Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel
The Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel is a Sheraton 1450-room hotel in Toronto, Canada. It is the second-tallest all-hotel building in Toronto, after the Delta Toronto Hotel; the hotel opened on October 16, 1972 as the Four Seasons Sheraton Hotel, a joint venture between Sheraton and Toronto businessman Issy Sharp's Four Seasons chain. At the time, it was the second-largest hotel in Toronto, behind only the Royal York Hotel. Sharp was unhappy with the partnership, sold his 49 percent share in the hotel in 1976 for $18.5 million, it was renamed The Sheraton Centre of Toronto. The name has since been modified to the Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel. Marriott International, Sheraton's parent company, sold the hotel to Brookfield Asset Management in 2017 for $335 million; the hotel consists of three connected buildings located between Queen and Richmond streets: the three-floor entrance, the eleven-floor building on Richmond Street, the main building, which has 43 floors and faces Queen Street. The project was developed by John B.
Parkin Associates. The inner yard contains a landscaped garden with a waterfall, designed by a Canadian architect, J. Austin Floyd; the hotel has 171,716 sq ft of total event space, the largest hotel convention facilities in Toronto, including a ballroom with a capacity of 3500. The hotel lobby serves as one of the nodes of the PATH network of pedestrian tunnels; the transmitter for CIRR-FM is located atop the hotel. List of tallest buildings in Toronto Four Seasons Centre Sheraton Centre Toronto Hotel
A delicatessen or deli is a retail establishment that sells a selection of fine, unusual or foreign prepared foods. Delicatessen originated in Germany during the 18th century and spread to the United States in the mid-19th century. European immigrants to the United States Ashkenazi Jews, popularized the delicatessen in American culture beginning in the late 19th century. Delicatessen is a German loanword which first appeared in English in the late 19th century and is the plural of Delikatesse; the German form was lent from the French délicatesse, which itself was lent from Italian delicatezza, from delicato, of which the root word is the Latin adjective delicatus, meaning "giving pleasure, pleasing". The first Americanized short version of this word, came into existence ca. 1954. The German food company Dallmayr is credited with being the first delicatessen created. In 1700, it became the first store to import bananas and plums to the German population from faraway places such as the Canary Islands and China.
Over 300 years it remains the largest business of its kind in Europe. The first delicatessens to appear in the United States were in New York City in the mid-1800s, with the first known use of this word occurring in 1885; these catered to the German immigrant population living there. As the German-Jewish population increased in New York City during the mid- to late 1800s, kosher delicatessens began to open. In the United States, by the late 20th to early 21st centuries, local economy stores, fast food outlets began using the word to describe sections of their stores; the decline of the deli as an independent retail establishment was most noted in New York City: from a high in the 1930s of about 1,500 Jewish delicatessens, only 15 still existed in 2015. In most of Australia, the term "delicatessen" retains its European meaning of high-quality, expensive foods and stores. Large supermarket chains have a deli department, independent delicatessens exist throughout the country. Both types of deli offer a variety of cured meats, pickled vegetables, dips and olives."Deli" denotes a small convenience store or milk bar in Western Australia, New South Wales and South Australia, some businesses use "deli" as part of their business name.
Traditional delicatessens exist in these states, with "continental delicatessen" sometimes used to indicate the European version. In Canada, both meanings of "delicatessen" are used. Customers of European origin use the term in a manner consistent with its original German meaning but, as in the United States, delis can be a combined grocery store and restaurant. In Europe "delicatessen" means expensive foods and stores. In German-speaking countries a common synonym is Feinkost, shops which sell it are called Feinkostläden. Department stores have a Delikatessenabteilung. European delicatessens include Fauchon in Paris, Dallmayr in Munich, Julius Meinl am Graben in Vienna and Fortnum & Mason in London, Peck in Milan and Jelmoli in Zurich. Although U. S.-style delicatessens are found in Europe, they appeal to the luxury market. In Russia and supermarket sections approximating US-style delis are called kulinariya and offer salads and main courses. Delicate meats and cheeses, cold-cut and sliced hot, are sold in a separate section.
