A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Kelliher is a city in Beltrami County, United States. The population was 262 at the 2010 census. Highway 72 runs through Kelliher, it's 49 miles northeast of Bemidji. Kelliher was named for a businessman in the lumber industry. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.14 square miles, of which, 2.08 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 262 people, 122 households, 67 families residing in the city; the population density was 126.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 194 housing units at an average density of 93.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.7% White, 5.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 1.1% from other races, 0.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. There were 122 households of which 24.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.1% were non-families.
41.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 27.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.99. The median age in the city was 46.3 years. 23.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 294 people, 121 households, 61 families residing in the city; the population density was 140.9 people per square mile. There were 140 housing units at an average density of 67.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.52% White, 6.12% Native American, 1.36% from two or more races. There were 121 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.8% were non-families. 47.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 29.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 19.0% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 26.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $20,625, the median income for a family was $33,958. Males had a median income of $30,313 versus $16,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,386. About 12.7% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 23.2% of those sixty five or over. City of Kelliher Kelliher Photo Gallery
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Funkley is a city in Beltrami County, United States. The population was five at the 2010 census, making the city the least populous incorporated place in Minnesota, it shared that distinction with Tenney until the latter dissolved in 2011. Funkley was incorporated in 1904 at the site of a junction along the Minnesota and International Railway; the name comes from a county attorney. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.60 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 5 people, 5 households, 0 families residing in the city; the population density was 8.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12 housing units at an average density of 20.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.0% White and 20.0% from two or more races. There were 5 households. 100.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 1.00 and the average family size was 0.00. The median age in the city was 46.8 years. 0.0% of residents were under the age of 18.
The gender makeup of the city was 20.0% male and 80.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 15 people, 6 households, 4 families residing in the city; the population density was 38.9 people per square mile. There were 12 housing units at an average density of 31.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White. There were 6 households, of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.7% were non-families. 16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.60. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 13.3% from 45 to 64, 33.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 150.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,250, the median income for a family was $25,625. Males had a median income of $29,167 versus $17,083 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,521. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line
Bemidji is a city in Beltrami County, in north west Minnesota, United States. According to the 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-year estimates, the United States Census Bureau estimates the total population of Bemidji as of 2016 to be 14,664, making it the largest commercial center between Grand Forks, North Dakota and Duluth, Minnesota. Bemidji houses many Native American services, including the Indian Health Service; the city is the central hub of the Red Lake Indian Reservation, White Earth Indian Reservation and the Leech Lake Indian Reservation. Bemidji lies on the south west shore of Lake Bemidji, the northernmost lake feeding the Mississippi River and as such is deemed "The First City On The Mississippi." Bemidji is the self-proclaimed "curling capital" of the U. S. and alleged birthplace of Paul Bunyan. Its name derives from the Ojibwe Buh-mid-ji-ga-maug, meaning "a lake with crossing waters". On occasion, in Ojibwe, the city of Bemidji is called Wabigamaang, because part of the city is situated on the Lakes Bemidji/Irving narrows, located on the south end of Lake Bemidji, extends to the eastern shore of Lake Irving.
Some sources credit the name to Chief Bemidji, an Ojibwe chief. Bemidji Township was surveyed in 1874 and organized in 1896 twenty-four days after the village of Bemidji was chartered and is the oldest township in the county. In 1897, the county attorney declared the original Bemidji township organization illegal and the township reorganized June 26, 1897. Beltrami was created on February 1866, by an act of legislation. About 50 Leech Lake Indians lived along the south shore of the lake prior to the 1880s, they called the lake Bemidjigumaug, meaning “river or route flowing crosswise”. Freeman and Besty Doud claimed 160 acres west of and including, what is present Diamond Point, were Bemidji's first homesteaders; the Porter Nye family soon followed them. Art Lee created the story that the folkloric figure Paul Bunyan came from the Northwoods which led to the creation of the statues of Paul Bunyan and Babe the Blue Ox. Per Discover America, the Paul and Babe statues are "the second most photographed statues in America" surpassed only by Mount Rushmore.
The Statue of Paul Bunyan was commissioned by the Bemidji's Rotarians as another tourist attraction. It was unveiled January 15, 1937, to kick off a Winter Carnival that drew over ten thousand visitors. John Steidl's sawmill was located on the east bank of the Mississippi River, close to Carson's Trading Post. Remore Hotel and Carl Carlson's blacksmith shop were on the west side of the river. Bemidji was incorporated on May 20, 1896, by that time there were three publishing companies, Alber Kaiser, The Bemidji Pioneer, the Beltrami County News. William Bartleson's Stage and Express Service was created to carry mail between Bemidji and Park Rapids, he was advertised by Speelman's Eagle, owned by Clarence Speelman, along with other stores. By 1898, railroads came to Bemidji and brought more business. By 1900 the Village of Bemidji's population had grown to 2,000. Thomas Barlow Walker, John S. and Charles Pillsbury invested millions into timber in 1874, since beaver pelts were nearing depletion by the mid-1890s.
Walker owned Red River Lumber Company of Crookston that claimed half of Beltrami County's timber. He soon sold his timber claim to Thomas Shevlin and Frank Hixon. Logging was done in the winter. Crookston opened 13 logging camps, which provided homes for lumberjacks. Between 1907 and 1910 were years. Lumber production was Bemidji's major industry, but because of a fire that occurred on July 19, 1914, a sawmill burned down causing disaster for business, it was rebuilt. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Bemidji's business profited, providing food and services for the Civilian Conservation Corps and Youth Conservation Corps programs. However, during the war years lumber business stopped, but when men came back from war lumber business was booming, since many people needed homes. By the 1870s, timber cruisers were making forays into the great pine forests that surrounded Bemidji, they were seeking new timberlands for T. B. Walker, the Pillsburys, Henry Akeley, Charles Ruggles and Frederick Weyerhaeuser, the barons of the wood industry.
Today Bemidji stands as an important educational, governmental and medical center for north central Minnesota. The wood industry is still a significant part of the local economy with Georgia-Pacific and Northwood Panelboard all having waferboard plants in the local area, utilizing wood species that were once thought to be waste trees. Bemidji is near Chippewa National Forest, Itasca State Park, Lake Bemidji State Park, Big Bog State Recreation Area, state forest areas. Bemidji has 400 lakes within 25 miles, 500 mi of snowmobile trails and 99 mi of cross country ski trails. There is a Paul Bunyan State Trail that runs from Brainerd, MN, Lake Bemidji State Park; the trail can be used for walking, biking and cross-country skiing. There is a bike trail around Lake Bemidji, about 17 miles. There is an event every year where families and individuals bike around the lake with rest stops along the way. Art in the Park, hosted by Paul Bunyan Communications and Watermark Art Center is held every year in the Bemidji Library Park across from the Watermark Art Center.
Art in the Park has been a summer highlight for the residents of Bemidji since 1967. Art in the Park features over 100 artists, food vendors, live entertainment, they will sell anything from wood and ceramics and jew