The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen; the "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced". A related display resolution is 1080p, which has 1080 lines of resolution; the term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard; the choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats. Within the designation "1080i", the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two sequential fields of 540 vertical pixels; the first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all numbered lines.
The horizontal lines of pixels in each field are captured and displayed with a one-line vertical gap between them, so the lines of the next field can be interlaced between them, resulting in 1080 total lines. 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good; this is true for interlaced video in general and can be observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes. However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second for processing or broadcasting. In this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant; the field-to-instant relation is somewhat more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. The field rate of 1080i is 60 Hz for countries that use or used System M as analog television system with 60 fields/sec, or 50 Hz for regions that use or used 625-lines television system with 50 fields/sec.
Both field rates can be carried by major digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB, ISDB-T International. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the field rate is specified after the letter i, such as "1080i60". In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second; the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation. 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e.g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced. Depending on the television's video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not suffer. For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the original frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display.
Worldwide, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. In the United States, 1080i is the preferred format for most broadcasters, with Inc.. Viacom, AT&T, Comcast owned networks broadcasting in the format. Only Fox-owned television networks and Disney-owned television networks, along with MLB Network and a few other cable networks use 720p as the preferred format for their networks. Many ABC affiliates owned by Hearst Television and former Belo Corporation stations owned by TEGNA, along with some individual affiliates of those three networks, air their signals in 1080i and upscale network programming for master control and transmission purposes, as most syndicated programming and advertising is produced and distributed in 1080i, removing a downscaling step to 720p; this allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the higher resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors. Some cameras and broadcast systems that use 1080 vertical lines per frame do not use the full 1920 pixels of a nominal 1080i picture for image capture and encoding.
Common subsampling ratios include 3/4 and 1/2. Where used, the lower horizontal resolution is scaled to capture and/or display a full-sized picture. Using half horizontal resolution and only one field of each frame results in the format known as qHD, which has fram
Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratios used in film and computer screens. In film, a widescreen film is any film image with a width-to-height aspect ratio greater than the standard 1.37:1 Academy aspect ratio provided by 35mm film. For television, the original screen ratio for broadcasts was in fullscreen 4:3. Between the 1990s and early 2000s, at varying paces in different nations, 16:9 widescreen TV displays came into common use, they are used in conjunction with high-definition television receivers, or Standard-Definition DVD players and other digital television sources. With computer displays, aspect ratios wider than 4:3 are referred to as widescreen. Widescreen computer displays were of 16:10 aspect ratio, but now are 16:9. Widescreen was first used in the film of the Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight in 1897; this was not only the longest film, released to date at 100 minutes, but the first widescreen film being shot on 63mm Eastman stock with five perforations per frame.
Widescreen was first used in the late 1920s in some short films and newsreels, including Abel Gance's film Napoleon with a final widescreen sequence in what Gance called Polyvision. Claude Autant-Lara released a film Pour construire un feu in the early Henri Chretien widescreen process adapted by Twentieth Century-Fox for CinemaScope in 1952. In 1927, The American aka The Flag Maker was released; the film, directed by J. Stuart Blackton and starring Bessie Love and Charles Ray, was made in the experimental widescreen process Natural Vision, developed by George K. Spoor and P. John Berggren, but was never released theatrically. In 1926, Spoor and Berggren had released a Natural Vision film of Niagara Falls; the Natural Vision widescreen process had a 2:1 aspect ratio. On May 26, 1929, Fox Film Corporation released Fox Grandeur News and Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 in New York City in the Fox Grandeur process. Other films shot in widescreen were the musical Happy Days which premiered at the Roxy Theater, New York City, on February 13, 1930, starring Janet Gaynor and Charles Farrell and a 12-year-old Betty Grable as a chorus girl.
