2014 Winter Olympics
The 2014 Winter Olympics called the XXII Olympic Winter Games and known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event, held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014. Both the Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics were organized by the Sochi Organizing Committee. Sochi was selected as the host city in July 2007, during the 119th IOC Session held in Guatemala City, it was the first Olympics to be held in a CIS state since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. The Soviet Union was the host nation for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow; these were the first Olympic Games under the International Olympic Committee presidency of Thomas Bach. A record 98 events in fifteen winter sport disciplines were held during the Games. A number of new competitions—a total of twelve accounting for gender—were held during the Games, including biathlon mixed relay, women's ski jumping, mixed-team figure skating, mixed-team luge, half-pipe skiing and snowboard slopestyle, snowboard parallel slalom.
The events were held around two clusters of new venues: an Olympic Park constructed in Sochi's Imeretinsky Valley on the coast of the Black Sea, with Fisht Olympic Stadium, the Games' indoor venues located within walking distance, snow events in the resort settlement of Krasnaya Polyana. The 2014 Winter Olympics were the most expensive Games in the history of the Olympics. While budgeted at US$12 billion, major cost overruns, alleged to have been the result of corruption, caused this figure to expand to US$51 billion, more than three times the cost of the 2012 London Olympics and surpassing the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing; the 2014 Games achieved a record broadcast audience of 2.1 billion people worldwide. In 2016, an independent report commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency confirmed allegations that the Russian Olympic team had been involved in a state-sponsored doping program, active from at least late-2011 through August 2015; the program was active during the Winter Olympics in Sochi, athletes had benefited from the cover-up.
The IOC stripped thirteen medals from Russian athletes in 2017, but nine were reinstated by the Court of Arbitration for Sport. In December 2017, the IOC voted to suspend the Russian Olympic Committee, with an option for whitelisted athletes to compete independently during the 2018 Winter Olympics. Sochi was elected on 4 July 2007 during the 119th International Olympic Committee session held in Guatemala City, defeating bids from Salzburg, Austria; this is the first time. The Soviet Union was the host of the 1980 Summer Olympics held around Moscow; as of October 2013, the estimated combined cost of the 2014 Winter Olympics had topped US$51 billion. This amount included the cost for Olympic games themselves and cost of Sochi infrastructural projects; this total is over four times the initial budget of $12 billion, made the Sochi games the most expensive Olympics in history, exceeding the estimated $44 billion cost of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, which hosted 3 times as many events. Dmitry Kozak was the main overseer for the events in Sochi.
In its final budget published in June 2014, Olimpstroy—the state corporation that oversaw the Sochi Olympics development—reported the total allocated funds for the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics of 1,524 billion rubles. However, only about a fifth of that budget was directly related to the Olympic games, while the rest went into urban and regional regeneration and the conversion of the Sochi region into an all-year round sea and alpine resort; the breakdown table below is based on a report that has analyzed the distribution of Olimpstroy's $49.5 billion budget. Estimates suggest that additional unrecoverable operational costs could have added another $3 billion. With an average February temperature of 8.3 °C and a humid subtropical climate, Sochi is the warmest city to host a Winter Olympic Games. Sochi 2014 is the 12th straight Olympics to outlaw smoking, it is the first time that an Olympic Park has been built for hosting winter games. The Sochi Olympic Park was built by the Black Sea coast in the Imeretinsky Valley, about 4 km from Russia's border with Abkhazia/Georgia.
