Sendai is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, the largest city in the Tōhoku region, the second largest city north of Tokyo. As of 1 August 2017, the city had a population of 1,086,012, is one of Japan's 20 designated cities; the total area of the city is 786.30 square kilometres. The city was founded in 1600 by the daimyō Date Masamune, is nicknamed the City of Trees. In the summer, the Sendai Tanabata Festival, the largest Tanabata festival in Japan, is held. In winter, the trees are decorated with thousands of lights for the Pageant of Starlight, lasting through most of December. On March 11, 2011, coastal areas of the city suffered catastrophic damage from a magnitude 9.0 offshore earthquake, which triggered a destructive tsunami. Although the Sendai area was inhabited as early as 20,000 years ago, the history of Sendai as a city begins from 1600, when the daimyō Date Masamune relocated to Sendai. Masamune was not happy with his previous stronghold, located in the northern portion of his territories and was difficult to access from Edo.
Sendai was an ideal location, being in the centre of Masamune's newly defined territories, upon a major road from Edo, near the sea. Tokugawa Ieyasu gave Masamune permission to build a new castle in Aobayama after the Battle of Sekigahara; the previous ruler of the Sendai area had used a castle located on Aobayama. At this time Sendai was written as 千代, because a temple with a thousand Buddha statues used to be located in Aobayama. Masamune changed the kanji to "仙臺", which became "仙台"; the character came from a Chinese poem that praised a palace created by the Emperor Wen of Han China, comparing it to a mythical palace in the Kunlun Mountains. Tradition says that Masamune chose this kanji so that the castle would prosper as long as a mountain inhabited by an immortal hermit. Masamune ordered the construction of Sendai Castle in December 1600 and the construction of the surrounding castle town in 1601; the grid plan roads in present-day central Sendai are based upon his plans. The first railway line between Sendai and Tokyo, now the Tōhoku Main Line, opened in 1887, bringing the area within a day's travel from Tokyo for the first time in history.
Tohoku Imperial University, the region's first university, was founded in Sendai in 1907 and became the first Japanese university to admit female students in 1913. Sendai was incorporated as a city on 1 April 1889, with the post-Meiji restoration creation of the modern municipalities system following the abolition of the han system. At the time of incorporation the city's area was 17.45 square kilometres and its population was 86,000. The city grew, through seven annexations that occurred between 1928 and 1988; the city became a designated city on 1 April 1989. Sendai was considered to be one of Japan's greenest cities because of its great numbers of trees and plants. Sendai became known as The City of Trees before the Meiji Restoration, the feudal Sendai Domain encouraged residents to plant trees in their gardens; as a result, many houses and shrines in central Sendai had household forests, which were used as resources for wood and other everyday materials. In 1925, the Senseki Line to Sendai Station became the first underground railway segment in Japan, preceding the opening of the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line by two years.
The 2nd Infantry Division was known as the "Sendai Division" as it was based in Sendai, recruited locally. During the Second World War it was involved in many different campaigns, but one of the most important was the Battle of Guadalcanal. During the bombing of Sendai during World War II by the United States on 10 July 1945, much of the historic center of the city was burned, with 2,755 inhabitants killed and 11,933 houses destroyed in the city. Following World War II, the city was rebuilt, Sendai became a vital transportation and logistics hub for the Tōhoku region with the construction of major arteries such as the Tōhoku Expressway and Tōhoku Shinkansen. Sendai has been subject to several major earthquakes in recent history, including the 1978 Miyagi earthquake, a catalyst for the development of Japan's current earthquake resistance standards, the 2005 Miyagi earthquake. Most the coastal area of Sendai, including Sendai Airport, was damaged in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami; the tsunami reached as far as Wakabayashi Ward Office, 8 kilometers from the coastline.