The Eliseevsky food store in central Moscow, with its fin de siècle decor, is similar to a European delicatessen. From the Tsarist era, it was preserved by the Soviets as an outlet for difficult-to-obtain Russian delicacies. Delicatessens may provide foods from other countries and cultures, not available in local food stores. In Italy, the deli can be called gastronomia, negozio di specialità gastronomiche, bottega alimentare and more salumeria. In France it is nowadays known as a épicerie fine. In the United States, a delicatessen is a combined grocery store and restaurant. Delis offer a broader, fresher menu than fast-food chains employing fryers and preparing sandwiches to order, they may serve hot foods from a steam table, similar to a cafeteria. American delis prepare party trays. Although delicatessens vary in size, they are smaller than grocery stores. In addition to made-to-order sandwiches, many U. S. delicatessens offer made-to-order green salads. Common is a selection of prepared pasta, chicken, shrimp or other salads, displayed under the counter and sold by weight.
Precooked chicken, cheese or eggplant dishes are sold. Delis may be either take-out, a sit-down restaurant or both. Delicatessens offer a variety of beverages, such as pre-packaged soft drinks, coffee and milk. Potato chips and similar products and small items such as candy and mints are usually available. Menus vary according to regional ethnic diversity. Although urban delis rely on ethnic meats, supermarket delis rely on meats similar to their packaged meats. Delicatessens have a number of cultural traditions. In the United States, many are Jewish and Greek, both kosher and "kosher style"; the American equivalent of a European delicatessen may be known as a gourmet food store. North American delicatessen distribution is in older, pedestrian friendly cities. Merwin, Ted. Pastrami on Rye: An Overstuffed History of the Jewish Deli xviii, 245 pp. "Deli Paradise Travel Gu
Lever Brothers was a British manufacturing company founded in 1885 by brothers William Hesketh Lever and James Darcy Lever. They invested in and promoted a new soap-making process invented by chemist William Hough Watson. In 1930, Lever Brothers merged with Margarine Unie to form Unilever. Starting with a small grocery business begun by his father, William Lever and his brother James entered the soap business in 1885 by buying a small soap works in Warrington; the brothers teamed up with a Bolton chemist, William Hough Watson, who became an early business partner. Watson invented the process which resulted in a new soap, using glycerin and vegetable oils such as palm oil, rather than tallow; the resulting soap was a good, free-lathering soap, at first named Honey Soap later named "Sunlight Soap". Production reached 450 tons per week by 1888. Larger premises were built on marshes at Bromborough Pool on the Wirral Peninsula at what became Port Sunlight. Though the company was named Lever Brothers, William Lever's brother and co-director James never took a major part in running the business.
He fell ill in 1895 as a result of diabetes, resigned his directorship two years later. Lever Brothers was one of several British companies that took an interest in the welfare of its British employees; the model village of Port Sunlight was developed between 1888 and 1914 adjoining the soap factory to accommodate the company's staff in good quality housing, with high architectural standards and many community facilities. In the Congo, Lever Brothers, through their subsidiary Huileries du Congo Belge, utilized forced labour. Palm cutters failing to meet requirements regarding compulsory cultivation of crops were liable to prison sentences, where the chicotte, a type of whip, was used. A decree issued 16 March 1922 by the Belgian government in the Congo, which remained in force for the remainder of the colonial period, albeit with a few modifications, made provision for prison sentences of two to three months for "dishonesty", prison sentences of a fortnight for violations of work discipline.