The venues were clustered around a central water basin on which the Medals Plaza is built, allowing all indoor venues to be within walking distance. It features "The Waters of the Olympic Park", a choreographed fountain which served as the backdrop in the medals awards and the opening and closing ceremonies of the event; the new venues include: Fisht Olympic Stadium – ceremonies 40,000 spectators Bolshoy Ice Dome – ice hockey, 12,000 spectators Shayba Arena – ice hockey, 7,000 spectators Adler Arena Skating Center – speed skating, 8,000 spectators Iceberg Skating Palace – figure skating, short track speed skating, 12,000 spectators Ice Cube Curling Center – curling, 3,000 spectators Main Olympic village International broadcasting centre and main press room Laura Biathlon & Ski Complex – biathlon, cross-country skiing Rosa Khutor Extreme Park – freestyle skiing and snowboarding Rosa Khutor Alpine Resort – alpine skiing
Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria. It is in the Inn valley, at its junction with the Wipp valley, which provides access to the Brenner Pass some 30 km to the south. Located in the broad valley between high mountains, the so-called North Chain in the Karwendel Alps to the north, the Patscherkofel and Serles to the south. Innsbruck is an internationally renowned winter sports center, hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics. Innsbruck hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012; the name translates as "Inn Bridge". The earliest traces suggest initial inhabitation in the early Stone Age. Surviving pre-Roman place names show that the area has been populated continuously. In the 4th century the Romans established the army station Veldidena at Oenipons, to protect the economically important commercial road from Verona-Brenner-Augsburg in their province of Raetia; the first mention of Innsbruck dates back to the name Oeni Pontum or Oeni Pons, Latin for bridge over the Inn, an important crossing point over the Inn river.
The Counts of Andechs acquired the town in 1180. In 1248 the town passed into the hands of the Counts of Tyrol; the city's arms show a bird's-eye view of the Inn bridge, a design used since 1267. The route over the Brenner Pass was a major transport and communications link between the north and the south of Europe, the easiest route across the Alps, it was part of a medieval imperial road under special protection of the king. The revenues generated by serving. Innsbruck became the capital of all Tyrol in 1429 and in the 15th century the city became a centre of European politics and culture as Emperor Maximilian I resided in Innsbruck in the 1490s; the city benefited from the emperor's presence. Here a funeral monument for Maximilian was planned and erected by his successors; the ensemble with a cenotaph and the bronze statues of real and mythical ancestors of the Habsburg emperor are one of the main artistic monuments of Innsbruck. A regular postal service between Innsbruck and Mechelen was established in 1490 by the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post.
In 1564 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria received the rulership over Tirol and other Further Austrian possessions administered from Innsbruck up to the 18th century. He had Schloss Ambras built and arranged there his unique Renaissance collections nowadays part of Vienna's Kunsthistorisches Museum. Up to 1665 a stirps of the Habsburg dynasty ruled in Innsbruck with an independent court. In the 1620s the first opera house north of the Alps was erected in Innsbruck. In 1669 the university was founded; as a compensation for the court as Emperor Leopold I again reigned from Vienna and the Tyrolean stirps of the Habsburg dynasty had ended in 1665. During the Napoleonic Wars Tyrol was ceded to ally of France. Andreas Hofer led a Tyrolean peasant army to victory in the Battles of Bergisel against the combined Bavarian and French forces, made Innsbruck the centre of his administration; the combined army overran the Tyrolean militia army and until 1814 Innsbruck was part of Bavaria. After the Vienna Congress Austrian rule was restored.
Until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the district of the same name, one of the 21 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Tyrol province. The Tyrolean hero Andreas Hofer was executed in Mantua. During World War I, the only recorded action taking place in Innsbruck was near the end of the war. On February 20, 1918, Allied planes flying out of Italy raided Innsbruck, causing casualties among the Austrian troops there. No damage to the town is recorded. In November 1918 Innsbruck and all Tyrol were occupied by the 20 to 22 thousand soldiers of the III Corps of the First Italian Army. In 1929, the first official Austrian Chess Championship was held in Innsbruck. In 1938 Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in the Anschluss. Between 1943 and April 1945, Innsbruck suffered heavy damage. In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.
Innsbruck has a humid continental climate, since it has larger annual temperature differences than most of Central Europe due to its location in the centre of the Continent and its position around mountainous terrains. Winters are very cold and snowy, although the foehn wind sometimes brings pronounced thaws. Spring is brief. Summer is variable and unpredictable. Days can be cool 17 °C and rainy, or sunny and hot, sometimes hitting 34 °C. In summer, as expected for an alpine-influenced climate, the diurnal temperature variation is very high as nights remain cool, being 12 °C on average, but sometimes dipping as low as 6 °C; the average annual temperature is 9 °C. Innsbruck is divided into nine boroughs that were formed from previo
1992 Winter Olympics
The 1992 Winter Olympics known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 8 to 23 February 1992 in Albertville, France. They were the last Winter Olympics to be held the same year as the Summer Olympics, the first where the Winter Paralympics were held at the same site. Albertville was selected as host in 1986, beating Sofia, Lillehammer, Cortina d'Ampezzo and Berchtesgaden; the games were the third Winter Olympics held in France, after Chamonix in 1924 and Grenoble in 1968, the fifth Olympics overall in the country. Only some of the skating and the opening and closing ceremonies took place in Albertville, while the rest of the events took place in the villages of Courchevel, La Plagne, Les Arcs, Les Menuires, Les Saisies, Méribel, Pralognan-la-Vanoise and Val d'Isère. Sixty-four nations with 1,801 athletes participated in the games, including the Unified Team which represented non-Baltic former Soviet republics. Germany participated as a unified team, while five newly independent European countries debuted, as did six "warm-weather" countries.
