Kanishka I, or Kanishka the Great, was the emperor of the Kushan dynasty in the second century. He is famous for his military and spiritual achievements, a descendant of Kushan empire founder Kujula Kadphises, Kanishka came to rule an empire in Bactria extending from Turfan in the Tarim Basin to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain. The main capital of his empire was located at Puruṣapura in Gandhara and his conquests and patronage of Buddhism played an important role in the development of the Silk Road, and the transmission of Mahayana Buddhism from Gandhara across the Karakoram range to China. Earlier scholars believed that Kanishka ascended the throne in 78 CE, this date is not now regarded as the historical date of Kanishkas accession. Kanishka is estimated to have accessed to the throne in AD127 by Falk, Kanishka was a Kushan of probable Yuezhi ethnicity. However, this was adopted by the Kushans to facilitate communication with local subjects. It is not certain, what language the Kushan elite spoke among themselves, Kanishka was the successor of Vima Kadphises, as demonstrated by an impressive genealogy of the Kushan kings, known as the Rabatak inscription.
Knowledge of his hold over Central Asia is less well established. The Book of the Later Han, Hou Hanshu, states that general Ban Chao fought battles near Khotan with a Kushan army of 70,000 men led by an otherwise unknown Kushan viceroy named Xie in 90 AD. Though Ban Chao claimed to be victorious, forcing the Kushans to retreat by use of a scorched-earth policy, the region fell to Kushan forces in the early 2nd century. As a result, for a period the territory of the Kushans extended for a period as far as Kashgar and Yarkand. Several coins of Kanishka have been found in the Tarim Basin, controlling both the land and sea trade routes between South Asia and Rome seems to have been one of Kanishkas chief imperial goals. Kanishkas coins portray images of Indian, Greek and even Sumero-Elamite divinities, Kanishkas coins from the beginning of his reign bear legends in Greek language and script and depict Greek divinities. Later coins bear legends in Bactrian, the Iranian language that the Kushans evidently spoke, and Greek divinities were replaced by corresponding Iranian ones.
All of Kanishkas coins – even ones with a legend in the Bactrian language – were written in a modified Greek script that had one additional glyph to represent /š/, as in the word Kushan and Kanishka. On his coins, the king is depicted as a bearded man in a long coat and trousers gathered at the ankle. He wears large rounded boots, and is armed with a sword similar to a scimitar as well as a lance. He is frequently seen to be making a sacrifice on a small altar, a few coins at the beginning of his reign have a legend in the Greek language and script, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΟΥ, basileus basileon kaneshkou of Kanishka, king of kings
Theta is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 9, in Ancient Greek, θ represented the aspirated voiceless dental plosive /t̪ʰ/, but in Modern Greek it represents the voiceless dental fricative /θ/. In its archaic form, θ was written as a cross within a circle, archaic crossed forms of theta are seen in the wheel letters of Linear A and Linear B. The cursive form ϑ was retained by Unicode as U+03D1 ϑ GREEK THETA SYMBOL, for the purpose of writing Greek text, the two can be font variants of a single character, but θ and ϑ are used as distinct symbols in technical and mathematical contexts. In the Latin script used for the Gaulish language, theta developed into the tau gallicum, conventionally transliterated as Ð, the phonetic value of the tau gallicum is thought to have been. The early Cyrillic letter fita developed from θ and this letter existed in the Russian alphabet until the 1918 Russian orthography reform.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, represents the voiceless dental fricative and it does not represent the consonant in the, which is the voiced dental fricative. The lower-case letter θ is used as a symbol for, A plane angle in geometry, a Variable in trigonometry A special function of several complex variables. One of the Chebyshev functions in prime number theory, the score of a test taker in item response theory. Theta Type Replication, a type of bacterial DNA replication specific to circular chromosomes, threshold value of an artificial neuron. A Bayer designation letter applied to a star in a constellation, usually the star so labelled. The parameter frequently used in writing the likelihood function, the Watterson estimator for the population mutation rate in population genetics. Indicates a minimum optimum integration level determined by the intersection of GG, the GG-LL schedules are a tool used in analyzing the potential benefits of a country pegging their domestic currency to a foreign currency.