RKO Radio Pictures released Danger Lights with Jean Arthur, Louis Wolheim, Robert Armstrong on August 21, 1930 in a 65mm widescreen process known as NaturalVision, invented by film pioneer George K. Spoor. On November 13, 1930, United Artists released The Bat Whispers directed by Roland West in a 70mm widescreen process known as Magnafilm. Warner Brothers released Song of the Kismet in a widescreen process they called Vitascope. In 1930, after experimenting with the system called Fanthom Screen for The Trail of'98, MGM came out with a system called Realife. MGM filmed The Great Meadow in Realife—however, it's unclear if it was released in that widescreen process due to declining interest of the movie-going public. By 1932, the Great Depression had forced studios to cut back on needless expense and it was not until 1953 that wider aspect ratios were again used in an attempt to stop the fall in attendance due to the emergence of television in the U. S. However, a few producers and directors, among them Alfred Hitchcock, have been reluctant to use the anamorphic widescreen size featured in such formats as Cinemascope.
Hitchcock alternatively used VistaVision, a non-anamorphic widescreen process developed by Paramount Pictures and Technicolor which could be adjusted to present various flat aspect ratios. Masked widescreen was introduced in April 1953; the negative is shot exposing the Academy ratio using spherical lenses, but the top and bottom of the picture are hidden or masked off by a metal aperture plate, cut to specifications of the theater's screen, in the projector. Alternatively, a hard matte in the printing or shooting stages may be used to mask off those areas while filming for composition purposes, but an aperture plate is still used to block off the appropriate areas in the theater. A detriment is that the film grain size is thus increased because only part of the image is being expanded to full height. Films are designed to be shown in cinemas in masked widescreen format but the full unmasked frame is sometimes used for television. In such an instance, a photographer will compose for widescreen, but "protect" the full image from things such as microphones and other filming equipment.
Standardized "flat wide screen" ratios are 1.66:1, 1.75:1, 1.85:1, 2:1. 1.85:1 has become the predominant aspect ratio for the format. 35mm anamorphic – This type of widescreen is used for CinemaScope and several other equivalent processes. The film is shot "squeezed", so that the actors appear vertically elongated on the actual film. A special lens inside the projector unsqueezes the image. Films shot in CinemaScope or Panavision are projected at a 2.40:1 aspect ratio, though the historical aspect ratio can be 2.55:1 or 2.35:1. The negative is 2.66:1 or, in
KZMM-CD is an Independent station in Fresno, broadcasting locally on virtual channel 22. As a Tres affiliate, The Station is owned by CNZ Communications. On January 4, 1991, the station signed on as K07UX, the station was granted class A status in 2004; the Station signed on as an affiliate of Mas Musica, which played all Spanish music videos 24 hours a day. In December 2005, Viacom acquired ten of the network's affiliated stations; the sale was finalized in January 2006, when Más Música became MTV Tres, KZMM started broadcasting that programming. The station continued the tradition & aired videos of various Latin American music styles, including Latin Hip Hop and R&B, Rock and Contemporary Spanish-language hits, a constant that remained with the merger of Mas Musica into "MTV Tr3́s". General programming airs from the station's current network. In 2013, CNZ Communications purchased KZMM from Viacom. On August 3, 2015, KZMM-CD dropped the MTV Tres Affiliation and went to be a Spanish Independent Station, The Station added additional Subchannels with additional programming.
The station's digital channel is multiplexed: Query the FCC's TV station database for KZMM
Holly Robinson Peete
Holly Elizabeth Robinson Peete is an American actress and singer. She is known for her roles as Judy Hoffs on the Fox TV police drama 21 Jump Street, Vanessa Russell on the ABC sitcom Hangin' with Mr. Cooper, Dr. Malena Ellis on the NBC/WB sitcom For Your Love, she served as one of the original co-hosts of the CBS daytime talk show The Talk. After graduating from high school, Peete entered Sarah Lawrence College in New York, she majored in French. After she graduated in 1986, she considered attending graduate school and working in languages for the U. S. State Department. However, she decided to give an acting career a chance. Within a short time, Peete found roles in two films. Peete's children's book, My Brother Charlie, won her an NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Literary Work in March 2011. In 2012 the book was awarded the Dolly Gray Children's Literature Award. In March 2016, a reality series debuted titled For Peete's Sake, documenting the everyday life of her family, she is doing commercials for the weight loss drug, Lipozene.
