Short Message Peer-to-Peer in the telecommunications industry is an open, industry standard protocol designed to provide a flexible data communication interface for the transfer of short message data between External Short Messaging Entities, Routing Entities and SMSC. SMPP is used to allow third parties to submit messages in bulk, but it may be used for SMS peering as well. SMPP is able to carry short messages including EMS, voicemail notifications, Cell Broadcasts, WAP messages including WAP Push messages, USSD messages and others; because of its versatility and support for non-GSM SMS protocols, like UMTS, IS-95, CDMA2000, ANSI-136 and iDEN, SMPP is the most used protocol for short message exchange outside SS7 networks. SMPP was designed by Aldiscon, a small Irish company, acquired by Logica; the protocol was created by a developer, Ian J Chambers, to test the functionality of the SMSC without using SS7 test equipment to submit messages. In 1999, Logica formally handed over SMPP to the SMPP Developers Forum renamed as The SMS Forum and now disbanded.
The SMPP protocol specifications are still available through the website which carries a notice stating that it will be taken down at the end of 2007. As part of the original handover terms, SMPP ownership has now returned to Mavenir due to the disbanding of the SMS Forum. To date, SMPP development is suspended and SMS Forum is disbanded. From the SMS Forum website: July 31, 2007 - The SMS Forum, a non-profit organization with a mission to develop and promote SMS to the benefit of the global wireless industry will disband by July 27, 2007 A press release, attached to the news warns that site will be suspended soon. In spite of this, the site is still functioning and specifications can still be downloaded; the site has ceased operation according to Cormac Long, former technical moderator and webmaster for the SMS Forum. Please contact Mavenir for the SMPP specification; the specifications are available from the former site of the SMPP Developers Forum at SMPP Protocol - SMS API. Contrary to its name, the SMPP uses the client-server model of operation.
The Short Message Service Center acts as a server, awaiting connections from ESMEs. When SMPP is used for SMS peering, the sending MC acts as a client; the protocol is based on pairs of request/response PDUs exchanged over OSI layer 4 connections. The well-known port assigned by the IANA for SMPP when operating over TCP is 2775, but multiple arbitrary port numbers are used in messaging environments. Before exchanging any messages, a bind command must be acknowledged; the bind command determines. In the bind command the ESME identifies itself using system _ type and password; the bind command contains interface_version parameter to specify which version of SMPP protocol will be used. Message exchange may be synchronous, where each peer waits for a response for each PDU being sent, or asynchronous, where multiple requests can be issued without waiting and acknowledged in a skew order by the other peer; the SMPP standard has evolved during the time. The most used versions of SMPP are: SMPP 3.3 the oldest used version.
Generates an immediate response for each message sent. SMPP 3.4 adds optional Tag-Length-Value parameters, support of non-GSM SMS technologies and the transceiver support. The exchange of SMPP request and response PDUs between an ESME Transmitter and SMSC may occur synchronously or asynchronously. SMPP 5.0 is the latest version of SMPP. As of 2019, it is not used; the applicable version is passed in the interface_version parameter of a bind command. The SMPP PDUs are binary encoded for efficiency, they start with a header which may be followed by a body: Each PDU starts with a header. The header consists of 4 fields, each of length of 4 octets: command_length Is the overall length of the PDU in octets. If the most significant bit is cleared, this is a request operation. Otherwise it is a response. Command_status Always has a value of 0 in requests; this is an example of the binary encoding of a 60-octet submit_sm PDU. The data is shown in Hex octet values as a single dump and followed by a header and body break-down of that PDU.
This is best compared with the definition of the submit_sm PDU from the SMPP specificat
The Fort of Almádena or known as the Fort of the River Mouth, is located between the towns of Salema and Burgau, in the Algarve region of Portugal. It was constructed in 1632. Damaged by the 1755 earthquake, it was abandoned in 1849; the need for a fort at Almádena was identified during the Philippine Dynasty as being necessary in order to protect the area’s tuna fishery from the attacks of privateers and pirates. Under the reign of Philip III of Portugal, the fort was built on the orders of Luís de Sousa, 2nd Count of Prado, who served as Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Algarve and who paid for the fort’s construction; the fort of Almádena was constructed on a cliff 78 metres above the sea on the ruins of an older fortification, variously believed to be Roman or a Muslim ribat. It followed a polygonal plan and included two ramparts, a moat with a drawbridge, two batteries, the barracks. There was a chapel, which doubled as a watchtower; the fort was manned by fishermen. In contrast to what happened to other forts in the Algarve, Almádena did not suffer too much damage from the earthquake of November 1, 1755.
