The E36/7/8 BMW Z3 is the second generation of the BMW Z range of two-seater sports cars, produced from 1995 to 2002. The body styles of the range are: 2-door roadster 2-door coupé The E36/7 was based on the E36 3 Series platform, while using the rear semi-trailing arm suspension design of the older E30 3 Series, it is the first mass-produced BMW Z Series car. Z3M models were introduced in 1998 in roadster and coupé body styles and were powered by the S50, S52, or S54 straight-six engine depending on country and model year; the M models came with a 5-speed manual transmission. Production ended on June 28, 2002, with the Z3 line replaced by the Z4. Development on the roadster was led by Burkhard Göschel; the exterior was designed by Joji Nagashima, being completed in mid-1992 at 39 months before production and the design was frozen in 1993. Design patents were filed on April 2, 1994 in Germany and on September 27, 1994 in the US; the Z3 was introduced via video press release by BMW North America on June 12, 1995.
Production began on September 20, 1995. Development on the coupé model was run by a group of BMW engineers outside of work in their own time; the Z3 Coupé shares the same platform and parts with the roadster, but features a chassis-stiffening hatch area and is 2.7 times stiffer in comparison. The Z3 Coupé was unveiled at the 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show; the Z3 was the first BMW model to be manufactured outside of Germany. It was manufactured in South Carolina. Roadster models entered production in September powered by 4-cylinder engines on launch. 6-cylinder engines were introduced in 1996. A removable hardtop roof was available as an optional accessory. Coupé models entered production in September 1998 with its controversial shooting brake design, nicknamed "clown shoe" and "bread van" by critics. In Germany, it has been nicknamed the "turnschuh". Coupé models were only produced as 2.8, 3.0i, M Coupé models. The available transmissions are: 5-speed ZF S5-31 manual 5-speed Getrag 250 manual 5-speed ZF 5HP19 automatic 5-speed GM 5L40-E automatic 4-speed GM 4L30-E automatic The 4-cylinder models feature a single tailpipe, while 6-cylinder models have dual tailpipes, wheelarch flares, a revised front bumper.
The 2.3 and 2.5 models were sold in the United States, while the 1.8, 2.0, 2.2i models were not available. The Z3M versions were introduced in 1997 in coupé body styles. European models were powered by the S50 engine, while North American models were powered by the S52 engine. In 2001 both the European and North American models switched to the new S54 engine. Models were only available with a 5-speed manual transmission. Compared to the standard Z3, M models featured a limited slip differential, a wider rear track, larger brakes. Z3M models have more aerodynamic wing-mirrors, redesigned front and rear bumpers, revised side gill, 17-inch wheels, quad exhausts, engine and oil temperature gauges in the center console. Unlike the rest of the Z3 range, the Z3M did not receive cosmetic changes during the facelift in 2000. To tie in with the appearance in the GoldenEye film, BMW released a "James Bond Edition" Z3 for sale through the Neiman Marcus Christmas catalogue; the James Bond Edition sold in 1996 for US$35,000.
BMW and Neiman Marcus had set a 20-unit sales goal, but was increased to 100 units after receiving a high level of interest orders. The James Bond Edition was based on the Z3 1.9 and included a 007 dash plaque, 007 Bond floor mats, unique wheels, chrome exterior trim. The colour scheme was an "Atlantic blue" exterior with beige leather interior, as per the Z3 which appeared in GoldenEye. In 1999, the BMW M division produced a single prototype Z3 powered by the 5.4 L M73 V12 engine, in order to test the space efficiency of the engine bay. It is based on a convertible Z3, wears 17 inch wheels with 225/45 tires up front and 245/40 at the back, is painted in a shade of orange; the V12 produces 322 hp at 5,000 rpm and 490 N⋅m of torque at 3,900 rpm, power is sent through a 6-speed manual transmission. The concept is much heavier than the standard Z3 at 1,400 kg, giving it 70/30 weight distribution; the concept was only shown once, in 1999 to the motoring magazine Autozeitung. Their tests revealed a 0-100 km/h time of 5.5 seconds, 0 to 1,000m in 24.4 seconds, a top speed of 263 km/h.