Thousands were killed, countless more were injured and/or made homeless. Sendai's port was damaged and temporarily closed, reopening on 16 April 2011. Sendai is located at lat. 38°16'05" north, long. 140°52'11" east. The city's area is 788.09 km², stretches from the Pacific Ocean to the Ōu Mountains, which are the east and west borders of Miyagi Prefecture. As a result, the city's geography is quite diverse. Eastern Sendai is a plains area, the center of the city is hilly, western areas are mountainous; the highest point in the city is Mount Funagata. The Sendai basin area is 939 km2 (the mountainous area is 675 km2, the plain area is 245 km2 and the water body is 20 km2; the basin consists of paddy fields and forests. The mid and upstream areas have forests; the natori
Tsuruoka is a city in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2015, the city had an estimated population of 129,639, a population density of 98.84 persons per km². The total area is 1,311.53 square kilometres. Tsuruoka is the biggest city in Tōhoku region in terms of surface area. Today's Tsuruoka is the result of the fusion of several neighborhoods around the center of the city such as: Atsumi, Fujishima and Haguro in 1953. Tsuruoka is located on the coast of Yamagata Prefecture bordering the Sea of Japan and has some locally popular beaches such as Yunohama and Sanze. All three of the Three Mountains of Dewa are at least within the city limits. Two main rivers run through the Akagawa River and the Mogami River. Yamagata Prefecture Sakata Shōnai Nishikawa Mikawa Niigata Prefecture Murakami Tsuruoka has a humid continental climate with warm summers and cool winters. Precipitation is plentiful throughout the year, although the months from February to June have somewhat less rainfall; the region is known for its heavy snow falls during the winter, people living in Sekigawa and Atsumi's neighbourhoods can expect up to 2 meters of snow which after removal creates particular snow walls standing high along the road.
The first snows come in late November but the real peak is around January. The red leaves appear at the end of October and end in mid-November; the area of present-day Tsuruoka was part of ancient Dewa Province, was under the control of the Shonai Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate in the Edo period. It was a minor port for the kitamaebune coastal trade. After the start of the Meiji period, the area organized as Tsuruoka Town under Nishitagawa District, Yamagata Prefecture in 1878, it was elevated to city status on October 1924 becoming Japan's 100th city. In 1955, the city expanded by annexing the town of nine neighboring villages; the town of Oyama was annexed by Tsuruoka in 1963. On October 1, 2005, the towns of Fujishima and Kushibiki, the village of Asahi, the town of Atsumi were merged into Tsuruoka. Tsuruoka is known for its "Three Mountains of Dewa", which refers to Mt. Haguro, the smallest mount that culminates at only 436m high; those three mounts are considered as the core of Shugendô's practice.
Shugendô is perceived as a form of syncretism of Shintô religion and Buddhism. The Yamabushi 山伏, literally: "the men who sleep in the Mountain" believe in Buddha but believe that a god resides in all things that exist in nature. Yamabushi, those men who wear a checked vest and blow in a trumpet shell to communicate with their peers and to keep the bad spirits away, aim to protect the mountain and to live a sinless life connected to the nature; the pilgrimage of all the three mounts is done in that sense. The three mounts symbolically represent rebirth. By going down and up the 2466 stone stairs of the mount Haguro, people can experiment a "symbolic death" and "rebirth", after which they can access to the world of the dead represented by Mt. Gassan and its foggy landscapes, go purify their body and their soul in Mt. Yudono's natural hotsprings. Shôjin ryôri 精進料理, a vegan food traditionally consumed by Yamabushi, uses no animal product but sansai 山菜 instead, as well as local rice, handmade gomadôfu ごま豆腐, bamboo sprouts, vinegared chrysanthemum flowers and mushrooms.
There exists a lot of different shôjin ryôri depending on the shukubô 宿坊 that serves it, but it consists in a lot of small dishes accompanied with a miso soup and white rice. Mt. Haguro hosts one of Japan's National Treasures; the pagoda's central pillar protects it from earthquakes, which inspired Tokyo's Skytree's architecture. In the grounds of Mt. Haguro is the Jiji-sugi 爺杉, a 30m high cedar that exists for more than 1000 years. In 2014, Tsuruoka has been registered as a UNESCO Creative City of Gastronomy, its more than 50 species of "ancestral food" that exist and remain intact for several centuries now are one of the reasons why the city has received this title. Among these there are: minden nasu 民田なす, karatori imo からとりいも, atsumi kabu 温海かぶ, ootaki carrot 大滝ニンジン, etc; the presence of such ancient food is not the only reason why Tsuruoka has been registered as a Creative City of Gastronomy. Its particular way to cook these ingredients was more determinant. Tsuruoka's most known specialties are: kandarajiru 寒鱈汁, gomadôfu ごま豆腐, tochimochi とちもち, kitsunemen キツネ面, etc.
