change in keeping with the social changes around them. Other Jews insisted on strict adherence to halakha. In Germany, the opponents of Reform rallied to Samson Raphael Hirsch, who led a secession from German Jewish communal organizations to form a Orthodox movement with its own network of synagogues and schools, his approach was to apply them in defence of Orthodoxy. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Jews true to traditional values gathered under the banner of Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel. Moses Sofer was opposed to any philosophical, social, or practical change to customary Orthodox practice. Thus, he did not allow any secular studies to be added to the curriculum of his Pressburg Yeshiva. Sofer's student Moshe Schick, together with Sofer's sons Shimon and Samuel Benjamin, took an active role in arguing agai
Shmuel HaNavi (neighborhood)
Shmuel HaNavi is a neighborhood in north-central Jerusalem. It is bordered by the Sanhedria Cemetery to the north, Maalot Dafna to the east, Arzei HaBira to the south, Bukharim to the west, it is named after Shmuel HaNavi Street, which runs along its western border and is the main road leading to the tomb of Samuel the prophet just outside Jerusalem’s city limits. The first home to be erected on what would become known as Shmuel HaNavi Street was the Mandelbaum House, a large, three-story house built by Simcha Torever-Mandelbaum, a Jerusalem textile merchant, in 1927. Mandelbaum chose the location at the eastern end of the street, facing Sheikh Jarrah, with a desire to expand the northern boundary of Jewish Jerusalem at that time. In 1941, the Jerusalem Biblical Zoo a small children's zoo on Harav Kook Street in central Jerusalem, was moved to a 4.5 dunams tract at the eastern end of Shmuel HaNavi Street before relocating to the campus of the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus in 1947. Houses built at the eastern end of the street before 1948 were inhabited by poor families and subject to sniper fire from Sheik Jarrah during the 1947 civil war.
When war broke out in 1948, Shmuel HaNavi Street became a strategic gateway for Arab Legionnaires seeking to enter Jewish Jerusalem. The Mandelbaum House was used by the Haganah as a military stronghold and was blown up by the Arab Legion; the 1949 Armistice Agreements put Shmuel HaNavi Street parallel to the Jordanian border, with a no man's land of barbed wire and minefields separating it from Ammunition Hill to the northeast. From 1949 to 1967 the official crossing point between Israeli- and Jordanian-held territory stood at the eastern end of Shmuel HaNavi Street at a checkpoint called the Mandelbaum Gate; this checkpoint was named after the destroyed Mandelbaum House. In the 1950s the new state of Israel struggled to absorb large numbers of immigrants, moving them out of temporary tents and huts into permanent apartments. Shmuel HaNavi was one of the neighborhoods built to accommodate these immigrants. Constructed in the early 1960s, it was situated next to the 1949 armistice line that ran parallel to Shmuel HaNavi Street, in order to reinforce the city's hold on its northern border.
Considering the location, the complex of "long train" tenement buildings were built in the manner of fortresses. The buildings were erected on a base of reinforced concrete and the walls were finished in rough stone, since this type of material could be handled by hundreds of unskilled workers; the Israel Housing Ministry mandated that the external concrete walls of the buildings be three times the normal thickness to withstand shelling. The roofs of the buildings had raised parapets fitted with gun slots; the buildings themselves were arranged in a "confusing zig-zag pattern" to slow down Arab armies that might charge the complex, the courtyards between the buildings were designed to accommodate mass mobilization of Israeli troops in the event of an attack. For many years, residents barricaded their building entrances with sandbags and reinforced or blocked windows exposed to the border with Jordan; the project was populated by Sephardi Jewish immigrants from North Africa. The buildings – each "four stories in height, 32 apartments to a building, containing small flats of 70 meters housing large families" – suffered from overcrowding and lack of infrastructure, turned into a slum.
By the late 1970s, when the population had reached 4,000, a significant number of youth had dropped out of school and organized themselves into gangs. In response, Ohalim, an urban protest movement that promoted "positive activity" among disadvantaged immigrant populations in Jerusalem, established a community council in Shmuel HaNavi, along with similar councils in Nachlaot and Kiryat Yovel, between 1977 and 1981; the Shmuel HaNavi branch called itself Ohel Shmuel. It "organized neighborhood clean-up campaigns, helped rid one of the buildings of prostitutes, organized cultural activities and holiday celebrations, initiated activities for the elderly, helped involve marginal youth in productive activity by setting up a lighting fixture factory for them, organized learning centers for children and youth". In 1968, a year after the Six-Day War and the reunification of Jerusalem, a community center opened in the neighborhood. Shmuel HaNavi underwent a significant upgrade under Project Renewal, a national urban renewal program that upgraded housing and utilities in 84 Israeli neighborhoods between 1977 and 1984.