A safety car variant of the Z3M Coupé was produced by the BMW M division for MotoGP and used in the 2000 season. M Roadster and M Coupé models introduced to the public. BMW Individual introduced to Z3 models. Coupé models introduced. Wood trim and a power soft top were added as options. Rollover hoops introduced. Automatic stability control became standard equipment on 1.9 models. Hardtop shell option for Z3 models introduced. Production for facelift models began in April 1999. Z3M models did not receive the exterior styling changes. Major changes include: Exterior design changes including: redesigned chrome ring headlights and L-shaped taillights, wider rear track by 2.5 in, model designation badges, finger indent for trunk release button, integrated third brake light, chrome exhaust tips, new wheel designs. Interior design changes including: redesigned centre console buttons with a clock in the middle and a new three-spoke steering wheel design. Engine changes including: 2.0 replaced by 2.2i, 2.3 replaced by 2.5, 2.8
A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses. These vehicles had two or four wheels and were used to carry passengers and/or a load, they were once common worldwide, but they have been replaced by automobiles and other forms of self-propelled transport. A wide variety of arrangements of horses and vehicles have been used, from chariot racing, which involved a small vehicle and four horses abreast, to horsecars or trollies, which used two horses to pull a car, used in cities before electric trams were developed. A two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle is a cart. Four-wheeled vehicles have many names – one for heavy loads is most called a wagon. Light carts and wagons can be pulled by donkeys, ponies or mules. Other smaller animals are used, such as large dogs and goats. Heavy wagons and agricultural implements can be pulled by other large draught animals such as oxen, water buffalo, yaks or camels and elephants. Vehicles pulled by one animal have two shafts.
Two animals in single file are referred to as a tandem arrangement, three as a randem. Vehicles which are pulled by a pair have a pole. Other arrangements are possible, for example, three or more abreast, a wheel pair with a single lead animal, or a wheel pair with three lead animals abreast. Heavy loads sometimes had an additional team behind to slow the vehicle down steep hills. Sometimes at a steep hill with frequent traffic, such a team would be hired to passing wagons to help them up or down the hill. Horse-drawn carriages have been in use for at least 3,500 years. Two-wheeled vehicles are balanced by the distribution of weight of the load over the axle, held level by the animal – this means that the shafts must be fixed rigidly to the vehicle's body. Four-wheeled vehicles remain level on their own, so the shafts or pole are hinged vertically, allowing them to rise and fall with the movement of the animals. A four-wheeled vehicle is steered by the shafts or pole, which are attached to the front axle.
From the 15th century drivers of carts were known as Carmen, in London were represented by the Worshipful Company of Carmen. Ambulance: much the same purpose as the modern sense. Details of the design varied but would be a built and well-sprung, enclosed vehicle with provision for seated casualties and stretchers. Barouche: an elegant, high-slung, open carriage with a seat in the rear of the body and a raised bench at the front for the driver, a servant. Berlin: A four-wheeled covered carriage developed in the 17th century. Brake: Describes several types of vehicles. A large, four-wheeled carriage frame, circa late 19th and early 20th century. Britzka: A long, spacious carriage of four wheels, pulled by two horses. Brougham: A specific, light four-wheeled carriage, circa mid 19th century. Buckboard: A simple four-wheeled wagon, circa early 19th century. Bus: see omnibus As the name implies, a large vehicle; as a horse-drawn vehicle, circa early 19th century. Buggy: a light, four-wheeled carriage driven by its owner.