The reserve ratio of banks in economic models, the ordinal collapsing function developed by Solomon Feferman The upper-case letter Θ is used as a symbol for, Quantity or temperature, by SI standard. An asymptotically tight bound in the analysis of algorithms, a certain ordinal number in set theory. Pentaquarks, exotic baryons in particle physics, a brain signal frequency ranging from 4–8 Hz. One of the known as Greeks in finance, representing time decay of options or the change in the intrinsic value of an option divided by the number of days until the option expires. A variable indicating temperature difference in heat transfer, according to Porphyry of Tyros, the Egyptians used an X within a circle as a symbol of the soul, having a value of nine, it was used as a symbol for Ennead
Eta is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet. Originally denoting a consonant /h/, its value in the classical Attic dialect of Ancient Greek was a long vowel, raised to in hellenistic Greek. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 8 and it was derived from the Phoenician letter heth. Letters that arose from eta include the Latin H and the Cyrillic letter И, the letter shape H was originally used in most Greek dialects to represent the sound /h/, a voiceless glottal fricative. In this function, it was borrowed in the 8th century BC by the Etruscan and other Old Italic alphabets and this gave rise to the Latin alphabet with its letter H. Other regional variants of the Greek alphabet, in dialects that still preserved the sound /h/, in the southern Italian colonies of Heracleia and Tarentum, the letter shape was reduced to a half-heta lacking the right vertical stem. From this sign developed the sign for rough breathing or spiritus asper, in 403 BC, Athens took over the Ionian spelling system and with it the vocalic use of H.
This became the standard orthography in all of Greece, itacism is continued into Modern Greek, where the letter name is pronounced and represents the sound /i/. It shares this function with other letters and digraphs, which are all pronounced alike. This phenomenon at large is called iotacism, Eta was borrowed with the sound value of into the Cyrillic script, where it gave rise to the Cyrillic letter И. In Modern Greek the letter, represents a close front unrounded vowel, in Classical Greek, it represented a long open-mid front unrounded vowel, /ɛː/. The upper-case letter Η is used as a symbol in textual criticism for the Alexandrian text-type, the lower-case letter η is used as a symbol in, the efficiency of a Carnot heat engine, or packing fraction. Chemistry, the hapticity, or the number of atoms of an attached to one coordination site of the metal in a coordination compound. For example, a group can coordinate to palladium in the η¹ mode or the η³ mode. Optics, the impedance of a medium, or the quantum efficiency of detectors.
Particle physics, to represent the η mesons, experimental particle physics, η stands for pseudorapidity. Cosmology, η represents conformal time, dt = adη, relativity and Quantum field theory, η represents the metric tensor of Minkowski space. Statistics, η2 is the regression coefficient
The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters, The vowels are shown in bold. Listen to the pronunciation of the letters, the earliest mention of Albanian writings describes them Licet Albanenses aliam omnino linguam a latina habeant et diversam, tamen litteram latinam habent in uso et in omnibus suis libris. The history of the Albanian alphabet is closely linked with the influence of religion among Albanians, there were attempts for an original Albanian alphabet in the period of 1750–1850. The current alphabet in use among Albanians is one of the two approved in the Congress of Manastir held by Albanian intellectuals from November 14 to 22 November 1908. A first reference for Latin letters was in a medieval Latin manuscript of 1332, the earliest document discovered so far that is written in Albanian is a manuscript from 1210 by Theodor of Shkodra, presumably written in Latin characters. The first certain document in Albanian Formula e pagëzimit, issued by Pal Engjëlli, was written in Latin characters.
It was a phrase that was supposed to be used by the relatives of a dying person if they couldnt make it to churches during the troubled times of the Ottoman invasion. The Greek intellectual Anastasios Michael, in his speech to the Berlin Academy mentions an Albanian alphabet produced recently by Kosmas from Cyprus and it is assumed that this is the alphabet used for the Gospel of Elbasan. Anastasios calls Kosmas the Cadmus of Albania, in 1857 Kostandin Kristoforidhi, an Albanian scholar and translator, drafted in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, a Memorandum for the Albanian language. He went to Malta, where he stayed until 1860 in a Protestant seminary, finishing the translation of The New Testament in the Tosk and he was helped by Nikolla Serreqi from Shkodër with the Gheg version of the Testament. In November 1869, a Commission for the Alphabet of the Albanian Language was gathered in Istanbul, one of its members was Kostandin Kristoforidhi and the main purpose of the Commission was the creation of a unique alphabet for all the Albanians.