Short track speed skating and women's biathlon made their debut as an Olympic sport. The games were the last Winter Games until 2014 to have demonstration sports, consisting of curling, ski ballet and speed skiing, it was the last Olympics to have an outdoor speed skating rink. The games were succeeded by the 1992 Winter Paralympics from 25 March to 1 April. Norwegians won every male cross-country skiing race, with Bjørn Dæhlie and Vegard Ulvang both collecting three gold. Ski jumper Toni Nieminen, 16, became the youngest male gold medalist of a Winter Olympic event. Petra Kronberger won both the combined event and the slalom, while Bonnie Blair won both the 500 m and 1000 m speed skating events and Gunda Niemann took both of the longest races. Kim Kihoon earned gold medals in both men's short track events. Ye Qiaobo of China won the country's first medal in the Winter Olympics, a silver in women's 500 metres speed skating. Annelise Coberger of New Zealand won the southern hemisphere's first Winter Olympic medal—a silver in the women's slalom.
Nicolas Bochatay was killed during a training session. Germany won the most gold; the vote to select the host city of the 1992 Winter Olympics was conducted on 17 October 1986, in Lausanne, Switzerland, at the 91st IOC Session. A record of seven different locales bid for these Games; the 1992 Olympic Winter Games marked the last time both the Winter and Summer games were held in the same year. The 1992 Olympics marks the last time France hosted the Olympics. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Albertville 1992 Winter Olympics at USD 2.0 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 137% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Albertville 1992 compares with costs of USD 2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of USD 51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD 3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. Magique was the Olympic mascot of these Games, was a little imp in the shape of a star and a cube, it was created by Philippe Mairesse and was presented in 1989. His star shape symbolises dreams and imagination, his colours come with a red hat and a blue costume. There were 57 events contested in 6 sports. See the medal winners, ordered by sport: This was the final time demonstration sports were included in the Winter Olympics programme.
Curling – Competed for the first time since 1924. It became a regular discipline in 1998. Freestyle skiing – Although moguls skiing was an official discipline and ski ballet were still considered demonstration events. Speed skiing – A death occurred during a training session; the sport has not been included in the Winter Olympics program. A total of 64 nations sent athletes to compete in these Games. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, six states chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia and Lithuania had their own teams. Croatia and Slovenia, who were making their first appearance at the Winter Olympics, competed as independent nations after leaving Yugoslavia; the UN sanctions against Yugoslavia that saw them miss the 1992 Summer Olympics had yet to come into effect. The German team won most medals in the games, with a total of 10 gold medals, 10 silver and 6 bronze, it was the first time since the 1936 Winter Olympics that Germany competed with a unified team after the reunification.
Making their debuts were Algeria, Brazil, Honduras and Swaziland. It would be the only appearance for both Honduras and Swaziland in Winter Olympics to date; the 1992 Games are the last ones. Albertville Halle Olympique – Figure Skating and Short track spee
Long track speed skating
Speed skating is the Olympic discipline of speed skating where competitors are timed while crossing a set distance. It is a sport for leisure. Sports such as ice skating marathon, short track speedskating, inline speedskating, quad speed skating are called speed skating. Long track speed skating enjoys large popularity in the Netherlands and has had champion athletes from Austria, China, Germany, Italy, Poland, South Korea, Sweden, the Czech Republic and the United States. Speed skaters attain maximum speeds of 60 km/h. Organized races on ice skates first developed in the 19th century. Norwegian clubs hosted competitions from 1863, with races in the town of Christiania drawing five-digit crowds. In 1884, the Norwegian Axel Paulsen was named Amateur Champion Skater of the World after winning competitions in the United States. Five years a sports club in Amsterdam invited to an ice skating event they called a world championship participants from Russia, the United States and the United Kingdom, as well as the host country.