Peete was born in Mount Airy, Pennsylvania, to Dolores and Matt Robinson. Her mother was a school teacher, in public relations, a personal talent manager, her father a producer/writer, she has an older brother named Matthew Thomas Robinson III. She attended Greene Street Friends School in nearby Germantown. In 1974, her family moved to California. Peete graduated from Santa Monica High School in Santa Monica, where her classmates included Rob Lowe. Peete graduated from Sarah Lawrence College with a degree in psychology and French. Peete studied abroad for a year at the Sorbonne, is fluent in French. While there she sang in Paris nightclubs, including a memorable performance with jazz legend Lionel Hampton at the Hotel Meridian Jazz Club. In 1969, she made her first television appearance by playing a little girl named Sally on the first episode of Sesame Street, she recalls that when she was six years old, she kept blowing her line, saying "Hi, Daddy", instead of "Hi, Gordon", his character's name.
She ended up with just an appearance. At the age of 11, Holly worked for the children's show Kidsworld as a celebrity correspondent; as an actress, she has appeared on the TV series 21 Jump Street, Hangin' with Mr. Cooper, For Your Love, Like Family, she was featured in the video for the 1990 hit single "Whip Appeal" by Babyface as the sultry radio host at the beginning of the video. In 1992 she portrayed Diana Ross in The Jacksons: An American Dream. Robinson most starred on the UPN comedy Love, Inc.. The show lasted just one season, was canceled after the WB/UPN merger. Robinson has had a limited career as a singer and recording artist, including the introductory song to 21 Jump Street, she contributed a variety of songs to the soundtrack of the film Howard the Duck. She recorded the theme song "We Got Our Love" for the 1988 film Three for the Road, she and Dawnn Lewis, along with R&B quartet En Vogue, performed the theme song for the first season of Hangin' with Mr. Cooper. In 2006, she won, along with fellow writer Daniel Paisner, the Quills Award in Sports for the book Get Your Own Damn Beer, I'm Watching the Game!: A Woman's Guide to Loving Pro Football.
In 2010, she participated in The Celebrity Apprentice 3, playing for her own charity, the HollyRod Foundation, which provides support for families with Parkinson's disease or autism. Robinson began co-hosting The Talk, a CBS daytime talk show, on October 18, 2010. In this forum, Robinson was known for expressing herself through her ethnicity and being vocal about African American issues and, since her son Rodney is affected by it, autism. In April 2011, Robinson hosted a weekly series on The Talk promoting autism awareness. After serving on The Talk for its first season, Robinson along with Leah Remini were released from the show. Failure to disclose why the two were let go brought on a great deal of audience criticism of the show, as well as protests from the stars' fans. Robinson hosted the 42nd NAACP Image Awards, alongside Wayne Brady, on March 4, 2011; the Peete family star in a reality TV series on OWN, entitled For Peete's Sake. The series follows the lives of Peete and her husband Rodney as they juggle career choices with their family life.
On June 10, 1995, Robinson married a National Football League quarterback. He proposed by surprising Holly during an episode of Hangin' with Mr. Cooper, they have four children: twins, daughter Ryan Elizabeth Peete and son Rodney Peete, Jr. son Robinson James Peete, son Roman Peete. One of their twins, Rodney Jr. was diagnosed with autism at age three. After her father was diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease and her husband co-founded the HollyRod Foundation, dedicated to help find a cure for the disease, as well as for autism, assist those living with the conditions. In September 2012, Nestle's Carnation Breakfast Essentials announced they had teamed up with Robinson, featuring her as the spokesperson for the brand. On October 4, 2012, Robinson was inducted as an honorary member of Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority. Note: She was credited as Holly Robinson until 1997. Holly Robinson Peete on IMDb Holly Robinson Peete 2006 Interview on Sidewalks Entertainment Holly Robinson Peete Biography
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, its primary competitors are cable television providers. On July 24, 2015, after receiving approval from the United States Federal Communications Commission and United States Department of Justice, AT&T acquired DirecTV in a transaction valued at $67.1 billion. As of Q1 2017, DirecTV U. S. had 21 million revenues of $12 billion. On November 30, 2016, DirecTV Now, their internet streaming TV service, was launched. In 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a non-profit medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter. Following Hughes' death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, litigation ensued to determine whether it would be allowed to maintain its interest in Hughes Aircraft.
