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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath known as dyspnea, is a feeling of not being able to breathe well enough. The American Thoracic Society defines it as "a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity", recommends evaluating dyspnea by assessing the intensity of the distinct sensations, the degree of distress involved, its burden or impact on activities of daily living. Distinct sensations include effort/work, chest tightness, air hunger. Dyspnea is a normal symptom of heavy exertion but becomes pathological if it occurs in unexpected situations or light exertion. In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety. Treatment depends on the underlying cause; the American Thoracic Society defines dyspnea as: "A subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity."

Other definitions describe it as "difficulty in breathing", "disordered or inadequate breathing", "uncomfortable awareness of breathing", as the experience of "breathlessness". While shortness of breath is caused by disorders of the cardiac or respiratory system, other systems such as neurological, endocrine and psychiatric may be the cause. DiagnosisPro, an online medical expert system, listed 497 distinct causes in October 2010; the most common cardiovascular causes are acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure while common pulmonary causes include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema and pneumonia. On a pathophysiological basis the causes can be divided into: an increased awareness of normal breathing such as during an anxiety attack, an increase in the work of breathing and an abnormality in the ventilatory system. Acute coronary syndrome presents with retrosternal chest discomfort and difficulty catching the breath, it however may atypically present with shortness of breath alone.

Risk factors include old age, hypertension and diabetes. An electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes are important both for directing treatment. Treatment involves measures to decrease the oxygen requirement of the heart and efforts to increase blood flow. Congestive heart failure presents with shortness of breath with exertion and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, it affects between 1–2% of the general United States population and occurs in 10% of those over 65 years old. Risk factors for acute decompensation include high dietary salt intake, medication noncompliance, cardiac ischemia, abnormal heart rhythms, kidney failure, pulmonary emboli and infections. Treatment efforts are directed towards decreasing lung congestion. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, most emphysema or chronic bronchitis have chronic shortness of breath and a chronic productive cough. An acute exacerbation presents with increased shortness of sputum production. COPD is a risk factor for pneumonia. In an acute exacerbation treatment is with a combination of anticholinergics, beta2-adrenoceptor agonists and positive pressure ventilation.

Asthma is the most common reason for presenting to the emergency room with shortness of breath. It is the most common lung disease in both developing and developed countries affecting about 5% of the population. Other symptoms include wheezing, tightness in the chest, a non productive cough. Inhaled corticosteroids are the preferred treatment for children, however these drugs can reduce the growth rate. Acute symptoms are treated with short-acting bronchodilators. Pneumothorax presents with pleuritic chest pain of acute onset and shortness of breath not improved with oxygen. Physical findings may include absent breath sounds on one side of the chest, jugular venous distension, tracheal deviation; the symptoms of pneumonia are fever, productive cough, shortness of breath, pleuritic chest pain. Inspiratory crackles may be heard on exam. A chest x-ray can be useful to differentiate pneumonia from congestive heart failure; as the cause is a bacterial infection, antibiotics are used for treatment. Severity and prognosis of pneumonia can be estimated from CURB65, where C=Confusion, U= Uremia, R=Respiratory rate >30, B= BP<90, 65= Age>65.

Pulmonary embolism classically presents with an acute onset of shortness of breath. Other presenting symptoms include pleuritic chest pain, cough and fever. Risk factors include deep vein thrombosis, recent surgery and previous thromboembolism, it must always be considered in those with acute onset of shortness of breath owing to its high risk of mortality. Diagnosis, may be difficult and Wells Score is used to assess the clinical probability. Treatment, depending on severity of symptoms starts with anticoagulants. Anemia that develops usually presents with exertional dyspnea, fatigue and tachycardia, it may lead to heart failure. Anaemia is a cause of dyspnea. Menstruation if excessive, can contribute to anaemia and to consequential dyspnea in women. Headaches are a symptom of dyspnea in patients suffering from anaemia; some patients report a numb sensation in their head, others have reported blurred vision caused by hypotension behind the eye due to a lack of oxygen and pressure.

National Tainan Junior College of Nursing

National Tainan Institute of Nursing. NTIN was founded as Training Preparation Class of Medical Workers in Southern Taiwan in June 1952. In August 1953, it was promoted to Taiwan Provincial Tainan Vocational High School of Nursing, it was upgraded to National Tainan Institute of Nursing on 1 August 2000. For over 60 years the school has nurtured outstanding nursing talents who work in and out of the country and receive deep praises, it was approved by the Ministry of Education to promote to National Tainan Institute of Nursing on August 1, 2000. The NTIN established the five-year division, the two-year division, the two-year evening division, the two-year on-job division; because that the living standards of people were to move up and the requirements of the nursing quality grew with each passing day, under the eager expectations of the society, the school was approved by the Ministry of Education to promote to National Tainan Junior College of Nursing in August 1, 2000. It establishes the five-year division, the two-year division, the two-year evening division, the two-year on-job division, where the first one enrols graduates of the junior high schools, the second one enrols graduates of the department of nursing of vocational high schools, the third one and the last one enrol graduates of both the senior high schools and the vocational high schools.