Cab: a shortening of cabriolet. Joseph Hansom based the design of his public hire vehicle on the cabriolet so the name cab stuck to vehicles for public hire. Cabriolet: Calash or Calèshe: see barouche: A four-wheeled, shallow vehicle with two double seats inside, arranged vis-à-vis, so that the sitters on the front seat faced those on the back seat. Cape cart: A two-wheeled four-seater carriage drawn by two horses and used in South Africa. Cariole: A light, two- or four-wheeled vehicle, open or covered, drawn by a single horse. Carriage: in the late eighteenth century equivalent to the modern word "vehicle", it came to be restricted to "passenger vehicle" and to "private, enclosed passenger vehicle". This last is the sense adopted by the linked article. Carryall: A type of carriage used in the United States in the 19th century, it is a light, four-wheeled vehicle drawn by a single horse and with seats for four or more passengers. Chaise: A light two- or four-wheeled traveling or pleasure carriage, with a folding hood or calash top for one or two people.
Charabanc: A larger wagon pulled by multiple horses. Cidomo: a form of horse-drawn carriage popular in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. Clarence: A closed, four-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle with a projecting glass front and seats for four passengers inside. Coach: A large closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman. Coupé: The horse-drawn carriage equivalent of a modern coupe automobile. Covered wagon: the name given to canvas-topped farm wagons used by North American settlers to move both their families and household goods westward. Varieties of this wagon include the Conestoga prairie schooner. Curricle: A smart, light two-wheeled chaise or "chariot", large enough for the driver and a passenger and drawn by a matched pair of horses. Diligence: a French stagecoach; the 19th-century ones came in three sizes, La petite diligence
Aston Martin Virage
The Aston Martin Virage is an automobile produced by British luxury automobile manufacturer Aston Martin as a replacement for its V8 models. Introduced at the Birmingham Motor Show in 1988, it was joined by the high-performance Vantage in 1993, the name of the base model was changed to V8 Coupé in 1996; the V8-powered model was intended as the company's flagship model, with the 6-cylinder DB7, introduced in 1994, positioned below it as an entry-level model. Although the DB7 became available with a V12 engine and claimed a performance advantage, the Virage remained the exclusive and hand-built flagship of the Aston Martin range, it was replaced in 2000 with the Vanquish. By the end of the 2000 model year, 1,050 cars in total had been produced; the V8 Vantage name reappeared on a new entry-level model in 2005. A new generation of the Virage was introduced at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show, to fit into the middle of Aston Martin's current lineup but was discontinued in 2012 due to many similarities between the brand's other models.
When compared to the preceding V8, the design was more modern. The Virage was more similar in design language to the Lagonda than the V8. Indeed, the chassis was an evolution of the Lagonda's, with a de Dion tube rear suspension, located by triangulated radius rods and a Watts linkage, a double wishbone unit at the front. To cut costs, many of the less-important pieces came from other companies, as had been the case for Aston Martin automobiles of the past; the sleek headlights and taillights were sourced from the Audi 200 and the Volkswagen Scirocco while General Motors and Ford provided the steering column, climate control panel, wing mirrors and dash switches. In fact, Ford had purchased Aston Martin and Jaguar shortly before the Virage debuted and it became the first model to be introduced under the new ownership; the Virage was a large, heavy car in spite of its all-aluminium body, but the 32-valve 5.3 L V8 engine's 494 N⋅m torque elevated its performance to near sports car levels. "Acceleration just never seems to run out", claimed Sports Car International during a first test.
They praised the "eager and quicker revving" nature of the 335 PS engine with its Callaway-designed heads and Weber-Marelli fuel injection. "Nothing sounds quite like an Aston V8," they concluded. The 1,790 kg car could attain a top-speed of 254 km/h; the automatic variant could accelerate to 97 km/h from a standing start in about 6.5 seconds. An engine power upgrade to upgrade to 354 PS was announced at the 1996 Geneva Show. English actor Rowan Atkinson owned a Virage Coupé which featured on the front cover of Car May 1990. In the article he commented how the modern climate control system provided heating efficiency beyond the veteran Aston driver’s dreams and couldn’t believe warm air would emanate from the footwell within 90 seconds of start up; the five-speed ZF Friedrichshafen manual was fitted to about forty percent of the cars produced. The more popular automatic option was the Chrysler three-speed Torqueflite transmission. For the 1993 model year, the three-speed unit was replaced by a four-speed automatic unit.
