Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle
The Light Armoured Vehicle II Coyote is an armoured car built by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada for the Canadian Forces, for use in the light reconnaissance role. It was initially used in the role of medium tank trainer within armoured cavalry squadrons in the same way as the AVGP it replaced. In service since 1996, the Coyote is a generation of the LAV-25 and is of the same family and similar generation as the Bison APC and the Australian ASLAV; the Coyotes mount a 25×137mm M242 Bushmaster chain gun and two 7.62×51mm NATO C6 general purpose machine guns. One of the machine guns is mounted coaxial to the main gun while the other is pintle-mounted in front of the crew commander's hatch; the main gun is equipped with dual ammunition feeds that allow for separate weapons effects, selectable by the gunner/crew commander. The main gun and coax machine gun are 2-axis; the turret is equipped with no ballistic computer. The turret is equipped with grenade dischargers that can be loaded with smoke and fragmentation grenades.
The Coyote is powered by a Detroit Diesel 6V53T engine developing 400 horsepower, can reach speeds of 100 kilometres per hour. The Coyote has a maximum road range of 660 kilometres, it uses a larger wheel than used on the Bison and AVGP. Compared to the LAV-III family of vehicles, the Coyote is smaller, uses smaller wheels and tires, has a "sharp" rather than "rounded" nose profile, has a smaller, oval driver's hatch. Like the LAV-III, the Coyote can be fitted with additional ceramic bolt-on armour panels for increased protection; the Coyote can be transported on a Hercules C-130 plane but the turret needs first to be removed. Coyotes come in three variants: Command and Remote; the Mast and Remote variants have a sophisticated suite of electronic surveillance equipment including radar and infrared surveillance night vision devices. The mast variant has this equipment mounted on a 10-metre telescoping mast that can be extended to raise the surveillance suite out from behind cover; the remote variant of the Coyote has its surveillance suite mounted on two short tripods, which crew can deploy remotely using a 200-metre spool of cable.
When first purchased, the Coyote was designated for service with both the Regular Force and Reserve Force, with the Mast variants earmarked for the Regular units and the Remotes designated for the Reserves. Shortly after taking delivery of the vehicles, but before they were assigned to the Reserve units, all Coyotes were reassigned to the Regular Force. Since the introduction of the Coyote to the Canadian Armed Forces, the vehicle has served national interest domestically and abroad; the Coyote served during the United Nations/ NATO missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, in Afghanistan. Domestically, it has been deployed during "Operation Grizzly" to Kananaskis to secure the 28th G8 summit, the 36th G8 summit, the G-20 Toronto summit, in addition to a number of domestic emergency response incidents; the Coyote is being retired and is being replaced by a mix of TAPV and LAV VI armoured vehicles. Prime Portal: Coyote walk-around
Joint Light Tactical Vehicle
The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle is a United States military program to part-replace the Humvee with a family of more survivable vehicles with greater payload. The JLTV program was approved in 2006 to begin early studies; the JLTV program incorporates lessons learned from the earlier and now halted Future Tactical Truck Systems program and other associated efforts. JLTV has evolved throughout various development phases and milestones but variants are capable of performing armament carrier, utility and control, reconnaissance and a variety of other tactical and logistic support roles. JLTV complies with the US Army's Long Term Armor Strategy; the JLTV program evolved as the program developed. Oshkosh's L-ATV was selected as the winner of the JLTV program on 25 August 2015 and awarded an initial production contract for up to 16,901 JLTVs; the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, which first entered service in 1985, was developed during the Cold War when improvised explosive devices and asymmetric warfare were not a major factor for military planners.
The HMMWVs demonstrated vulnerability to IEDs and the difficulties and costs experienced in satisfactorily up-armoring HMMWVs led to the development of a family of more survivable vehicles with greater payload and mobility. JLTV was reported as a one-for-one HMMWV replacement; the JLTV publicly emerged in 2006. Early government documents noted: "In response to an operational need and an aging fleet of light tactical wheeled vehicles, the joint services have developed a requirement for a new tactical wheeled vehicle platform that will provide increased force protection and improved capacity over the current while balancing mobility and transportability requirements with total ownership costs." The joint service nature of the effort was assured through Congressional language in the Fiscal Year 2006 Authorization Act, which mandated that any future tactical wheeled vehicle program would be a joint program. The Joint Chief of Staff's Joint Requirements Oversight Council approved the JLTV program in November 2006.