The Internationale Eislauf Vereinigung, now known as the International Skating Union, was founded at a meeting of 15 national representatives in Scheveningen in 1892, the first international winter sports federation. The Nederlandse Schaatsrijderbond was founded in 1882 and organised the world championships of 1890 and 1891. Competitions were held around tracks of varying lengths—the 1885 match between Axel Paulsen and Remke van der Zee was skated on a track of 6/7 mile —but the 400-metre track was standardised by ISU in 1892, along with the standard distances for world championships, 500 m, 1500 m, 5000 m, 10,000 m. Skaters started in pairs, each to their own lane, changed lanes for every lap to ensure that each skater completed the same distance. Competitions were for amateur skaters. Peter Sinnerud lost his world title. World records were registered since 1891 and improved rapidly: Jaap Eden lowered the world 5000-metre record by half a minute during the Hamar European Championships in 1894.
The record stood for 17 years, it took 50 years to lower it further by half a minute. The Elfstedentocht was organised as a competition in 1909 and has been held at irregular intervals whenever the ice on the course is deemed good enough. Other outdoor races developed with Noord-Holland hosting a race in 1917, but the Dutch natural ice conditions have been conducive to skating; the Elfstedentocht has been held 15 times since 1909, before artificial ice was available in 1962, national championships had been held in 25 of the years between 1887, when the first championship was held in Slikkerveer, 1961. Since artificial ice became common in the Netherlands, Dutch speed skaters have been among the top long track speed skaters and marathon skaters in the world. Another solution to still be able to skate marathons on natural ice became the Alternative Elfstedentocht; the Alternative Elfstedentocht races take part in other countries, such as Austria, Finland or Canada, all top marathon skaters as well as thousands of recreative skaters travel from the Netherlands to the location where the race is held.
According to the NRC Handelsblad journalist Jaap Bloembergen, the country "takes a carnival look" during international skating championships, despite the fact that "people outside the country are not interested." At the 1914 Olympic Congress, the delegates agreed to include long track speed skating in the 1916 Olympics, after figure skating had featured in the 1908 Olympics. However, World War I put an end to the plans of Olympic competition, it was not until the winter sports week in Chamonix in 1924—retroactively awarded Olympic status—that ice speed skating reached the Olympic programme. Charles Jewtraw from Lake Placid, New York, won the first Olympic gold medal, though several Norwegians in attendance claimed Oskar Olsen had clocked a better time. Timing issues on the 500 m were a problem within the sport until electronic clocks arrived in the 1960s. Finland won the remaining four gold medals at the 1924 Games, with Clas Thunberg winning 1,500 metres, 5,000 metres, allround, it was the only time.
Norwegian and Finnish skaters won all the gold medals in World Championships between the world wars, with Latvians and Austrians visiting the podium in the European Championships. At the time, North American races were conducted packstyle, similar to the marathon races in the Netherlands, but the Olympic races were to be held over the four ISU-approved distances; the ISU approved the suggestion that the 1932 Olympic speed skating competitions should be held as packstyle races, Americans won all four gold medals. Canada won five medals, all silver and bronze, while defending World Champion Clas Thunberg stayed at home, protesting against this form of racing. At the World Championships held after the Games, without the American champions, Norwegian racers won all four distances and occupied the top three spots in the allround standings. Norwegian, Swedish and Japanese skating leaders protested to the USOC, condemning the manner of competition, expressing the wish that mass start races were never to be held again at the Olympics.
However, ISU adopted the short track speed skating branch, with mass start races on shorter tracks, in 1967, arranged international competitions from 1976, brought them back to the Olympics in 1992. In the 1930s, women began to be accepted in ISU speed skating competitions. Although wo
1994 Winter Olympics
The 1994 Winter Olympics known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 12 to 27 February 1994 in and around Lillehammer, Norway. Lillehammer failed losing to Albertville. Lillehammer was awarded the 1994 Winter Olympics in 1988, after beating United States. Lillehammer is the northernmost city to host the Winter Games and the Olympic Games overall; the Games were the first to be held in a different year from the Summer Olympics, the first and only one to be held two years after the previous winter games. The Games were the second Winter Olympics hosted in Norway, after the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, the fourth Olympics in the Nordic countries, after the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm and the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland. Although many events took place in Lillehammer, skating took place in Hamar, some ice hockey matches were placed in Gjøvik, while Alpine skiing was held in Øyer and Ringebu. Sixty-seven countries and 1,737 athletes participated in sixty-one events.