The six-speed manual from the Vantage became optional at the end of the Virage's production run. In January, 1992, Aston Martin introduced a conversion service, transforming the car into a Virage 6.3. As the name implies, the centerpiece of the conversion was a 6.3 L V8 derived from the AMR1 racing car. This engine has a power output of 507 PS at 6,000 rpm and 480 lb·ft of torque at 5,800 rpm, allowing the car to attain a top speed of 282 km/h. Other changes included 362 mm ventilated disc brakes, the largest used in a passenger car until the Bentley Continental GT, 18 in wheels. Visually, the 6.3 had wide flared bumpers, low sills and air dams, side air vents. Virage Shooting BrakeIn true British tradition, a shooting brake version of the Virage was offered in limited numbers, it debuted at the March 1992 Geneva Motor Show. Unlike prior Aston Martin Shooting Brake models, the Virage was produced in-house by the company's Works Service, with six believed to be constructed in total; the cars were priced at GB£165,000.
The cars are believed to have retained Virage chassis numbers, except two that received chassis numbers of the type "DP/2099". Lagonda Virage SaloonAnother rare Works Service car is the Lagonda Saloon. Only a handful of these long-wheelbase four-door Virage models were built as a special customer order, reviving Aston Martin's long-dormant second marque. Introduced in 1994, it was manufactured by Aston Martin Works Service with a 12-inch chassis extension, although two were ordered with an 18-inch extension; the name refers to the four-door Aston Martin Lagonda. The Lagonda Virage cost about GB£250,000 and only eight or nine are believed to have been produced, with some being conversions of regular Virages. Lagonda Virage Shooting BrakeThe five-door Lagonda Virage Shooting Brake debuted at the same time as the Lagonda Virage, it was made by Aston Martin Works Service in only one or two examples, has been spotted bearing "Vacances" badging at the rear. V8 Coupé A less extreme V8 Coupé replaced the standard Virage from 1996 onwards having the updated styling inherited from the more powerful Vantage.
Lacking the superchargers and the more aggressive body style of its sibling, the engine in the V8 Coupé has a power output of 354 PS and 369 lb·ft of torque. In total, 101 examples of the V8 Coupé were built from 1996 through 2000; the convertible version of the Virage, called the Virage Volante debuted a
The Reliant Scimitar name was used for a series of sports car models produced by British car manufacturer Reliant between 1964 and 1986. During its 22-year production it developed into a range of versions including a convertible launched in 1980. All have a fibreglass body mounted on a steel box-section chassis. Reliant's first Scimitar was a coupé based upon the styling of a Daimler SP250 prototype and the chassis of a Reliant Sabre, it was first displayed in 1964. It was powered by a 2.6-litre Ford straight six from Zodiac. In order to keep cost down, many components in addition to the engine were existing ones designed for competitor models, a point emphasized for buyers of the early Scimitars in which unfolding the sun visor involved knocking the driver's mirror out of adjustment. In 1966 the SE4A was replaced by the SE4B, with a 3.0 L V6 Ford "Essex" engine. A year in September 1967, the cheaper SE4C was introduced with a 2.5-litre version of the same engine and a reduction of £105 on the'recommended retail price'.