The Concept Refinement phase includes an Analysis of Alternatives. At the conclusion of the Concept Refinement phase in December 2007, the Joint Program Office JLTV Project Manager intended to transition the program directly into the Engineering and Development phase. However, as the calendar date for the milestone approached, it became clear that the Milestone Decision Authority, Defense Acquisition Executive, John Young, would not support the JLTV program entering into the acquisition process at that time, he denied the request and instructed the Army and the Marine Corps to develop a more vigorous Technology Development phase. The US DOD released a Request for Proposal for the TD phase of the JLTV program on 5 February 2008. Industry proposals were due no than 7 April. TD phase contract award was postponed in July 2008; the following companies and partnerships responded to the TD phase RFP: Boeing and Millenworks General Dynamics and AM General Force Protection Inc and DRS Technologies. BAE Systems and Navistar Northrop Grumman, Oshkosh Truck and Plasan Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems Land & Armaments Global Tactical Systems, Alcoa Defense and JWF Industries.
Blackwater and Raytheon On 28 October 2008, the Pentagon narrowed the field of vendors to Lockheed Martin, General Tactical Vehicles and BAE Systems/Navistar. Each team were awarded contracts worth between $35.9 million and $45 million to begin the next phase of the program, which at the time was stated to be worth $20 billion or more. The Northrop Grumman/Oshkosh group contested the awards but their protest was denied by the Government Accountability Office on 17 February 2009. Australia signed an agreement in February 2009 to fund nine of the first 30 JLTV prototypes. While a final decision has yet to be made, the Australian Government is now pursuing the Hawkei, a domestically developed vehicle through Thales-Australia. India became interested in the program in 2009, but is pursuing an indigenous solution. Israel and the UK have expressed interest in the program. On 1 June 2010, it was confirmed that all three contractors had delivered seven JLTV platforms for TD phase evaluation; the U. S. Army appeared to have reduced its support for the program at this time, omitting JLTV numbers from its tactical vehicle strategy published in June 2010.
However, the U. S. Army clarified that JLTVs are slated to both complement the Humvee. JLTV's TD phase lasted 27 months and in May 2011 it was completed. In February 2011, the JLTV Program Office announced the award of the follow-on Engineering and Manufacturing Development phase contract would be delayed until January or February 2012 because the Army changed requirements for the JLTV, requiring it to have the same level of under body protection as the Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected All-Terrain Vehicle. Upon exiting the TD phase CDD version 3.3 was published. By the time CDD version 3.3 was published, payload options had been reduced to only two. CDD version 3.3 replaced it with variants. From that point on there were only two required variants.
Rheinmetall AG is a European defence contractor. Rheinmetall has a presence in two corporate sectors with six divisions, is headquartered in Düsseldorf, Germany. In fiscal 2018, the company generated sales of €6.148 billion. The Group's Automotive segment had sales in fiscal 2018 of €2.930 billion, while sales of its Defence segment for the same period came to €3.221 billion. Rheinmetall AG is listed on the German MDAX; as Rheinische Metallwaren- und Maschinenfabrik AG, the now Rheinmetall AG was founded in April 1889 in Düsseldorf by Heinrich Ehrhardt and his associates to take on a contract that Hörder Bergwerks- und Hüttenverein could not fulfill. In 1901 Dreysesche Gewehrfabrik, Munitions- und Waffenfabrik was acquired. After World War I, as a result of the limitations imposed upon Germany in the Treaty of Versailles, Rheinmetall produced non-military items including locomotives, steam ploughs and office equipment. Military production recommenced in 1921, in 1925, the Reich acquired a majority stake of the company.