The teaching purposes and visions of the school are to nurture students into practical nursing talents who have international views and humanity disciplines and are able to aspire the self-learning. Humanism and Society Science Natural and Foundational Medical Science Department of Nursing Clinical Teacher Department of Nursing Fundamentals of Nursing Group Medical and Surgical Nursing Group Maternity and Pediatric Nursing Group Public Health and Psychiatric Nursing Group Basic medical science Group Department of Applied Cosmetology Department of Senior Citizen Service Management Center for General Education Nursing Curriculum The student who attends nursing school will be having these following courses: General education courses: Chinese, chemistry, drama, etc. Professional foundation courses: nutriology, anatomy, microbiology, physical assessment, related experimental courses. Professional core courses: fundamental nursing, medical-surgical nursing, maternal-newborn nursing, pediatric nursing, psychiatric nursing, public health nursing, experimental and practical courses of all nursing branches.

Professional required and elective courses formulated by the school: long-term care, geriatric care, hospice care, critical care, emergency care, rehabilitation care, clinical test data interpretation, Chinese medical science, related pragmatic courses that are required or elective. Required and elective general knowledge courses: computer and leisure, livelihood esthetics, introduction to environmental protection science, English conversation, career planning, etc. Clinical Practical Training: On-site practical training places consist of the subsidiary medical centre of NCKU, CHI-MEI medical centre, Tainan city hospital, SINLAU hospital, Jianan Psychiatric Centre, Tainan hospital, KUO general hospital in Tainan, the public health centre of Tainan city, etc. Characteristic Teaching Center 1. Multimedia Audiovisual Teaching Center of Medical-Surgical Nursing and Critical Care Nursing To promote the quality of medical- surgical nursing, this multimedia audiovisual teaching centre was established.

It comprises the modern demonstration wards, critical care units, advanced simulators, modern medical types of equipment, various teaching aids which are used to train the students efficiently and enhance the students’ abilities to take care of the patients. Besides, there are multimedia audiovisual types of equipment which are used to increase the students’ self-learning abilities; the following pictures show that students in the centre are performing medical-surgical nursing skills, such as the practice of under-water seal drainage, colostomy care skills, the assessments of cardiopulmonary function.2. Division of Basic Medical Science The Division of Basic Medical Science of NTIN is responsible for teaching and training students to study basic medical science, which encompasses Biology, Human Anatomy, Pathology, Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Immunology. Research facilities and equipment are excellent and include human tissue slides, microtome, flow cytometry, protein 2D-system etc...

In order to extend basic medical science to the community, our division holds Teenagers’ Biomedical Summer Camp annually.3. Maternal-Child Education Center For the purpose of improving the quality of teaching in maternal care and childcare, this centre was established; the faculty members and students utilize this centre to instruct and learn relevant skills such as breastfeeding, physical assessment for perinatal mothers and newborns. 4. Holistic Health Care Demonstration Center The nursing school has been established a thorough Holistic Health Care Demonstration Center, aimed the trend at ageing society and accorded with modern streams contains the area of simulated experience ageing, a residence for an elderly, activating exercise program for psychomotor function with visual aids, long-term care demonstrations and shower

Laurie Hays

Laurie Hays is an American journalist at Bloomberg News, where she serves as senior executive editor for beat reporting. Prior to joining Bloomberg, Hays worked at The Wall Street Journal for 23 years as a reporter, Moscow correspondent, editor, she worked on a team that won a 2003 Pulitzer Prize in Explanatory Reporting on corporate corruption scandals. Hays was raised in Connecticut, she attended Phillips Exeter Academy in high school and wrote for The Exonian, becoming the first female editor at the weekly student newspaper. Hays graduated from Harvard in 1979 with an honors degree in American History, she wrote for The Harvard Crimson during college. After college, Hays took a job with the New Orleans States-Item, which merged a year with the New Orleans Times-Picayune, her work covered the Plaquemines and St. Bernard parishes, where she covered murder and politics, including stories on political boss Leander Perez. In 1983, Hays was hired as a reporter for The News Journal in Wilmington