The engine differed from the one fitted on the Ford Zephyr 6 in that the Reliant engine came with an alternator whereas Ford buyers had to be content with a dynamo. Just over 1000 SE4s were produced. Scimitar Coupe with 2.6-litre straight six engine As the Sabre 6 began looking a bit dated, Managing Director Ray Wiggin started looking for a new design. While at the 1962 Motorshow, he saw a car called an OGLE SX250: it had been designed by David Ogle and it was based on the Daimler Dart SP250 chassis and running gear; the car had been commissioned by Boris Forter, managing director of the Helena Rubenstein Company, who had another one built for his girlfriend. Daimler didn't use the design, so Reliant approached Ogle and asked to buy the rights for it; some subtle changes were made to the bodyshell and it was further modified to fit the Reliant Sabre chassis and running gear. The new Scimitar GT car retained the straight-six engine from the Sabre, but with triple SU carburettors as standard it now produced 120 bhp and propelled the car to a top speed of 117 mph.
It was launched at the Earls Court Motor Show in 1964. The price included a luxurious interior with comprehensive instrumentation. Optional extras included a choice of electric sunroof and ZF gearbox. Reliant produced 296 straight-six Scimitar GTs. Scimitar coupé with 3-litre V6 Essex engine In late 1966 Ford dropped the 2.6-litre Straight Six engine and replaced it with the new 3-litre Essex V6 engine. This meant that Reliant had to do a good deal of development work to the existing Scimitar GT to enable the new more powerful engine to fit and obtain best performance and handling; as the Essex engine was shorter, it was mounted further back in the bulkhead to help improve weight distribution. The lower wishbones were re-positioned, the tower structures and cross members were reinforced and an anti-roll bar was fitted. Other modifications included replacing the wire wheels with wider steel wheels as standard, the fitting of a higher-ratio rear axle; the interior was updated to move with the times.
There was now an all-anti-dazzle-black interior. The padded fascia board had crash pads at the top and bottom, improvements were made with the ventilation by fitting directionally variable ventilator jets, as used by Ford; this is what Autocar said about the new 3-litre Scimitar GT on 12 January 1967: "At a Glance - High performance 2+2 coupe. Lusty, low revving engine in conjunction with high gearing gives effortless cruising at three-figure speeds. Good gear change, but rather wide ratios. Smooth, light clutch. Ride and handling good, much improved over the earlier car. Light, accurate steering and first class brakes with powerful servo. Ventilation still not ideal. Fuel and range good". Scimitar coupé with 2.5-litre V6 Essex engine Reliant introduced their third and final version of the V6 Scimitar GT in late 1967. To widen its appeal they launched a less powerful Scimitar GT. Using Ford's 2.5-litre version of the V6 Essex engine meant that the car could still reach speeds of over 110 mph, have better fuel economy, but reduce the cost to the public by approx £120.
Externally, the only difference between the 3-litre and 2.5-litre versions was the small badge on the boot giving the engine size. 118 of the 2.5-litre Scimitar GTs were sold before this version was withdrawn. Production of the standard Scimitar GT continued until November 1970. Tom Karen of Ogle was asked to submit some body designs based on the Ogle Design GTS estate car experiment for a new four-seater Scimitar, the SE5 Reliant Scimitar. Managing Director Ray Wiggin, Chief Engineer John Crosthwaite and fibreglass body expert Ken Wood went to Ogle’s in Letchworth to view some mock-up body designs for the new SE5. Wiggin told Wood to proceed with a proper master; the SE5 was ready for the 1968 Motor Show in less than 12 months. For the SE5 John Crosthwaite and his team designed a different longer chassis frame, revised suspension and relocated fuel tank, a rollover bar, new cooling system, spare wheel mounted in the nose to give increased rear space and a 17 1⁄4 imperial gallons fuel tank; when designing the chassis Crosthwaite worked with Ogle body stylist Peter Bailey to modify and refine the prototype.