In January 1870 the Commission ended its work of the standardization of the alphabet, a plan on the creation of textbooks and spread of Albanian schools was drafted. However this plan was not realized, because the Ottoman Government wouldnt finance the expenses for the establishment of such schools, Sami Frashëri, Koto Hoxhi, Pashko Vasa and Jani Vreto created an alphabet. This was based on the principle of one sound one letter and this was called the Istanbul alphabet. In 1905 this alphabet was in use in all Albanian territory and South, including Catholic, Muslim. One year earlier, in 1904 had been published the Albanian dictionary of Kostandin Kristoforidhi, the dictionary had been drafted 25 years before its publication and was written in the Greek alphabet. The so-called Bashkimi alphabet was designed by the Society for the Unity of the Albanian Language for being written on a French typewriter, in 1908, the Congress of Monastir was held by Albanian intellectuals in Bitola, Ottoman Empire, modern-day Republic of Macedonia.
The Congress was hosted by the Bashkimi club, and prominent delegates included Gjergj Fishta, Ndre Mjeda, Mithat Frashëri, Sotir Peçi, Shahin Kolonja, there was much debate and the contending alphabets were Istanbul and Agimi
Greek ligatures are graphic combinations of the letters of the Greek alphabet that were used in medieval handwritten Greek and in early printing. Ligatures were used in the writing style and very extensively in minuscule writing. There were dozens of conventional ligatures, some of them stood for frequent letter combinations, some for inflectional endings of words, and some were abbreviations of entire words. In early printed Greek from around 1500, many ligatures fashioned after contemporary manuscript hands continued to be used. Important models for this early typesetting practice were the designs of Aldus Manutius in Venice, and those of Claude Garamond in Paris, the use of ligatures gradually declined during the 17th and 18th centuries and became mostly obsolete in modern typesetting. The ου ligature is still used in decorative writing, while the καὶ abbreviation has some limited usage in functions similar to the Latin ampersand. Another ligature that was frequent in early modern printing is a ligature of Ο with ς for a terminal ος.
The ligature ϛ for στ, now called stigma, survived in a special role besides its use as a ligature proper. It took on the function of a sign for 6, having been visually conflated with the cursive form of the ancient letter digamma. In the modern computer encoding standard Unicode, the abbreviation ϗ has been encoded since version 3.0 of the standard, an uppercase version Ϗ was added in version 5.1. A lower and upper case stigma, designed for its use, is encoded in Unicode. Letters derived from the ου ligature exist for use in Latin, Greek digraphs Latin and Cyrillic Ou digraphs iota adscript, which is written with a ligatured iota, ᾼ iota subscript, written with a ligatured iota, ᾳ Tau-Rho Chi-Rho
Old English or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes. As the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain, Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Northumbrian and West Saxon. It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule, Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon.
Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms. The oldest Old English inscriptions were using a runic system. Old English was not static, and its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is a process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections. Perhaps around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, Old English is a West Germanic language, developing out of Ingvaeonic dialects from the 5th century. It came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England and this included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria.
Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century, the oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmons Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries. The Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century, with the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, a literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, and was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. This form of the language is known as the Winchester standard and it is considered to represent the classical form of Old English
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period. The complex polytonic orthography notates Ancient Greek phonology, the simple monotonic orthography, introduced in 1982, corresponds to Modern Greek phonology, and requires only two diacritics. Polytonic orthography is the system for Ancient Greek and Medieval Greek. The acute accent, the accent, and the circumflex indicate different kinds of pitch accent. The rough breathing indicates the presence of the /h/ sound before a letter, monotonic orthography is the standard system for Modern Greek. A tonos and a diaeresis can be combined on a vowel to indicate a stressed vowel after a hiatus. Although it is not a diacritic, the hypodiastole has in a way the function of a sound-changing diacritic in a handful of Greek words, principally distinguishing ό. The original Greek alphabet did not have any diacritics, the Greek alphabet is attested since the 8th century BC. Until 403 BC, variations of the Greek alphabet—which exclusively used what is now known as capitals —were used in different cities, from 403 on, the Athenians decided to employ a version of the Ionian alphabet.
With the spread of Koine Greek, a continuation of the Attic dialect, the Ionian alphabet, was made up only of capitals. During the Hellenistic period, Aristophanes of Byzantium introduced the breathings—marks of aspiration and it was not until the 2nd century AD that the accents and breathings appeared sporadically in the papyri. The need for the diacritics arose from the divergence between spelling and pronunciation. The majuscule, i. e. a system where text is entirely in capital letters, was used until the 8th century. By the Byzantine period, the rule which turns an acute accent on the last syllable into a grave accent —except before a punctuation sign or an enclitic—had been firmly established. Certain authors have argued that the grave originally denoted the absence of accent, the rule is, in their view. Originally certain proclitic words lost their accent before another word and received the grave, drawing e. g. on evidence from Ancient Greek music, consider that the grave was linguistically real and expressed a word-final modification of the acute pitch.