In 1759 there was a sea battle between the French nearby. It was manned during the Portuguese Civil War but, after that conflict, having lost its military function, it was abandoned. In the middle of the nineteenth century, it was used as shelter by some soldiers of the 15th Infantry Regiment, for coastal surveillance, including the control of tobacco smuggling; the fort was transferred to the Portuguese Ministry of Finance in 1940 and to the Municipality of Vila do Bispo in 1946. It is presently in poor condition although some improvements to the area have been made, in part with European Union funding. An inscription stone at the entrance is now in the Lagos regional museum
The Great Artesian Basin, located in Australia, is the largest and deepest artesian basin in the world, stretching over 1,700,000 square kilometres, with measured water temperatures ranging from 30–100 °C. The basin provides the only source of fresh water through much of inland Australia; the Basin underlies 22% of the continent, including the states and territories of Queensland, the Northern Territory, South Australia, New South Wales. The basin is 3,000 metres deep in places and is estimated to contain 64,900 cubic kilometres of groundwater; the Great Artesian Basin Coordinating Committee coordinates activity between the various levels of government and community organisations. This area is one of the distinct physiographic provinces of the larger East Australian Basins division, includes the smaller Wilcannia Threshold physiographic section; the water of the GAB is held in a sandstone layer laid down by continental erosion of higher ground during the Triassic and early Cretaceous periods.
During a time when much of what is now inland Australia was below sea level, the sandstone was covered by a layer of marine sedimentary rock shortly afterward, which formed a confining layer, thus trapping water in the sandstone aquifer. The eastern edge of the basin was uplifted; the other side was created from the landforms of the Central Eastern Lowlands and the Great Western Plateau to the west. Most recharge water enters the rock formations from high ground near the eastern edge of the basin and gradually flows toward the south and west. A much smaller amount enters along the western margin in arid central Australia, flowing to the south and east; because the sandstones are permeable, water makes its way through the pores between the sand grains, flowing at a rate of one to five metres per year. Discharge water exits through a number of springs and seeps in the southern part of the basin; the age of the groundwater, determined by carbon-14 and chlorine-36 measurements combined with hydraulic modelling, ranges from several thousand years for the recharge areas in the north to nearly 2 million years in the south-western discharge zones.
Prior to European occupation, waters of the GAB discharged through mound springs, many in arid South Australia, such as Witjira-Dalhousie Springs. These springs sustained a variety of endemic invertebrates, such as molluscs, supported extensive Aboriginal communities and trade routes. After the arrival of Europeans, the springs facilitated exploration, allowed the provision of faster communications between south-eastern Australia and Europe, via the Australian Overland Telegraph Line; the Great Artesian Basin became an important water supply for cattle stations and livestock and domestic purposes, is a vital life line for rural Australia. To tap it, boreholes are drilled down to a suitable rock layer, the pressure of the water forces it up without the need for pumps; the discovery and use of the water in the Great Artesian Basin allowed the settlement of thousands of square kilometres of country away from rivers in inland New South Wales and South Australia, that would otherwise have been unavailable for pastoral activities.
European discovery of the basin dates from 1878 when a shallow bore near Bourke produced flowing water. There were similar discoveries in 1886 at Back Creek east of Barcaldine, in 1887 near Cunnamulla. In essence, water extraction from the GAB is a mining operation, with recharge much less than current extraction rates. In 1915, there were 1,500 bores providing 2,000 megalitres of water per day, but today the total output has dropped to 1,500 megalitres per day; this included just under 2000 freely-flowing bores and more than 9000 that required mechanical power to bring water to the surface. Many bores abandoned, resulting in considerable water wastage; these problems have existed for many decades, in January 2007 the Australian Commonwealth Government announced additional funding in an attempt to bring them under control. However, many of the mound springs referred to above have dried up due to a drop in water pressure resulting in extinction of several invertebrate species; the Olympic Dam mine in South Australia is permitted to extract up to 42 million litres of water daily from the Great Artesian Basin under the Roxby Downs Act 1982.