The main change introduced in the SE5 was the sport
Hudson Motor Car Company
The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson and other brand automobiles in Detroit, from 1909 to 1954. In 1954, Hudson merged with Nash-Kelvinator to form American Motors Corporation; the Hudson name was continued through the 1957 model year. The name "Hudson" came from Joseph L. Hudson, a Detroit department store entrepreneur and founder of Hudson's department store, who provided the necessary capital and gave permission for the company to be named after him. A total of eight Detroit businessmen formed the company on February 20, 1909, to produce an automobile which would sell for less than US$1,000. One of the chief "car men" and organizer of the company was Roy D. Chapin, Sr. a young executive who had worked with Ransom E. Olds.. The company started production, with the first car driven out of a small factory in Detroit on July 3, 1909 at Mack Avenue and Beaufait Street in Detroit, occupying the old Aerocar factory; the new Hudson "Twenty" was one of the first low-priced cars on the American market and successful with more than 4,000 sold the first year.
The 4,508 units made in 1910 was the best first year's production in the history of the automobile industry and put the newly formed company in 17th place industry-wide, "a remarkable achievement at a time" when there were hundreds of makes being marketed. Successful sales volume required a larger factory. A new facility was built on a 22-acre parcel at Jefferson Avenue and Conner Avenue in Detroit's Fairview section, diagonally across from the Chalmers Automobile plant; the land was the former farm of D. J. Campau; until the late 1920s, bodies for Hudson cars were built by Smart. On 1 July 1926, Hudson's new $10 million body plant was completed where the automaker could now build the all-steel closed bodies for both the Hudson and Essex models, it was designed by the firm of renowned industrial architect Albert Kahn with 223,500 square feet and opened on October 29, 1910. Production in 1911 increased to 6,486. For 1914 Hudsons for the American market were now left hand drive; the company had a number of firsts for the auto industry.
The Super Six was the first engine built by Hudson Hudson had developed engine designs and had them manufactured by Continental Motors Company. Most Hudsons until 1957 had straight-6 engines; the dual brake system used a secondary mechanical emergency brake system, which activated the rear brakes when the pedal traveled beyond the normal reach of the primary system. Hudson transmissions used an oil bath and cork clutch mechanism that proved to be as durable as it was smooth. At their peak in 1929, Hudson and Essex produced a combined 300,000 cars in one year, including contributions from Hudson's other factories in Belgium and England. Hudson was the third largest U. S. car maker that year, after Ford Motor Company and Chevrolet. In 1919, Hudson introduced the Essex brand line of automobiles; the Essex found great success by offering one of the first affordable sedans, combined Hudson and Essex sales moved from seventh in the U. S. to third by 1925. In 1932, Hudson began phasing out its Essex nameplate for the modern Terraplane brand name.
The new line was launched on July 1932, with a promotional christening by Amelia Earhart. For 1932 and 1933, the restyled cars were named Essex-Terraplane. Hudson began assembling cars in Canada, contracting Canada Top and Body to build the cars in their Tilbury, plant. In England Terraplanes built at the Brentford factory were still being advertised in 1938. An optional accessory on some 1935-1938 Hudson and Terraplane models was a steering column-mounted electric gear pre-selector and electro-mechanical automatic shifting system, known as the "Electric Hand", manufactured by the Bendix Corporation; this required conventional clutch actions. Cars equipped with Electric Hand carried a conventional shift lever in clips under the dash, which could be pulled out and put to use in case the Electric Hand should fail. Hudson was noted for offering an optional vacuum-powered automatic clutch, starting in the early 1930s. For the 1930 model year Hudson debuted a new flathead inline eight cylinder engine with block and Crankcase cast as a unit and fitted with two cylinder heads.