The railway locomotive manufacturer August Borsig GmbH was taken over in 1933. In 1938 the company headquarters moved from Düsseldorf to Berlin. In 1956 a majority stake in Rheinmetall-Borsig AG was acquired by the Röchling Group. Borsig AG was sold to Salzgitter AG and the company name changed to Rheinmetall-Borsig AG to Rheinmetall Berlin AG. Defence-related production would start again in 1956, the first product being the MG 42. In 1958 diversification into the mechanical engineering and electronics fields occurred and during 1979-1981 these non-defence sectors were restructured. Carburetor manufacturer Pierburg GmbH was taken over in 1986 and the current Automotive sector was created. In 1989 the takeover of MaK Systemgesellschaft, a manufacturer of armoured vehicles, occurred. In 1996 Rheinmetall Berlin AG changed its name to Rheinmetall AG. Rheinmetall AG's Defence arm produces equipment and systems for government and military ground and naval forces; the defence arm was reorganised in 2012 when the six divisions were restructured into three new divisions, Combat Systems, Electronic Solutions and Wheeled Vehicles.
The three divisions were each headed by a member of the Executive Board of Rheinmetall Defence. This was Armin Papperger representing the Combat Systems division. Representing the Electronic Solutions division was Bodo Garbe, while Pietro Borgo Managing Director of RMMV GmbH, represented the Wheeled Vehicles division. A more recent minor restructure resulted in the Weapons and Ammunition, Electronic Solutions and Vehicle Systems divisions, these now represented on the management board by Dr Alexander Sagel, Susanne Wiegand and Ben Hudson. Armin Papperger is now Chairman of the Management Board Defence at Rheinmetall AG and CEO of Rheinmetall AG. Though based in Germany, Rheinmetall Defence has a global presence; the Weapons and Ammunitions division has 13 subsidiaries, the Electronic Solutions division has 17 subsidiaries, the Vehicle Systems division has five subsidiaries. Along with international subsidiaries - Rheinmetall Defence Australia Pty Ltd. Rheinmetall has further shareholdings in ARTEC GmbH.
Rheinmetall Landsysteme GmbH was formed in 2000 when the hitherto independently operating companies Henschel Wehrtechnik, KUKA Wehrtechnik and MaK System Gesellschaft GmbH were merged to form it. In 2002 and as part of the process of focusing on defence, Rheinmetall sold the Eurometaal Holding N. V. subsidiary Intergas B. V. a furnace and boiler manufacturer. Eurometaal N. V. was closed. In 2003 Rheinmetall acquired the remaining shares of Oerlikon Contraves AG to becoming sole owner. STN Atlas Elektronik was divided into two parts, the land, air systems and simulation departments remaining part of the Rheinmetall DeTec, with the naval systems unit and the production department transferred to BAE Systems, former co-owner of the company. To complete the process of shedding non-core businesses, in 2004 the civil sector-oriented Heidel group as well as Nico Feuerwerk GmbH were divested. In 2004 Rheinmetall Defence Electronics GmbH, DIEHL Munitionssysteme GmbH and RAFAEL Ltd. signed an agreement to establish EuroSpike GmbH.
During 2005 medium-calibre specialist Arges m.b. H. of Schwanenstadt, Austria was acquired, a 50% stake in AIM Infrarot-Module GmbH was acquired. In 2007 Rheinmetall acquired a 51% percent majority holding in Chempro GmbH, an initial stake in ADS Gesellschaft für aktive Schutzsysteme mbH, acquired Zaugg Elektronik AG of Switzerland. Acquisitions during 2008 included the takeover of Dutch vehicle maker Stork PWV B. V. and 51% shares in the South African defence contractor Denel Munition Ltd. and LDT Laser Display Technology GmbH. In 2010 Rheinmetall AG and MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG joined forces to found Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles GmbH, Rheinmetall AG took over Norway's Simrad Optronics ASA. During 2011 Rheinmetall increased its stake in ADS Gesellschaft für aktive Schutzsysteme mbH to 74%, its
Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II
The Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin turbofan engine, straight wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force. It is referred to by the nicknames "Warthog" or "Hog", although the A-10's official name comes from the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, a World War II fighter-bomber effective at attacking ground targets; the A-10 was designed for close air support of friendly ground troops, attacking armored vehicles and tanks, providing quick-action support against enemy ground forces. It entered service in 1976 and is the only production-built aircraft that has served in the USAF, designed for CAS, its secondary mission is to provide forward air controller – airborne support, by directing other aircraft in attacks on ground targets. Aircraft used in this role are designated OA-10; the A-10 was intended to improve on the performance of its lesser firepower. The A-10 was designed around the 30 mm GAU-8 Avenger rotary cannon, its airframe was designed for durability, with measures such as 1,200 pounds of titanium armor to protect the cockpit and aircraft systems, enabling it to absorb a significant amount of damage and continue flying.