In 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.1 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation; the new subsidiary was composed of four units: Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, Hughes Network Systems. Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting in 1981 and was a leading proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States. USSB was awarded five frequencies at the coveted 101-degree west satellite location. Hughes Communications, Inc. was awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location. After many years, the technology was developed to enable the building of high-power satellites, digital compression standards were developed that allowed multiple digital television channels to be sent through each satellite frequency.
Hughes attempted to create a joint venture with NBC, News Corp. and Cablevision in 1990, to launch the first high-power digital television service called Sky Cable. Failing to do so, the company instead created DirecTV as a separate division and secured an agreement with USSB to build and launch the first high-power direct-broadcast satellite system. DirecTV's name is a portmanteau of "direct" and "TV". Hughes/DirecTV turned to Thomson Consumer Electronics to develop the digital satellite system for the service that would be capable of receiving 175 channels on a small 18-inch dish; these dishes utilized a new generation of smaller, lighter receiver dishes based on military technology introduced by the Global Broadcast System, which predated DirecTV's viability by ten years. Hughes was awarded the contract to build and launch the new high-powered satellites, USSB and DirecTV agreed that the new satellites would carry the two separate programming services: USSB and DirecTV; the USSB and DirecTV programming services were launched on June 17, 1994.
Digital Equipment Corporation provided the hardware for DirecTV, Matrixx Marketing provided customer care via the Matrixx Plus department, DBS Systems created the billing software. In December 1998, DirecTV acquired USSB for $1.3 billion, combined the two satellite services. In 1999, DirecTV acquired PrimeStar, a competitor in the satellite television industry, for $1.83 billion increasing its share of the satellite television market in the US. In September 1996, Hughes purchased 70% of PanAmSat for $3 billion. In 1997, GM transferred it to Delphi Automotive Systems; that same year, Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion. Raytheon filed a lawsuit in 1999 accusing Hughes of overstating the value of Hughes Aircraft by $1 billion. A $635.5-million settlement was reached in 2001. In 2000, Hughes Space and Communications was sold to Boeing for $3.75 billion, which it claimed had been overvalued by Hughes. Hughes settled with Boeing for $360 million; these sales left DirecTV, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems as the remaining components of Hughes Electronics.
Direct satellite broadcaster were mandated in 1992 to set aside 4% of its channel space for noncommercial educational and informational programming. DirecTV selected C-SPAN, EWTN and the Trinity Broadcasting Network from its current channel lineup plus request additional proposals from other programmers. DirecTV had given PBS Kids, PBS's original application, carriage that did not count against the set aside six weeks before the deadline. DirecTV selected an additional six channels. In 2000, DirecTV introduced the first live in-flight television service for airlines. In September 2000, GM executives, under pressure from GM's shareholders as a result of its poor performance and the greater market worth of Hughes, authorized Hughes executives to begin seeking buyers. In 2001, News Corporation began negotiations to acquire Hughes Electronics in a deal worth $8 billion, which would allow News Corp. to expand its Sky Global Networks satellite television operations into the United States. Negotiations with News Corp. failed, Hughes entered into an agreement on October 28, 2001 to be purchased for $26 billion
Amazon Fire TV
Amazon Fire TV is a digital media player and its microconsole remote developed by Amazon. The device is a small network appliance that can deliver digital audio/video content streamed via the internet, to a high-definition television, it allows users to play video games with the included remote, via a mobile app, or with an optional game controller. The device comes in two form factors: Fire TV, a set top box, Fire TV Stick a cut-down version presented as an HDMI plug-in stick; the first-generation Fire TV device featured 2 GB of RAM, MIMO dual-band Wi-Fi, a Bluetooth remote control with a microphone for voice search. It supported 1080p streaming and Dolby Digital Plus 7.1 surround sound but was dependent on internet bandwidth of the user. Unveiled on April 2, 2014, the Amazon Fire TV was made available for purchase in the US the same day for US$99 and was launched with a video game called Sev Zero. In 2015, the Amazon Fire TV was released with improved processor speed and 4K UHD support. Amazon Fire TV is available in the United Kingdom, Germany and launched in India in 2016.