The city is known for its large variety of soups, apart from kandarajiru, there is takenokojiru タケノコ汁, imoni 芋煮, nattôjiru 納豆汁, môsô jiru. Tsuruoka is known for dadacha-mame, a specie of soybean, which have been called "the king of edamame". There are two theories
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, is a way to uniquely identify that stock; the symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible. For example, US-based computer company stock Apple Inc. traded on the NASDAQ exchange has the symbol AAPL, while the motor company Ford's stock, traded on the New York Stock Exchange has the single-letter ticker F.
In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA. While in Asia, numbers are used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts. For example, the bank HSBC's stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005. Symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a phonetic spelling of the company "XON" as its ticker symbol; the symbol of the firm after the merger was "XOM". Symbols are sometimes reused. In the US the single-letter symbols are sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V, used by Vivendi which had delisted and given up the symbol. To qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known. On many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security; this is done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker.
Although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes; the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number. An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO 6166. Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants; the ISIN code is a 12-character alpha-numerical code that does not contain information characterizing financial instruments, but serves for uniform identification of a security at trading and settlement. The ISIN identifies not the exchange on which it trades. For instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, is priced in five different currencies. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, another identifier the three- or four-letter exchange code will have to be specified in addition to the ISIN.
While a stock ticker identifies a security that can be traded, stock market indices are sometimes assigned a symbol though they can not be traded. Symbols for indices are distinguished by adding a symbol in front of the name, such as a caret or a dot. For example, Reuters lists the Nasdaq Composite index under the symbol. IXIC. In Canada the Toronto Stock Exchange TSX and the TSXV use the following special codes after the ticker symbol: In the United Kingdom, prior to 1996, stock codes were known as EPICs, named after the London Stock Exchange's Exchange Price Information Computer. Following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN. In the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poor's to bring a national standard to investing. A single company could have many different ticker symbols as they varied between the dozens of individual stock markets.
The term ticker refers to the noise made by the ticker tape machines once used by stock exchanges. The S&P system was standardized by the securities industry and modified as years passed. Stock symbols for preferred stock have not been standardized; some companies use a well-known product as their ticker symbol. Belgian brewer InBev, the brewer of Budweiser beer, uses "BUD" as its three-letter ticker for American Depository Receipts, symbolizing its premier product in the United States, its rival, Molson Coors Brewing Company, uses a beer-related symbol, "TAP". Southwest Airlines pays tribute to its headquarters at Love Field in Dallas through its "LUV" symbol. Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, which operates large amusement parks in the United States, uses "FUN" as its symbol. Harley-Davidson uses "HOG" for its Harley Owners Group. Yamana Gold uses "AUY", because on the periodic table of elements. Sotheby's uses the symbol "BID". While most symbols come from the company's name, sometimes it happens the other way around.
Tricon Global, owner of KFC, Pi
Tomiya is a city located in central Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 May 2017, the city had an estimated population of 52,491, a population density of 1,067 persons per km² in 18,831 households; the total area of the city is 49.18 square kilometres. Tomiya is located in central Miyagi Prefecture, bordered by the Sendai metropolis to the south; the city has a climate characterized by long cold winters. The average annual temperature in Tomiya is 12.1 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1251 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 24.8 °C, lowest in January, at around 0.6 °C. Miyagi Prefecture Sendai Taiwa Rifu Per Japanese census data, the population of Tomita has expanded over the past 20 years; the area of present-day Tomiya was part of ancient Mutsu Province, has been settled since at least the Jōmon period by the Emishi people. During portion of the Heian period, the area was ruled by the Northern Fujiwara. During the Sengoku period, the area was contested by various samurai clans before the area came under the control of the Date clan of Sendai Domain during the Edo period, under the Tokugawa shogunate.
During the Edo period, Tomiya was a post town on the Ōshū Kaidō highway connecting Edo with northern Japan. The village of Tomiya was created on April 1, 1889 with the post-Meiji restoration establishment of the modern municipalities system, it was raised to town status on April 1, 1963 and raised to city status on October 10, 2016. Tomita has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 20 members. Tomiya has a mixed economy with five industrial parks, but is noted for its production of blueberries and bean sprouts; the city is a bedroom community for the neighboring metropolis of Sendai. Tomita has eight public elementary schools and five middle schools operated by the city government, one public high school operated by the Miyagi Prefectural Board of Education; the prefectural operations one special education school. Tomiya is not served by any passenger railway lines. Tōhoku Expressway North Sendai Expressway National Route 4 Media related to Tomiya, Miyagi at Wikimedia Commons Official Website
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t