Francois Beissel was dissatisfied with a number of the measures laid down in the decree, left record of this in a letter dated 22 November 1922, which he wrote to Doctor Albert Duren, Inspector of Industrial Hygiene. Regarding absenteeism, Beissel wrote, "As the man hired could not renege more upon his obligations than by abstaining from work without a plausible excuse, I would venture to hope that the prison sentences recommended would be applied with all due rigor in the case of unjustified, repeated absences. I would be glad to receive some reassurance in this regard."Reports by Rene Mouchet and Victor Daco show that some limited improvements were made to the condition of the HCB's workers by 1928 and 1929. However, the HCB was still using forced labor. Daco recommended. Accommodations at many camps had been improved, there were houses made of baked brick or adobe; however some camps, such as the villages of the Yanzi, were still in a deplorable state. Overcrowding continued to be an issue.
Daco believed the existing hospitals were in good state, but that there were too few of them, that the number of beds should be quadrupled. A report signed on 29 January 1931 by Pierre Ryckmans and two others appointed by the minister discusses the quota system in use by the HCB at the time. Ryckmans' report quoted some directives issued by company headquarters at Leverville for Kwenge sector, dated 23 March 1930. One of the directives stated that, "It is your responsibility to organise the cutters' deliveries so as to obtain on a regular bases an average production of 40 crates per month." Ryckmans recommended that the quotas should vary throughout the year to correlate to the rate at which clusters ripened. The Ryckmans report stated, "We reckon that the employment of state messengers ought to be condemned, they understand just one thing, that they are responsible for getting people to work, they are ready to use any means possible to carry out this mission." In short, as Jules Marchal summarized the report, "the exploitation of palm groves in Lusanga circle was a system of forced labour pure and simple."
By 1900 "Lifebuoy", "Lux" and "Vim" brands had been added and subsidiaries had been set up in the United States, Canada, Australia and elsewhere. By 1911 the company had its own oil palm plantations in the Solomon Islands. Lever Brothers Ltd acquired other soap companies including A&F Pears, Gossage's of Widnes, Watson's of Leeds, Crosfield's of Warrington, Hazlehurst & Sons of Runcorn and Hudson's of Liverpool; the town Leverville was founded in the Bandundu district of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, named after William Lever. Lever Brothers rode the cresting late-Victorian consumer revolution to build a vast worldwide industrial empire. Four years after William Lever's death in 1925, his enterprises were amalgamated as Unilever. By 1930, it employed 250,000 people and in terms of market value, was the largest company in Britain; the company grew and operated until 1930, when it merged with a Dutch margarine company, Margarine Unie, to form Unilever, the first modern multinational company.
As part of the agreement, Lever Brothers changed its name to Unilever plc, forms the British half of the dual-listed company. Although the two companies have separate shareholders and stock exchange listings, they have a common board of directors and operate as one company; the Lever Brothers name was kept for a time as an imprint, as well as the name of the US subsidiar
Rogers Centre named SkyDome, is a multi-purpose stadium in Downtown Toronto, Canada, situated just southwest of the CN Tower near the northern shore of Lake Ontario. Opened in 1989 on the former Railway Lands, it is home to the Toronto Blue Jays of Major League Baseball; the stadium was home to the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League and the Toronto Raptors of the National Basketball Association. The Buffalo Bills of the National Football League played an annual game at the stadium as part of the Bills Toronto Series from 2008 to 2013. While it is a sports venue, it hosts other large events such as conventions, trade fairs, travelling carnivals, monster truck shows; the stadium was renamed "Rogers Centre" following the purchase of the stadium by Rogers Communications, which owned the Toronto Blue Jays, in 2005. The venue was noted for being the first stadium to have a retractable motorized roof, as well as for the 348-room hotel attached to it with 70 rooms overlooking the field.
It is the last North American major-league stadium built to accommodate both football and baseball. The stadium served as the site of both the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2015 Pan American Games. During the ceremonies, the site was referred to as the "Pan Am Dome" instead of its official name. SkyDome, called Rogers Centre since 2005, was designed by architect Rod Robbie and structural engineer Michael Allen and was constructed by the EllisDon Construction company of London and the Dominion Bridge Company of Lachine, Quebec; the stadium's construction lasted about two and a half years, from October 1986 to May 1989. The approximate cost of construction was C$570 million, paid for by the federal government, Ontario provincial government, the City of Toronto, a large consortium of corporations; the main impetus for building an enclosed sports venue in Toronto came following the Grey Cup game in November 1982, held at the outdoor Exhibition Stadium. The game was played in a driving rainstorm that left most of the crowd drenched, leading the media to call it "the Rain Bowl".