In September 2018, Amazon announced the Fire TV Recast, a digital video recorder which works with a HD antenna to record shows for viewing on a Fire TV or Echo Show device. It is a part of the cord-cutting movement. In October 2018, Amazon announced the latest Fire TV Stick which offers 4K UHD for $50, it is designed as an affordable device with the 4K UHD playback that higher-end Fire TV devices have. The first Fire TV offers HDMI audio, with support for Dolby Digital Plus and 7.1 surround sound pass-through, along with an Ethernet port and a USB 2.0 port. According to Amazon, the Fire TV is designed to outpace competitors like the Apple TV and Roku in performance: The 0.72-inch-thick box features a 1.7 GHz quad-core CPU, 2 GB of RAM and 8 GB of internal storage, along with a dual-band wireless radio for 1080p streaming over 802.11a/b/g/n Wi-Fi and a 10/100 ethernet connection. The company said, it has a dedicated controller accessory. Amazon released a 2nd-generation Fire TV, codenamed "Sloane", in late 2015.
The 2nd generation now features 4K Ultra High Definition support, improved processor performance, a MediaTek 8173C chipset to support H.265, VP8, VP9 codecs. Wireless hardware upgrades includes a dual-band 802.11a/b/g/n/ac Wi-Fi with 2x2 MIMO and Bluetooth 4.1. On September 27, 2017, Amazon announced the third generation Fire TV alongside five other new Amazon products. On October 3, 2018, Amazon has announced discontinuing Fire TV in favor of Fire TV Stick. On November 19, 2014, Amazon released. Codenamed "Montoya", it is an HDMI-port plug-in device that replicates much of the functionality of the larger Fire TV, its hardware is different, it has 1 GB of RAM, 8 GB of internal storage, weighs 0.9 oz. and it uses a Broadcom BCM28155 dual-core 1.0 GHz Cortex-A9 processor and a Broadcom VideoCore IV GPU. Wireless hardware includes a dual-band 802.11 a/b/g/n Wi-Fi with 2x2 MIMO and Bluetooth 3.0 The Fire TV Stick is bundled with a remote control, in either of two variants. On October 20, 2016, Amazon released Fire TV Stick with Alexa Voice Remote, codenamed "Tank".
Other than the new remote, the updates include MediaTek MT8127D Quad-core ARM 1.3 GHz processor with a Mali-450 MP4 GPU, support for the H.265 codec. Wireless hardware upgrades includes a dual-band 802.11a/b/g/n/ac Wi-Fi with 2x2 MIMO and Bluetooth 4.1. It retains the 1GB of RAM and 8GB of storage and weighs more at 1.1 oz.. Amazon re-released the second generation Fire TV Stick with the all-new Alexa Voice Remote from the third generation Fire TV Stick 4K. On October 3, 2018, Amazon announced the Fire TV Stick 4K with all-new Alexa Voice Remote. Included for the first time are buttons for volume and mute. Amazon scheduled the release date for October 31, 2018, which will introduce the new remote control as a standalone product; the Fire TV Stick 4K delivers Ultra HD and HDR streaming through an HDMI dongle that costs $50. It is the first media stick to support Dolby Atmos, Dolby Vision and HDR10+ that promises higher video and audio quality to compatible audio systems and TVs; the device syncs with Amazon's Alexa Voice Remote with features like Bluetooth, "multi-directional" infrared and buttons for power and muting.
Amazon announced that in-app Alexa control will be featured in more specialized video service, such as AMC, HBO Now, A&E, VH1 and Sony Crackle, among others. For undisclosed reasons, the screen mirroring functionality, unavailable during release was restored through an OS update early April 2019; the Fire TV Stick 4K has a 1.7GHz processor, faster than the 2017 Fire TV, a 4K streamer with dangling "pendant" designs. Amazon predicts faster loading in this edition. Germany and the UK were to release the Fire TV Stick 4K on November 14 and Japan to receive it by the end of 2018; the Fire TV Cube was launched in June 2018, as a mix of the Fire Echo Dot. The device uses a 1.5 GHz quad-core ARM 4xCA53 processor, 2 GB RAM, 16 GB storage. The device ran Fire OS 3.0, based on Android Jelly Bean 4.2. According to Amazon, that made it "simple for developers to port their services and games over to Fire TV."In November 2017, Amazon launche