A new facade was added to each building in the complex, apartments were enlarged and combined to create larger living quarters. The Jewish Agency for Israel, a Project Renewal co-partner, paired cities in the United States with Israeli neighborhoods slated for rehabilitation. C. was twinned with Shmuel HaNavi. As the first generation of immigrant children matured and left the neighborhood, their parents followed, Haredi families from Mea Shearim and Geula took their place. Today the Shmuel HaNavi neighborhood is Haredi; the neighborhood has deteriorated over the past number of decades, due to the low socioeconomic level of its residents. In 2007, a 3-room apartment was selling for $70,000 to $100,000. Sanhedrin Park, north of the Shmuel HaNavi-Bar Ilan intersection, contains burial caves from the Second Temple period. In 2009, archaeologists discovered an ancient quarry dating to the end of the Second Temple period on Shmuel HaNavi Street near the Shmuel HaNavi neighborhood. According to the Israel Antiquities Authority, the immense size of the stones suggests that they were destin
2001 Azor attack
On 14 February 2001, a terrorist attack took place near Azor, Israel. A Palestinian man from Gaza drove a bus into a group of Israeli soldiers who stood at a bus stop at Azor junction, killing 8 people—7 soldiers and one civilian, injuring 26 further; the Islamist militant organization Hamas has claimed responsibility for the attack. The attacker, 35-year old Khalil Abu Alba from Gaza, was a bus driver who used to drive Arab workers in the morning from his city toward Tel Aviv, he had been an Egged bus driver for five years before the attack. On 14 February, after dropping off as usual the Arab workers at Lod and Ramle, he drove toward Holon; when arriving Azor junction, he noticed a group of Israeli soldiers waiting at a bus stop. The attacker accelerated the bus, swerved to the right, hitting dozens of people, he killed 8 people, 7 soldiers and one civilian, injured 26. After the attack he accelerated again the bus and drove southwards, in direction of Gaza; the bus was stopped only after crashing into a truck, 30km away, after police officers had shot at the bus' wheels.
Sergeant Julie Weiner Corporal Alexander Manevich Staff Sergeant Ofir Megidish, 20 Sergeant David Iluz, 21 Sergeant Kochava Polanski, 19 Corporal Yasmin Karisi, 18 Sergeant Rachel Levy, 19 Simcha Shetreet, 30 The Jewish Agency for Israel Web Site
Egged Israel Transport Cooperative Society Ltd, a cooperative owned by its members, is the largest transit bus company in Israel. Egged's intercity bus routes reach most Israeli cities, towns and moshavim, the company operates urban city buses throughout the country and the West Bank, it operates in Poland and the Netherlands through a subsidiary. Egged provides about 35% of Israel's public transport services, employs about 6,500 workers and operates a fleet of 2,950 buses. Egged buses transport about 900,000 passengers per day. Egged was created in 1933 through a merger of four smaller intercity bus cooperatives in and around Tel Aviv. In 1942 it was joined with the bus company United Sharon. In 1951, Egged merged with the northern Shahar bus company and the southern Drom Yehuda bus company, creating a national public transportation network. In 1961 Egged merged with the Hamekasher bus company of Jerusalem; the name Egged was given to the cooperative by the Israeli poet Hayim Nahman Bialik. During the wars of 1956, 1967 and 1973, Egged buses and drivers helped to reinforce the logistics system of the IDF and drove soldiers and food to the battlefields.
In late 2002, Egged sued the Palestinian National Authority and its chairman Yasser Arafat for compensation of damages and loss of income due to terrorist attacks and suicide bombings on buses during the Second Intifada, claiming that the attacks had deterred passengers from taking buses. On February 3, 2003, the Tel Aviv District Court ruled that Arafat has to pay Egged NIS 52 million in damages for the loss of one year's income and NIS 100,000 in court expenses. Despite deregulation attempts by the Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Egged is still Israel's largest bus company, is subsidized by the government, still controls most of the inter-city bus lines in Israel. Netanyahu's attempts were cut short by a bus strike that brought the country to a halt, Egged's workers and directors declared that any further attempts to undermine the company's monopoly will be met with similar measures. However, in recent years, many bus lines have begun to be operated by smaller bus companies such as Dan, Superbus and others.