As many of the seats were exposed to the elements, thousands watched the game from the concession section. To make a bad experience worse, the washrooms overflowed. In attendance that day was Bill Davis, the Premier of Ontario, the poor conditions were seen by the largest TV audience in Canada to that point; the following day, at a rally for the Argos at Toronto City Hall, tens of thousands of people who attended the game began to chant, "We want a dome! We want a dome!"Seven months in June 1983, Premier Davis formally announced a three-person committee would look into the feasibility of building a domed stadium at Exhibition Place. The committee consisted of Paul Godfrey, Larry Grossman and former Ontario Hydro chairman Hugh Macaulay; the committee examined various projects, including a large indoor stadium at Exhibition Place with an air-supported dome, similar to BC Place in Vancouver. In 1985, an international design competition was launched to design a new stadium, along with selection of a site.
Some of the proposed sites included Exhibition Place, Downsview Airport, York University. The final site was at the base of the CN Tower not far from Union Station, a major railway and transit hub; the Railway Lands were a major Canadian National Railway rail switching yard encompassing the CNR Spadina Roundhouse. The Robbie/Allen concept won because it provided the largest roof opening of all the finalists, it was the most technically sound; the name "SkyDome" was chosen as part of a province-wide "name the stadium" contest in 1987. Sponsored by the Toronto Sun, ballots were offered for people to submit their suggested name, with lifetime seats behind home plate to all events at the stadium as the prize. Over 150,000 entries were received with 12,897 different names; the selection committee narrowed it down to four choices: "Towerdome", "Harbourdome", "SkyDome", "the Dome". The judges' final selection was SkyDome. Premier David Peterson drew the prize-winning entry of Kellie Watson from a lottery barrel containing the over-2,000 entries that proposed "SkyDome".
At the press conference announcing the name, Chuck Magwood, president of the Stadium Corporation of Ontario, the crown corporation created to run SkyDome, commented: "The sky is a huge part of the whole roof process. The name has a sense of the infinite and that's what this is all about." Kellie Watson received lifetime seating of choice at the SkyDome, still honoured after the stadium renamed to Rogers Centre. The stadium was funded by a public/private partnership, with the government paying the largest percentage of the tab; the initial cost of $150 million was underestimated, with the final tab coming in at C$570 million. Two levels of government each contributed $30 million; this does not include the actual value of the land. Canada's three main breweries and the Toronto Blue Jays each paid $5 million to help fund the stadium. An additional 26 other Canadian corporations contributed
Spadina Avenue is one of the most prominent streets in Toronto, Canada. Running through the western section of downtown, the road has a different character in different neighbourhoods. Spadina Avenue runs south from Bloor Street to the Gardiner Expressway, just north of Lake Ontario. Lower Spadina Avenue continues the last block to the lake after the expressway. Another street named Spadina Road continues north from Bloor, but with new street address numbering starting over at zero. For much of its extent, Spadina Road is a less busy residential road. Spadina Avenue is pronounced with the i as /aɪ/ as in mine; the name originated under the latter pronunciation, with the former a colloquialism that evolved as Spadina Avenue was extended from the wealthy neighbourhoods north of Bloor into the more working-class and immigrant areas to the south. The /aɪ/ variation is now predominant among most Torontonians, to the point that in 2011 a minor controversy emerged when the Toronto Transit Commission's new automated announcement system pronounced the upcoming subway stop with /iː/.