Alfred Gleave

Alfred Pullen Gleave was a Member of Parliament for Saskatoon—Biggar, Canada from 25 June 1968 to 9 May 1974. He was a farmer and grain grower, became an outspoken agricultural advocate, he was born in Ontario, educated in one room school houses of Saskatchewan. Turning 19 at the start of the 1930s, he understood the many difficulties farmers faced during this era of drought and Depression, he lived through farming advances, technological changes and industrial revolution of the 1940s and 1950s which followed World War II. In the early 20th century, Gleave helped to establish many varied agricultural organizations; as a member of the New Democratic Party, he became a Member of Parliament on two occasions. Gleave served as an Agriculture Committee member, he was inducted into the Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame. His father, William Gleave proved up his homestead at SW 24 TWP 32 R.7 W3. Elementary schooling was completed at a one-room school house in Swanson as well as at Donavon; this was followed by secondary schooling at a high school in Perdue.

His family moved from Ontario, in 1918 to the Swanson area. He was involved in number of community farm organizations including the United Farmers of Canada Saskatchewan section, Saskatchewan Farmers Union, Interprovincial Farm Union Council, Canadian Federation of Agriculture, National Farmers Union, Canadian Wheat Board and he was a representative at the International Wheat Agreement negotiations. During his time with the United Farmers of Canada, the Dominion Government desired wheat economy stability and negotiated the British Wheat Agreement of 1946 which provided for British purchases of large amounts of Canadian wheat at prices below the world market. Gleave was one of those; as a strong voice for the agricultural community, he has been inducted posthumously 2000 into the Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame. Gleave was successful in two elections for the Saskatoon—Biggar federal electoral district as a candidate of the New Democratic Party which he joined November 8, 1965; the NDP won a total of 22 seats in the 1968 election Gleave was elected in the Saskatoon—Biggar federal electoral district on June 25, 1968, again on October 30, 1972.

During 1972 election the NDP won a total of 31 seats. However Gleave started out representing the NDP in the Rosetown—Biggar federal electoral district in the 1965 election held November 8, 1965. At this time he lost to Ron D. McLelland of the Progressive Conservative Party. Following this defeat, Gleave was successful twice in the Saskatoon—Biggar federal electoral district in the 1968 election and the 1972 election, he tried again in the 1974 election representing the NDP party in Saskatoon—Biggar, however was defeated by Ray Hnatyshyn of the PC Party. He moved to the Kindersley—Lloydminster federal electoral district and lost to Bill McKnight in the 1979 election; the 28th Canadian Parliament was set up September 12, 1968, was controlled by a Liberal Party majority under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. He was member of both the agriculture committee as well as the Library of Parliament joint committee; the 29th Canadian Parliament set up October 30, 1972, was again controlled by a Liberal Party minority under Trudeau.

Here he was member of the Trends in Food Prices, agriculture committee, the Finance and Economic Affairs committee. He was a special member of the Restaurant joint committee. During his retirement years, he wrote a book about politics and farm organization, United We Stand, Prairie Farmers 1901-1975, he died in Ottawa on August 19, 1999. United We Stand: Prairie Farmers 1905-1975:0921633661:Gleave Alfred

Eugene du Pont

Eugène du Pont was an American businessman who served as the first head of the modern-day DuPont corporation. Du Pont was born on November 16, 1840 at Hagley House in New Castle County, the son of Alexis Irénée du Pont and grandson of DuPont founder, Éleuthère Irénée du Pont. Eugène was the first head of the modern DuPont corporation, seeing the corporation into the 20th century. Eugène graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1861 with a bachelor of arts degree. After he graduated from Penn in 1861, he became an assistant to his older cousin, Lammot du Pont, at the Brandywine Mills laboratory and by 1886, filed two patent applications for a gunpowder press and new variety of powder, brown prismatic, he became junior partner in 1864. He succeeded his uncle, Henry du Pont, as senior partner in 1889; as senior partner, du Pont saw the completion of a new office in Wilmington and the new invention called the telephone. He saw the rise of the dynamite industry and helped form the Eastern Dynamite Company in 1895.