In the development of the language, the ancient pitch accent was replaced by an intensity or stress accent, making the three types of accent identical, and the /h/ sound became silent. At the beginning of the 20th century, the grave was replaced by the acute, and the iota subscript and the breathings on the rho were abolished, except in printed texts
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a form of information storage. The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script, the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category, in the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora, in a logography, each character represents a word, morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, alphabets typically use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to fully express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, and logographies can have several hundreds of symbols.
Systems will enable the stringing together of these groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language. The reading step can be accomplished purely in the mind as an internal process, writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to capture and express a range of thoughts. Soon after, writing provided a form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for a form of mass communication. Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity.
However, the development of writing systems, and the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, once established, writing systems generally change more slowly than their spoken counterparts. Thus they often preserve features and expressions which are no current in the spoken language. One of the benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field
Archaic Greek alphabets
The system now familiar as the standard 24-letter Greek alphabet was originally the regional variant of the Ionian cities in Asia Minor. It was officially adopted in Athens in 403 BC and in most of the rest of the Greek world by the middle of the 4th century BC, the green type is the most archaic and closest to the Phoenician. The red type is the one that was transmitted to the West and became the ancestor of the Latin alphabet. The blue type is the one from which the standard Greek alphabet emerged, *Upsilon is derived from waw. The green type uses no additional letters beyond the Phoenician set, the aspirated plosives /pʰ/, /kʰ/ are spelled either simply as Π and Κ respectively, without a distinction from unaspirated /p/, /k/, or as digraphs ΠΗ, ΚΗ. Likewise, the clusters /ps/, /ks/ are simply spelled ΠΣ and this is the system found in Crete and in some other islands in the southern Aegean, notably Thera and Anaphe. The red type lacks Phoenician-derived Ξ for /ks/, but instead introduces a supplementary sign for that sound combination at the end of the alphabet, in addition, the red alphabet introduced letters for the aspirates, Φ = /pʰ/ and Ψ = /kʰ/.
Note that the use of Χ in the red set corresponds to the letter X in Latin, while it differs from the standard Greek alphabet, where Χ stands for /kʰ/, only Φ for /pʰ/ is common to all non-green alphabets. The red type is found in most parts of central mainland Greece, as well as the island of Euboea, the light blue type still lacks Ξ, and adds only letters for /pʰ/ and /kʰ/. Both of these correspond to the standard alphabet. The light blue system thus still has no letters for the clusters /ps/, /ks/. In this system, these are typically spelled ΦΣ and ΧΣ and this is the system found in Athens and several Aegean islands. The dark blue type, finally, is the one that has all the consonant symbols of the standard alphabet, in addition to Φ and Χ, it adds Ψ. This system is found in the cities of the Ionian dodecapolis, Knidos in Asia Minor, in the psilotic dialects of Anatolia and adjacent eastern Aegean islands, as well as Crete, vocalic Η was used only for /ɛː/. In a number of Aegean islands, notably Rhodes, Milos and Paros, in Knidos, a variant letter was invented to distinguish the two functions, Η was used for /h/, and for /ɛː/.
In south Italian colonies, especially Taranto, after c.400 BC and this latter symbol was turned into the diacritic sign for rough breathing by the Alexandrine grammarians. The normal letter epsilon was used exclusively for the latter, while a new special symbol stood both for short /e/ and for /ɛː/, the letter Digamma for the sound /w/ was generally used only in those local scripts where the sound was still in use in the spoken dialect. During the archaic period, this includes most of mainland Greece, as well as Euboea, in Athens and in Naxos it was apparently used only in the register of poetry
It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters and Ancient Greek use different diacritics. In standard Modern Greek spelling, orthography has been simplified to the monotonic system, examples In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have fairly stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words largely predictable. Ancient Greek spelling was generally near-phonemic, among consonant letters, all letters that denoted voiced plosive consonants and aspirated plosives in Ancient Greek stand for corresponding fricative sounds in Modern Greek. This leads to groups of vowel letters denoting identical sounds today. Modern Greek orthography remains true to the spellings in most of these cases. The following vowel letters and digraphs are involved in the mergers, Modern Greek speakers typically use the same, modern, in other countries, students of Ancient Greek may use a variety of conventional approximations of the historical sound system in pronouncing Ancient Greek.