The name originates from the Ojibwa word ishpadinaa, meaning "high place/ridge" or "sudden rise in the land." The Ishpatina Ridge, in Northern Ontario, the highest point of land in the province of Ontario, the city of Ishpeming, in the state of Michigan's Upper Peninsula in Marquette County both derive their name from the same preverb. Spadina was the original name of the street from Bloor Street to Queen Street West, built by Dr. William Baldwin beginning in 1815; the street's name did not appear in published maps until 1834. The southern portion was named Brock Street and remained so until after 1884. Brock Street was named in honour of Sir Issac Brock. Baldwin designed the original Spadina, choosing its extra large width and placing the circle, today 1 Spadina Crescent, he named the connecting Baldwin Street after himself, Phoebe Street to the south was named after his wife Phoebe Baldwin. For a number of decades, Spadina Avenue and nearby Kensington Market were the centre of Jewish life in Toronto with the area around Spadina being the home of the garment district—where many Jews worked—as well as numerous Jewish delis, bookstores, Yiddish theatres and other political and cultural institutions.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Jewish community moved north along Bathurst Street, but signs of Spadina's Jewish history can still be found in many locations. The city's Chinatown moved west along Dundas onto Spadina when much of the original Chinatown was expropriated to build Toronto's new City Hall and Nathan Phillips Square. Most of the section known as Spadina Avenue is a six-lane urban arterial, with a speed limit of 50 km/h, although it is unposted; the section known as Spadina Road is a two- to four-lane collector road with speed limits alternating between 40–50 km/h. The 77 Spadina bus route inspired a song, "Spadina Bus", which became a surprise Top 40 hit in Canada for the jazz fusion band The Shuffle Demons in 1986. In the 1990s, the TTC rebuilt and reinstated the 510 Spadina streetcar line, which runs in a dedicated right-of-way along the median strip of the street since its opening in 1997. Prior to the construction of the Spadina LRT, streetcars ran down the street until it was replaced by the 77 Spadina bus.
Bricked road bed was used along the streetcar route. Small sections of the brick road bed remained. In the 1960s, city hall was planning to tear up Spadina and most of the buildings on either side to construct the Spadina Expressway, a proposed highway that would have run straight into downtown. After a long public battle, with the opposition to the project led by Toronto urban writer Jane Jacobs and former Toronto mayor John Sewell, the plans were halted in 1971; the Forest Hill Jewish Centre has announced plans to rebuild the façade of the Great Synagogue of Jasło, destroyed by the German Army in World War II, as the façade of its new building on Spadina Road. Lake Shore to Queen StreetThe southern section of Spadina was the heart of Toronto's industrial area for most of the 20th century, but in the 1970s, most of the factories left. Most of the land south of Front Street is infill on Lake Ontario; the Rogers Centre was opened just east of Spadina in 1989. This area was the site of the CNR Spadina Roundhouse.
Some land along this portion of Spadina has been redeveloped into the condominium tower complex of CityPlace. The road once cross the railway lands with a pony truss bridge built in 1926-1927 and replaced with the current Box girder bridge in the 1990s. From Front Street, Spadina runs through the Fashion District and along the western edge of the Entertainment District, which contains a number of office buildings. Queen Street to College StreetNorth of Queen Street West, the avenue passes along the eastern side of the Alexandra Park neighbourhood, made up of a number of public housing projects; the intersection of Dundas Street West and Spadina is the centre of Toronto's second-oldest Chinatown, with many restaurants and shops catering to the Chinese community. The Chinese Spadina began in the 1970s after the departure of Jewish Toronto from the area, it supplanted an older Chinatown centred on Dundas Street West and Elizabeth Street, disrupted when New City Hall was constructed in the ea
Greater Toronto Area
The Greater Toronto Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. It consists of 25 incorporated municipalities within the central city of Toronto and the four regional municipalities which surround it: Durham, Halton and York. According to the 2016 census, the Greater Toronto Area has a population of 6,417,516; the regional span of the Greater Toronto Area is sometimes combined with the city of Hamilton, located west of Halton Region, to form the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. The Greater Toronto Area anchors a much larger urban agglomeration known as the Golden Horseshoe; the term "Greater Toronto" was first used in writing as early as the 1900s, although at the time, the term only referred to the old City of Toronto and its immediate townships and villages, which became Metropolitan Toronto in 1954 and became the current city of Toronto in 1998. The use of the term involving the four regional municipalities came into formal use in the mid-1980s, after it was used in a discussed report on municipal governance restructuring in the region and was made official as a provincial planning area.