Its short takeoff and landing capability permits operation from airstrips close to the front lines, its simple design enables maintenance with minimal facilities. The A-10 served in the Gulf War, the American led intervention against Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, where the A-10 distinguished itself; the A-10 participated in other conflicts such as in Grenada, the Balkans, Afghanistan and against Islamic State in the Middle East. The A-10A single-seat variant was the only version produced, though one pre-production airframe was modified into the YA-10B twin-seat prototype to test an all-weather night capable version. In 2005, a program was started to upgrade remaining A-10A aircraft to the A-10C configuration, with modern avionics for use with precision weaponry; the U. S. Air Force had stated the F-35 would replace the A-10 as it entered service, but this remains contentious within the USAF and in political circles. With a variety of upgrades and wing replacements, the A-10's service life can be extended to 2040.
Post-World War II development of conventionally armed attack aircraft in the United States had stagnated. Design efforts for tactical aircraft focused on the delivery of nuclear weapons using high-speed designs like the F-101 Voodoo and F-105 Thunderchief. Designs concentrating on conventional weapons had been ignored, leaving their entry into the Vietnam War led by the Korean War-era Douglas A-1 Skyraider. While a capable aircraft for its era, with a large payload and long loiter times, the propeller-driven design was relatively slow and vulnerable to ground fire; the U. S. Air Force and Marine Corps lost 266 A-1s in action in Vietnam from small arms fire; the A-1 Skyraider had poor firepower. The lack of modern conventional attack capability prompted calls for a specialized attack aircraft. On 7 June 1961, Secretary of Defense McNamara ordered the USAF to develop two tactical aircraft, one for the long-range strike and interdictor role, the other focusing on the fighter-bomber mission; the former became the Tactical Fighter Experimental, or TFX, which emerged as the F-111, while the second was filled by a version of the U.
S. Navy's F-4 Phantom II. While the Phantom went on to be one of the most successful fighter designs of the 1960s, proved to be a capable fighter-bomber, its lack of loiter time was a major problem, to a lesser extent, its poor low-speed performance, it was expensive to buy and operate, with a flyaway cost of $2 million in FY1965, operational costs over $900 per hour. After a broad review of its tactical force structure, the U. S. Air Force decided to adopt a low-cost aircraft to supplement the F-4 and F-111, it first focused on the Northrop F-5. A 1965 cost-effectiveness study shifted the focus from the F-5 to the less expensive LTV A-7D, a contract was awarded. However, this aircraft doubled in cost with demands for new avionics. During this period, the United States Army had been introducing the UH-1 Iroquois into service. First used in its intended role as a transport, it was soon modified in the field to carry more machine guns in what became known as the helicopter gunship role; this proved effective against the armed enemy, new gun and rocket pods were added.