In 2005, Egged and the Israeli Government reached an agreement under which by the year 2015 subsidization will be reduced to specific sectors, the disabled and students, for certain equipment. Egged's bus fleet include a wide variety of bus models of Mercedes-Benz, VDL, Volvo, DAF and MAN, including bulletproof versions used for travel in the West Bank; the company extensively used buses by Leyland, Jonckheere, International and more. Egged has purchased 51% of the Bulgarian Trans-Triumph bus company, which runs service to cities such as Varna and Sofia, as well as airport and tour buses for €4 million. Egged, through its affiliated company, is responsible for the operation of half the public transportation in the city of Varna, the second largest city in Bulgaria with about half a million residents. Egged formed a joint venture company with Rousse municipality called Egged Rousse JSC which operates the public transport in the city of Rousse. Egged operates some 1,500 buses in Poland, where it owns the Polish bus company Mobilis it acquired for €4 million in 2006.
The company operates some metropolitan bus routes, including exclusive franchises in Warsaw, Kraków and Bartoszyce. Mobilis in Warsaw serves around 40 routes daily, it uses Scania coach for football team Legia Warszawa and some other buses for special transports and tourism. Egged Bus Services holds an eight-year contract worth about €500 million, for public transport in the region Waterland in the Netherlands starting December 2011; the contract drew opposition from local activist groups who accuse Egged of supporting Israel's settlements policy in the West Bank, consider the company's winning the tender as indirect Dutch support for Israel's settlements policy, according to reports by Radio Netherlands Worldwide. Egged's Dutch subsidiary denies being involved in politics. In October 2010, Egged bought Veolia Transport's share in the Jerusalem Light Rail after a deal with the Dan Bus Company fell through; however in March 2018 it was revealed that Egged will be prohibited from tendering to operate the light rail over competition concerns.
From the late 1990s until January 2011, Egged operated gender-segregated lines called Mehadrin bus lines running in and/or between major Haredi population centers. In these buses men sat at the front and women were expected to wear "modest dress." The "mehadrin" lines were criticized after a woman, Miriam Shear, was assaulted for refusing to give up her seat to a male passenger and move to the back of the bus. In January 2011, the Israeli High Court of Justice ruled that forced separation of men and women on buses was illegal but allowed voluntary separation for a one-year experimental period; the court, accepting the recommendations of an investigation committee, ordered the removal of signs designating buses as segregated and the installation of new signs informing passengers of their right to sit wherever they wanted. The Haredi public has requested to operate private bus lines but they were blocked by the transportation ministry. In years Egged Bus Cooperative has expanded its services, through its subsidiary company Egged Tours, by offering organized trips abroad for Israelis as well as daily tours in Israel for tourists.
Egged Tours is an IATA licensed company which operates as a wholesale company for organized tours all over the world and Israel for groups and individuals. Its services include: flights, organized tours and trips
The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000, ended on December 31, 2009. The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, which allowed faster communication among people around the world; the economic growth of the 2000s had considerable social and mass extinction consequences, raised demand for diminishing energy resources. Economic growth was still vulnerable, however, as demonstrated by the financial crisis of 2007–08. In the English-speaking world, a name for the decade was never universally accepted in the same manner as for decades such as the'80s, the'90s, etc. Orthographically, the decade can be written as the "2000s" or the "'00s". Common suggestions for referring to this decade: "2000s", "Two-thousands", "Twenty Hundreds", "Twenty-ohs", "00s", "the Noughties", "the Noughts", "the Aughts", "the Aughties", "the Oughties". Other suggestions from 45 countries suggest the "double nothings", "zilches", "oh-zone", "oh-something".
When the "20–" is dropped, the individual years within the decade are referred to as starting with an "oh", such as "oh-seven" to refer to the year 2007. During the decade of the 2000s, it was more common to hear years referred to starting with "two-thousand" rather than "twenty-oh". Starting around the middle of the 2010s, it became more common to refer to the individual years of the previous decade as "twenty-oh-seven" or "twenty-oh-eight" than it had been during the 2000s, although the "two thousand" pattern is still far more common; the War on Terror and War in Afghanistan began after the September 11 attacks in 2001. The International Criminal Court was formed in 2002. A United States-led coalition invaded Iraq, the Iraq War led to the end of Saddam Hussein's rule as Iraqi President and the Ba'ath Party in Iraq. Al-Qaeda and affiliated Islamist militant groups performed terrorist acts throughout the decade; these acts included the 2004 Madrid train bombings, 7/7 London bombings in 2005, the Mumbai attacks related to al-Qaeda in 2008.