The underground copper and uranium mine commenced operations in 1988 and is expected to continue operating until 2060. In addition, the Basin provides water, via a 1.2 km -deep bore, for a geothermal power station at Birdsville. Water provides 25 % of the town's electricity needs. After being cooled, the water is the source of the town's drinking water; as the Great Artesian Basin underlies parts of Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and the Northern Territory, which each operate under different legislative frameworks and resource management approaches, a coordinated "whole-of-Basin" approach to the management of this important natural resource is required. The Great Artesian Basin Coordinating Committee provides advice from community organisations and agencies to State and Australian Government Ministers on efficient and sustainable whole-of-Basin resource management and to coordinate activity between stakeholders. Membership of the Committee comprises all State and Australian Government agencies with responsibilities for management of parts of the Great Art
Route 165, or Highway 165, may refer to: New Brunswick Route 165 Prince Edward Island Route 165 Quebec Route 165 Saskatchewan Highway 165 Winnipeg Route 165 National Highway 165 Japan National Route 165 Interstate 165 U. S. Route 165 Alabama State Route 165 California State Route 165 Colorado State Highway 165 Connecticut Route 165 Florida State Road 165 Georgia State Route 165 Illinois Route 165 Indiana State Road 165 Iowa Highway 165 Kentucky Route 165 Maryland Route 165 M-165 Minnesota State Highway 165 Missouri Route 165 Nevada State Route 165 New Jersey Route 165 New Mexico State Road 165 New York State Route 165 Ohio State Route 165 Oklahoma State Highway 165 Rhode Island Route 165 South Carolina Highway 165 Tennessee State Route 165 Texas State Highway 165 Texas State Highway Spur 165 Ranch to Market Road 165 Utah State Route 165 Virginia State Route 165 Washington State Route 165 Wisconsin Highway 165Territories: Puerto Rico Highway 165 Puerto Rico Highway 165R
Thomas James Fitzpatrick was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as Ceann Comhairle of Dáil Éireann from 1982 to 1987, Minister for Fisheries and Forestry from 1981 to 1982, Minister for Transport and Power from 1976 to 1977 and Minister for Lands from 1973 to 1976. He served as a Teachta Dála from 1965 to 1989, he was a Senator for the Labour Panel from 1961 to 1965. Fitzpatrick was born at Scotshouse, County Monaghan in 1918, he was educated at St. Macartan's College, the Incorporated Law Society and University College Dublin where he qualified as a solicitor, entered practice as a solicitor in Cavan town. Fitzpatrick first held political office in 1950, when he was elected to Cavan Urban District Council. In 1961, he moved to national politics, he was first elected to Dáil Éireann as a Fine Gael Teachta Dála for the Cavan constituency at the 1965 general election. He held many Opposition Front Bench portfolios including Defence and Social Welfare and the Environment, as well as being Fine Gael Chief Whip from 1979 to 1981.
Fitzpatrick served in the Irish Government on several occasions under Liam Cosgrave and Garret FitzGerald. His first government post was in 1973. After Fine Gael lost power in 1977, he was mentioned as a possible leader of the party if a compromise were needed between FitzGerald and Cosgrave. Following the November 1982 general election, he was elected as Ceann Comhairle, a post which he held until 1987. Fitzpatrick was re-elected to the Dáil at every election until 1989 when he retired from politics
Yuquan Temple known as Palace of the Goddess, is a Buddhist temple located in Tianxin District of Changsha, Hunan. Yuquan Temple was built in 1368, at the dawn of Ming dynasty. In 1731, in the 9th year of Yongzheng period of the Qing dynasty, Zhang Fengyi, the local politician added a statue of Mazu to the temple and renamed it "Palace of the Goddess", it was renovated in 1789, during the reign of Qianlong Emperor. In 1852, it was restored after war. Termites bit the pillars of the halls of Yuquan Temple, it was refurbished in 1877, in the ruling of Guangxu Emperor. In 2006, in order to support urban construction, the whole temple was relocated to Jinpenling of Tianxin District; the foundation-laying ceremony was held in February 2009. The construction of Yuquan Temple was completed in 2015; the temple consists of more than 10 buildings, including Shanmen, Bell tower, Drum tower, Mahavira Hall, the Buddhist Texts Library and east and west annex halls. The Mahavira Hall is the main hall in the temple.
It was built in November 2012. It is 25.3-metre high and covers an area of 1,923-square-metre