However, it did not come into everyday usage until the mid- to late 1990s. In 2006, the term began to be supplanted in the field of spatial planning as provincial policy began to refer to either the "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" or the still-broader "Greater Golden Horseshoe"; the latter includes communities like Barrie, Kitchener-Waterloo and the Niagara Region. The GTA continues, however, to be in official use elsewhere in the Government of Ontario, such as the Ministry of Finance; some municipalities considered part of the GTA are not within the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, whose land area and population is thus smaller than the land area and population of the GTA planning area. For example, Oshawa is the centre of its own CMA, yet deemed part of the Greater Toronto Area, while other municipalities, such as New Tecumseth in southern Simcoe County and Mono Township in Dufferin County are included in the Toronto CMA but not in the GTA; these different border configurations result in the GTA's population being higher than the Toronto CMA by nearly one-half million people leading to confusion amongst people when trying to sort out Toronto's urban population.
Other nearby urban areas, such as Hamilton, Barrie, or St. Catharines-Niagara and Kitchener-Waterloo, are not part of the GTA or the Toronto CMA, but form their own CMAs near the GTA. All the aforementioned places are part of the Greater Golden Horseshoe metropolitan region, an urban agglomeration, the fourth most populous in North America; when the Hamilton and Toronto CMAs are agglomerated with Brock and Scugog, they have a population of 6,170,072. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, containing an estimated 59 million people in 2011; the term "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" refers to the GTA, the City of Hamilton. The term has been adopted by several organizations for the purposes of regional planning; the GTHA and the Regional Municipality of Niagara form the inner ring of the larger Greater Golden Horseshoe region. The Greater Toronto Area was home to a number of First Nations groups who lived on the shore of Lake Ontario long before the first Europeans arrived in the region. At various times the Neutral, Seneca and Huron nations were living in the vicinity.
The Mississaugas arrived in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, driving out the occupying Iroquois. While it is unclear as to, the first European to reach the Toronto area, there is no question it occurred in the 17th century; the area would become crucial for its series of trails and water routes that led from northern and western Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the "Toronto Passage", it followed the Humber River, as an important overland shortcut between Lake Ontario, Lake Simcoe and the upper Great Lakes. For this reason area became a hot spot for French fur traders; the French would establish two trading forts, Magasin Royal in the 1720s, although abandoned within the decade and Fort Rouillé in the 1750s, which would be burnt down and abandoned in 1759 by the French garrison, who were retreating from invading British forces. The first large influx of European settlers to settle the region were the United Empire Loyalists arriving after the American Revolution, when various individuals petitioned the Crown for land in and around the Toronto area.
In 1787, the British negotiated the purchase of more than a quarter million acres of land in the area of Toronto with the Mississaugas of New Credit. York County, would be created by Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, which would at its largest size, comprise all of what is now Halton Region, Peel Region, York Region and parts of Durham Region; the Town of York would be attacked by American forces in the War of 1812 in what is now known as the Battle of York, in 1813. In 1816, Wentworth County and Halton County were created from York County. York County would serve as the setting for the beginnings of the Upper Canada Rebellion with William Lyon Mackenzie's armed march from Holland Landing towards York Township on Yonge Street leading up to the battle at Montgomery's Tavern. In 1851, Ontario County and Peel County were separated from York; the idea towards a streamlined local government to control local infrastructure was made as early as 1907 by member of federal Parliament, founder of the Toronto Globe, William Findlay Maclean, who called for the expansion of the government of the former City of Toronto in order to c