Soon the AH-1 Cobra was introduced. This was an attack helicopter armed with long-range BGM-71 TOW missiles able to destroy tanks from outside the range of defensive fire; the helicopter was effective, prompted the U. S. military to change its defensive strategy in Europe by blunting any Warsaw Pact advance with anti-tank helicopters instead of the tactical nuclear weapons, the basis for NATO's battle plans since the 1950s. The Cobra was a made helicopter based on the UH-1 Iroquois, in the late 1960s the U. S. Army was designing the Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne, a much more capable attack aircraft with greater speed; these developments worried the USAF, which saw the anti-tank helicopter overtaking its nuclear-armed tactical aircraft as the primary anti-armor force in Europe. A 1966 Air Force study of existing close air support capabilities revealed gaps in the escort and fire suppression roles, which the Cheyenne could fill; the study concluded that the service should acquire a simple, dedicated CAS aircraft at least as capable as the A-1, that it should develop doctrine and procedures for
A battalion is a military unit. The use of the term "battalion" varies by branch of service. A battalion consists of 300 to 800 soldiers and is divided into a number of companies. A battalion is commanded by a lieutenant colonel. In some countries, the word "battalion" is associated with the infantry; the term was first used in Italian as battaglione no than the 16th century. It derived from the Italian word for battaglia; the first use of battalion in English was in the 1580s, the first use to mean "part of a regiment" is from 1708. A battalion is the smallest military unit capable of "limited independent operations", meaning it includes an executive, staff with a support and services unit; the battalion must have a source of re-supply to enable it to sustain operations for more than a few days. This is because a battalion's complement of ammunition, expendable weapons, rations, lubricants, replacement parts and medical supplies consists of only what the battalion's soldiers and the battalion's vehicles can carry.
In addition to sufficient personnel and equipment to conduct operations, as well as a limited administrative and logistics capability, the commander's staff coordinates and plans operations. A battalion's subordinate companies and their platoons are dependent upon the battalion headquarters for command, control and intelligence, the battalion's service and support structure; the battalion is part of a brigade, or group, depending on the branch of service. A battalion's companies are of one type, although there are exceptions such as combined arms battalions in the U. S. Army. A battalion includes a headquarters company and some sort of combat service support, combined in a combat support company; the term battalion is used in the British Army Infantry and some corps including the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, intelligence corps. It was used in the Royal Engineers, was used in the now defunct Royal Army Ordnance Corps and Royal Pioneer Corps. Other corps use the term "regiment" instead.
An infantry battalion is numbered ordinarily within its regiment. It has a headquarters company, support company, three rifle companies; each company is commanded by a major, the officer commanding, with a captain or senior lieutenant as second-in-command. The HQ company contains signals, catering, administration, training and medical elements; the support company contains anti-tank, machine gun, mortar and reconnaissance platoons. Mechanised units have an attached light aid detachment of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers to perform field repairs on vehicles and equipment. A British battalion in theatre during World War II had around 845 men, whereas, as of 2012, a British battalion had around 650 soldiers. With successive rounds of cutbacks after the war, many infantry regiments were reduced to a single battalion. Important figures in a battalion headquarters include: Commanding officer Second-in-command Adjutant Quartermaster Quartermaster Medical officer Administrative officer Padre Operations officer Regimental sergeant major Regimental quartermaster sergeant Regimental quartermaster sergeant Battalions of other corps are given separate cardinal numbers within their corps.
A battle group consists of an infantry battalion or armoured regiment with sub-units detached from other military units acting under the command of the battalion commander. In the Canadian Forces, most battalions are reserve units of between 100–200 soldiers that include an operationally ready, field-deployable component of a half-company apiece; the nine regular force infantry battalions each contain three or four rifle companies and one or two support companies. Canadian battalions are commanded by lieutenant-colonels, though smaller reserve battalions may be commanded by majors; those regiments consisting of more than one battalion are: The Royal Canadian Regiment Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Royal 22e Régiment The Royal Newfoundland Regiment Tactically, the Canadian battalion forms the core of the infantry battle group, which includes various supporting elements such as armour, combat engineers and combat service support. An infantry battle group will be commanded by the commander of the core infantry battalion around which it is formed and can range in size from 300 to 1,500 or more soldiers, depending on the nature of the mission assigned.
In the Royal Netherlands Army, a mechanised infantry battalion consists of one command- and medical company, three mechanised infantry companies, one support company