Several letter combinations have special conventional sound values different from those of their single components, among them are several digraphs of vowel letters that formerly represented diphthongs but are now monophthongized. In addition to the three mentioned above, there is ⟨ου⟩, pronounced /u/, the Ancient Greek diphthongs ⟨αυ⟩, ⟨ευ⟩ and ⟨ηυ⟩ are pronounced, and respectively in voicing environments in Modern Greek. The Modern Greek consonant combinations ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩ stand for and respectively, ⟨τζ⟩ stands for, in addition, both in Ancient and Modern Greek, the letter ⟨γ⟩, before another velar consonant, stands for the velar nasal, thus ⟨γγ⟩ and ⟨γκ⟩ are pronounced like English ⟨ng⟩. There are the combinations ⟨γχ⟩ and ⟨γξ⟩ and these signs were originally designed to mark different forms of the phonological pitch accent in Ancient Greek. The letter rho, although not a vowel, carries a rough breathing in word-initial position, if a rho was geminated within a word, the first ρ always had the smooth breathing and the second the rough breathing leading to the transiliteration rrh.
The vowel letters ⟨α, η, ω⟩ carry an additional diacritic in certain words, the iota subscript. This iota represents the former offglide of what were originally long diphthongs, ⟨ᾱι, ηι, ωι⟩, another diacritic used in Greek is the diaeresis, indicating a hiatus. In 1982, a new, simplified orthography, known as monotonic, was adopted for use in Modern Greek by the Greek state. Although it is not a diacritic, the comma has a function as a silent letter in a handful of Greek words, principally distinguishing ό. There are many different methods of rendering Greek text or Greek names in the Latin script, the form in which classical Greek names are conventionally rendered in English goes back to the way Greek loanwords were incorporated into Latin in antiquity. In this system, ⟨κ⟩ is replaced with ⟨c⟩, the diphthongs ⟨αι⟩ and ⟨οι⟩ are rendered as ⟨ae⟩ and ⟨oe⟩ respectively, and ⟨ει⟩ and ⟨ου⟩ are simplified to ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩ respectively
Digamma, waw, or wau is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet. It originally stood for the sound /w/ but it has remained in use as a Greek numeral for 6. Digamma or wau was part of the original archaic Greek alphabet as initially adopted from Phoenician, like its model, Phoenician waw, it represented the voiced labial-velar approximant /w/ and stood in the 6th position in the alphabet between epsilon and zeta. It is the doublet of the vowel letter upsilon, which was derived from waw but was placed at the end of the Greek alphabet. Digamma or wau is in turn the ancestor of the Latin letter F, as an alphabetic letter, it is attested in archaic and dialectal ancient Greek inscriptions until the classical period. The shape of the letter went through a development from through, to or, in modern Greek, this is often replaced by the digraph στ. The sound /w/ existed in Mycenean Greek, as attested in Linear B and it is confirmed by the Hittite name of Troy, corresponding to the Greek name *Wilion.
The /w/ sound was lost at times in various dialects. In Ionic, /w/ had probably disappeared before Homers epics were written down, further evidence coupled with cognate-analysis shows that οἶνος was earlier ϝοῖνος /wóînos/. Aeolian was the dialect that kept the sound /w/ longest, in discussions by ancient Greek grammarians of the Hellenistic era, the letter is therefore often described as a characteristic Aeolian feature. Loanwords that entered Greek before the loss of /w-/ lost that sound when Greek did, for instance, Oscan Viteliu gave rise to the Greek word Italia. The Adriatic tribe of the Veneti was called in Ancient Greek, in loanwords that entered the Greek language after the drop of /w/, the phoneme was once again registered, compare for example the spelling of Οὐάτεις for vates. In some local alphabets, a variant glyph of the letter digamma existed that resembled modern Cyrillic И, in one local alphabet, that of Pamphylia, this variant form existed side by side with standard digamma as two distinct letters.
It has been surmised that in this dialect the sound /w/ may have changed to labiodental /v/ in some environments, the F-shaped letter may have stood for the new /v/ sound, while the special И-shaped form signified those positions where the old /w/ sound was preserved. Digamma/wau remained in use in the system of Greek numerals attributed to Miletus and it was one of three letters that were kept in this way in addition to the 24 letters of the classical alphabet, the other two being koppa for 90, and sampi for 900. During their history in handwriting in late antiquity and the Byzantine era and it has remained in use as a numeral in Greek to the present day, in contexts such as enumerating chapters in a book or other items in a set. Digamma was derived from Phoenician waw, which was shaped roughly like an Y, of the two Greek reflexes of waw, digamma retained the alphabetic position, but had its shape modified to, while the upsilon retained the original shape but was placed in a new alphabetic position.
Early Crete had a form of digamma somewhat closer to the original Phoenician