A 2.75 inch bore and 4.5 inch stroke displaced 218.8 cubic inches developing 80 horsepower at 3,600 rpm with the standard 5.78:1 compression ratio. The 5-main bearing crankshaft had 8 integral counterweights, an industry first, employed a Lanchester vibration damper. Four rubber blocks were used at engine mount points. A valveless oil pump improved the Hudson splash lubrication system; the new eights were the only engine offering in the Hudson line, supplanting the Super Six, which soldiered on in the Essex models. At the 1931 Indianapolis 500, Buddy Marr's #27 Hudson Special finished tenth. In 1936, Hudson revamped its cars, introducing a new "radial safe
Aston Martin DB6
The Aston Martin DB6 is a grand tourer made by British car manufacturer Aston Martin. Produced from September 1965 to January 1971, the DB6 had the longest production run up to that date of any Aston Martin model; the DB6 succeeded the Aston Martin DB5 and featured improved aerodynamics and specification over its predecessor. After Aston Martin rejected proposals for a replacement for its DB5 from Touring of Milan, the decision was made to focus on their own development car, registered 4 YMC. Wind tunnel testing, begun in February 1965, showed development was necessary to counteract a tendency toward aerodynamic lift causing reduced rear-wheel traction at high speed. Final development phases relied upon DB5 chassis, suitably lengthened and titled MP 219, with rear lip-spoiler and abbreviated Kammback tail Aston Martin incorporated in sports-racing prototypes; the decision was made to produce MP 219 as the Aston Martin DB6 although the prototype de Dion rear axle was rejected, Aston's soldiering on with its well-located live-axle configuration reducing time to market and complexity.
Introduced at the 1965 London Motor Show, the DB6 was a dated design notable as the first model engineered following a factory relocation from Feltham to Newport Pagnell. The DB6 has a resemblance to its predecessor, the DB5; the tail, combined with the relocated rear-axle and the 3.75-inch lengthened wheelbase, provide more stability at high speed. Though fashionable — the rear-end Kamm-styled design was similar to the Ferrari 250 — it did not prove popular with conservative, tradition oriented Aston clientele when the DB6 was introduced. Performance was satisfactory: road-tests of the day observed top speed of the Vantage model between 145 mph to 148 mph, with John Bolster aboard a Vantage spec DB6 reaching a two-way average of 152 mph; the DB6 continued with high-tech Armstrong Selectaride cockpit-adjustable rear shock absorbers as available on the DB5. Other highlights include adopting front-door quarter windows, an oil-cooler air scoop low on the front valance, quarter-bumpers at each corner, revised tail-lamp clusters.
Other notable changes: Roof line raised by two inches improving headroom for rear seat passengers Genuinely useful leg room for rear passengers More steeply raked albeit taller windscreen Split front and rear bumpers Standard chrome wire wheels on bias-ply whitewall tyres Optional power steering Optional air conditioning Standard ZF five-speed manual unit or a BorgWarner three-speed automatic gearbox available at no extra cost Optional Vantage specification retaining triple side-draft Weber 45DCOE carburetors with other minor revisions raising quoted output to 325 hpAnother major change from the DB5 to DB6 was abandonment of the full superleggera construction technique patented by coachbuilders/stylist Touring of Milan. For DB6's construction, the more common body-on-platform technique was used; the modifications combined to add only seventeen pounds weight compared to the DB5. The DB6 is powered by the 3,995 cc twin-overhead camshaft, in-line six-cylinder Aston Martin engine designed by Tadek Marek.
The engine, continued with its triple SU carb setup producing 282 bhp at 5,500 rpm. Although the weight of the DB6 was 17 lb heavier than its predecessor, the stability at high speed, added luggage capacity and comforts for passengers in this grand tourer more than offset any imperceptible loss in performance caused by additional weight; the rear suspension used helical coil springs with ride control, adjustable from inside the car. Curb weight: 1,474 kg Engine: 4.0 L straight-6 Compression ratio: standard=8.9:1. Available as an optional extra for the Mark II was AE Brico electronic fuel-injection combined with the higher compression ratio cylinder head; the Mark II edition shared many parts with the then-new DBS. As with previous Aston Martin models, a high-power DB6 Vantage was offered, it was equipped with higher compression ratio cylinder head. A convertible body style was offered, named the Volante; this was introduced at the 1966 London Motor Show. The DB6-based Volante succeeded the earlier Volantes which were built on the last of the DB5 chassis' and were known as "short chassis" Volantes.