Fourteen countries made their debut in the Winter Olympics, of which nine were former Soviet republics. The Games saw the introduction of stricter qualifying rules, reducing the number of under-performing participants from warm-weather countries. New events were two new distances in short track speed skating and aerials, while speed skating was moved indoors. Nearly two million people spectated the games, which were the first to have the Olympic truce in effect; the games were succeeded by the 1994 Winter Paralympics from 10 to 19 March. Manuela Di Centa and Lyubov Yegorova dominated women's cross-country skiing, taking five and four medals, respectively. A crowd of over 100,000 saw. Vreni Schneider won a complete set of medals in Alpine skiing, while Norway took a medal sweep in the men's combined. Nancy Kerrigan had, before the games, been clubbed by Tonya Harding's associate, but managed to take silver in ladies' singles. Johann Olav Koss won three speed skating events, while 13-year-old Kim Yoon-Mi became the youngest-ever Olympic gold medalist.
Sweden beat Canada in a dramatic penalty shootout in the ice hockey final. With 11 gold medals, Russia won the most events, while with 26, Norway collected the most medals overall. Planning of the Lillehammer bid started in 1981, following Falun, Sweden's failed bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics, losing to Calgary respectively, it was supported by the government to help stimulate the economy of the inland counties. Lillehammer bid for the 1992 Games, but came fourth in the voting with the games awarded to Albertville. In 1986, the International Olympic Committee voted to separate the Summer and Winter Games, held in the same year since the latter's inception in 1924, arrange them in alternating even-numbered years. A new bid was launched for the 1994 Games, modified with an indoor speed skating venue and an additional ice hall in Lillehammer. Additional government guarantees were secured. Three other locations bid for the games: Östersund and Sofia; the 94th IOC Session, held in Seoul on 15 September 1988, voted Lillehammer the host for the Games.
Until the 2018 Winter Olympics, the Lillehammer Olympics were the last Winter Games to date to be held in a town, rather than be centered in a city. 1.21 million tickets were sold for the games. LOOC estimated. In addition, 180,000 seats were used by the VIPs; the overall responsibility for the games was held by the Lillehammer Olympic Organizing Committee, created on 14 November 1988 and led by Gerhard Heiberg. It was reorganized several times with various subsidiaries, but from 1993 consisted of a single company owned 51% by Lillehammer Municipality, 24.5% by the Government of Norway and 24.5% by the Norwegian Olympic Committee. The government had issued a guarantee for the games, covered the expenses related to infrastructure; the total costs of the games was 7.4 billion Norwegian krone, of which NOK 0.95 billion was expenditure by the ministries, NOK 4.48 billion was for operations and event expenses, NOK 1.67 billion was for investments. The games had a revenue of NOK 2.71 billion, of which NOK 1.43 billion was from television rights, NOK 0.65 billion was from sponsors, NOK 0.15 billion was from ticket sales.
Production of the broadcasting, which costs NOK 462 million, was the responsibility of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation, with assistance from the CTV Television Network and the European Broadcasting Union. NRK had 1,424 people working at the Olympics, while international broadcasters sent an additional 4,050 accredited broadcasting personnel; the transmission rights for the games were held by EBU in Europe, CBS in the United States, NHK in Japan, CTV in Canada, the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union, Nine Network in Australia, as well as other broadcasters in other countries. The total transmission rights price was 350 million United States dollars. In part because of the Harding–Kerrigan affair, the viewship in the United States is still the highest for Winter Olympics. NOK 460 million was used on information technology, with the main system running on an IBM AS/400. 3,500 terminals were in use during the game based on the Info'94 system. Seiko delivered the time-keeping devices. Telecommunications were delivered including signal transmission.
This included a mobile radio network with nine base stations. As part of its promotional activities, the
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king