The European Union expanded its sanctions amid Iran's failure to comply with its transparency obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and United Nations resolutions. The War on Terror generated extreme controversy around the world, with questions regarding the justification for certain U. S. actions leading to a loss of support for the American government, both in and outside the United States. Additional armed conflict occurred in the Middle East, including between Israel and Hezbollah with Israel and Hamas; the greatest loss of life due to natural disaster came from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which caused a tsunami that killed around one quarter-million people and displaced well over a million others. Cooperative international rescue missions by many countries from around the world helped in efforts by the most affected nations to rebuild and recover from the devastation. An enormous loss of life and property value came in 2005, when Hurricane Katrina flooded nearly the entire city of New Orleans.
The resulting political fallout was damaging to the George W. Bush administration because of its perceived failure to act promptly and effectively. In 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States and became the first African-American U. S. president when he succeeded Bush in 2009. The most prominent terrorist attacks committed against civilian population during the decade include: September 11 attacks in New York City. C.. S. and its allies as terrorist from posing a threat to the U. S. and its allies, by putting an end to state sponsorship of terrorism. The campaigns were launched by the United States, with support from NATO and other allies, following the September 11 attacks that were carried out by al-Qaeda. Today the term has become associated with Bush administration-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. War in Afghanistan – In 2001, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain and Australia invaded Afghanistan seeking to oust the Taliban and find al-Qaeda mastermind Osama bin Laden.
In 2011, the US government claimed Navy Seals had buried his body at sea. Fatalities of coalition troops: 1,553. Iraq War – In 2003, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain and Poland invaded and occupied Iraq. Claims that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction at its disposal were found to be unproven; the war, which ended the rule of Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party led to violence against the coalition forces and between many Sunni and Shia Iraqi groups, to al-Qaeda operations in Iraq. Casualties of the Iraq War: Approximately 110,600 between March 2003 to April 2009. Hussein was sentenced to death and hanged on December 30, 2006. Arab -- Israeli conflict 2006 Lebanon War -- took place in northern Israel; the principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israeli milita
The European Commission is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament; the Commission operates with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per member state, but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament.
The Council of the European Union nominates the other 27 members of the Commission in agreement with the nominated President, the 28 members as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. The current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014, following the European Parliament elections in May of the same year; the term Commission is variously used, either in the narrow sense of the 28-member College of Commissioners or to include the administrative body of about 32,000 European civil servants who are split into departments called directorates-general and services. The procedural languages of the Commission are English and German; the Members of the Commission and their "cabinets" are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The European Commission derives from one of the five key institutions created in the supranational European Community system, following the proposal of Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, on 9 May 1950.
Originating in 1951 as the High Authority in the European Coal and Steel Community, the Commission has undergone numerous changes in power and composition under various presidents, involving three Communities. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet; the High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg City. In 1958, the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; however their executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities". The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the Council; some states, such as France, expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority, wished to limit it by giving more power to the Council rather than the new executives. Louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom.
Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse. It achieved agreement on a contentious cereal price accord, as well as making a positive impression upon third countries when it made its international debut at the Kennedy Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade negotiations. Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. Little heed was taken of his administration at first but, with help from the European Court of Justice, his Commission stamped its authority solidly enough to allow future Commissions to be taken more seriously. In 1965, accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states on various subjects triggered the "empty chair" crisis, ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy. Although the institutional crisis was solved the following year, it cost Etienne Hirsch his presidency of Euratom and Walter Hallstein the EEC presidency, despite his otherwise being viewed as the most'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors.
The three bodies, collectively named the European Executives, co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey. Owing to the merger, the Rey Commission saw a temporary increase to 14 members—although subsequent Commissions were reduced back to nine, following the formula of one member for small states and two for larger states; the Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968, campaigned for a more powerful, European Parliament. Despite Rey being the first President of the combined communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission; the Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973. With that enlargement, the Commission's membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission, which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time; the external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins, recruited to the presidency in January 1977 from his role as Home Secretary of the United Kingdom's Labour government, became the first President to att