Of the DB6-based Volantes just 140 were built, including 29 high-output Vantage Volante versions prized by collectors. Charles, Prince of Wales, owns a DB6-based Volante MkII, converted to run on bioethanol; the car was given to him by his mother on his 21st birthday. A total of six or seven DB6 Shooting-brakes were produced by British coachbuild
The Ferrari FF is a grand tourer presented by Ferrari on March 1, 2011 at the Geneva Motor Show as a successor to the 612 Scaglietti grand tourer. It is Ferrari's first production four-wheel drive model; the body style has been described as a shooting-brake, a type of sporting hatchback/estate car with two doors. The FF has a top speed of 335 km/h and it accelerates from 0 to 100 km/h in 3.7 seconds. Ferrari states that the FF was the world's fastest four-seat automobile upon its release to the public; the FF costs US$300,000, with 800 being produced during the first year. At the time of its reveal, the Ferrari FF had the largest road-going Ferrari engine produced: an F140 EB 6,262 cc aspirated direct injected 65° V12, which produced 660 PS at 8,000 rpm and 683 N⋅m of torque at 6000 rpm; the FF is equipped with a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission and paddle shift system similar to the California, the 458 Italia, the Ferrari F12berlinetta. The new four-wheel drive system and patented by Ferrari, is called 4RM: it is around 50% lighter than a conventional system, provides power intelligently to each of the four wheels as needed.
It functions only when the manettino dial on the steering wheel is in the "comfort" or "snow" positions, leaving the car most in the traditional rear wheel drive layout. Ferrari's first use of 4RM was in a prototype created in the end of the 80s, called 408 4RM; this system is based around a second, gearbox, taking power from the front of the engine. This gearbox has only two forward gears plus reverse, so the system is only active in 1st to 4th gears; the connection between this gearbox and each front wheel is via independent Haldex-type clutches, without a differential. Due to the difference in ratios "the clutches continually slip" and only transmit, at most, 20% of the engine's torque. A detailed description of the system has been published; the FF shares the design language of contemporary Ferraris, including the pulled-back headlights of the 458 Italia, the twin circular taillights seen on the 458 as well as the 599 GTB Fiorano. Designed under the direction of Lowie Vermeersch, former Design Director at Pininfarina, Flavio Manzoni, Ferrari’s Styling Centre, work on the shooting brake concept started following the creation of the Sintesi show car of 2007.
Distinctive styling elements include a large egg-crate grille, defined side skirts, four exhaust tips. The shooting brake configuration is a departure from the conventional wedge shape of modern Ferraris, the FF has been likened to the similarly-shaped 1962 Ferrari 250 GT SWB Drogo race car; the combination of hatchback-like shooting-brake design and collapsible rear seats gives the Ferrari FF a boot capacity of between 450 litres to 800 litres. Luxury is the main element of the interior and the use of Leather is incorporated throughout, just like the predecessors of the FF. Creature comforts like premium air conditioning, GPS navigation system and sound system are used. Car and Driver China magazine gives the FF the title of “Most Beautiful Super Car 2011” at the Shanghai Auto Show. Oriental TV nominated the FF “Most Popular Imported Car Model at 2011 Shanghai Auto Show”; the FF won Top Gear magazine's "Estate Car of the Year 2011" award. The FF won Top Gear Indian magazine's "Luxury Car of The Year 2012" award.
According to Friday, 31 May 2013 US Department of Energy, Ferrari FF, 12 cyl. 6.3 L, Auto is 2013 Least Fuel Efficient Car in the midsize class, with 13 mpg‑US The Ferrari SP FFX, introduced in 2014, is a one-off based on the FF. Its most notable feature is its custom body that features a more traditional coupé rear end in place of the FF's shooting-brake tail; the car was commissioned by a customer in Japan and was built by Ferrari's special vehicles division. When patent drawings surfaced online many sources thought the SP FFX was the design for the next generation Ferrari California. Official Ferrari FF Website