1912, the Eastern Dynamite Company formally merged with DuPont. After du Pont's death, the company was brought under control by three of his nephews, Alfred I. du Pont, T. Coleman du Pont and Pierre S. du Pont. Eugène married Amélia Elizabeth du Pont, born a du Pont as the granddaughter of Charles I. du Pont, nephew of Éleuthère Irénée. Together they had had: Anne Ridgely du Pont Alexis Irénée du Pont III Mary Van Dyke du Pont Eugene Irenee du Pont Jr. Amy Elizabeth du Pont, who did not marry. Julia Sophia du PontEugène du Pont died at his home in Christiana Hundred near Wilmington, Delaware on January 28, 1902, his daughter Amy Elizabeth du Pont was a prominent benefactor of the University of Delaware. The painter George Alexis Weymouth was his great-grandnephew by his nephew, Eugene Eleuthere du Pont, as was his granddaughter, Ethel du Pont, the first wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr

Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer – Tamil

The Tamil Filmfare Best Female Playback Award is given by Filmfare magazine as part of its annual Filmfare Awards for Tamil films. The first Tamil award was given in 2006. However, since 1997 till 2005, a common award for playback was available for both Male and Female singers of all the four South Indian languages; the following is the film and song for which they won. The nominees were announced publicly only from 2009; the list along with winners: 2009: Deepa Miriam for "Kangal Irandal" from Subramaniyapuram Shreya Ghoshal for Kuruvi from "Then Then" Sadhana Sargam for Dasavathaaram from "Mukundha Mukundha" Bombay Jayashri for Dhaam Dhoom from "Yaaro Manadhile" Shweta Mohan for Pirivom Santhippom from "Kanden Kanden" 2010: Chinmayi for "Vaarayo Vaarayo" from Aadhavan Harini for "Hasile Fisile" from Aadhavan Rita for "Allegra" from Kanthasamy Shreya Ghoshal for "Oru Vetkam" from Pasanga Suchitra for "Oru Chinna Thamarai" from Vettaikaran2011: Shreya Ghoshal for "Un Perai Sollum" from Angaadi Theru Andrea Jeremiah and Aishwarya Dhanush for "Unmele Aasadhan" from Aayirathil Oruvan Chinmayi for "Kilimanjaro" from Enthiran Saindhavi for "Adadaa Mazhadaa" from Paiyaa Suchitra for "En Idhayam" from Singam2012: Chinmayi for "Sara Sara" from Vaagai Sooda Vaa Shweta Mohan for "Nee Koorinaal" from 180 Madhushree for "Un Perai Theriyaadhu" from Engaeyum Eppothum Saindhavi for "Vizhigalil Oru" from Deiva Thirumagal Neha Bhasin for "Poraane Poraane" from Vaagai Sooda Vaa2013: NSK Ramya for "Satru Munbu" from Neethaane En Ponvasantham Shruthi Haasan for "Kannazhagaa" from 3 Andrea Jeremiah for "Googel Google" from Thuppakki Shreya Ghoshal for "Sollitaley" from Kumki Chinmayi for "Asku Laska" from Nanban2014: Shakthisree Gopalan for "Nenjukulle" from Kadal Saindhavi for "Yaar Indha Saalai Oram" from Thalaivaa Saindhavi for "Yaaro Ivan" from Udhayam NH4 Suchitra for "Ailasa Ailasa" from Vanakkam Chennai Vandana Srinivasan for "Avatha Paiyya" from Paradesi2015: Uthara Unnikrishnan for "Azhagu" from Saivam Bhavya Pandit for "Ovvondrai Thirudigarai" from Jeeva Shakthisree Gopalan and Dhee for "Naan Nee" from Madras Shweta Mohan for "Yaarumilla" from Kaaviya Thalaivan Vandana Srinivasan for "Unnai Ippa" from Kayal2016: Shweta Mohan for "Enna Solla" from Thanga Magan Kharesma Ravichandran - "Kadhal Cricket" from Thani Oruvan Neeti Mohan - "Neeyum Naanum" from Naanum Rowdy Dhaan Shreya Ghoshal - "Pookkale Sattru" from I Shruti Haasan - "Yeandi Yeandi" from Puli2017: Shweta Mohan – "Maya Nadhi" from Kabali Chinmayi – "Naan Un" from 24 K. S. Chithra - "Konji Pesida Venam" from Sethupathi Mahalakshmi Iyer – "Un Maele Oru Kannu" from Rajini Murugan Neeti Mohan – "Chella Kutti" from Theri2018: Shashaa Tirupati - "Vaan Varuvaan" - Kaatru Veliyidai Luksimi Sivaneswaralingam – "Senthoora" - Bogan Neeti Mohan - "Idhayame" - Velaikkaran Shreya Ghoshal – "Neethane" - Mersal Shweta Mohan – "Macho" - Mersal2019: Chinmayi - "Kaathale Kathale" - 96 Dhee - "Rowdy Baby" from Maari 2 Jonita Gandhi - "Omg Ponnu" from Sarkar Shakthisree Gopalan - "Bhoomi Bhoomi" from Chekka Chivantha Vaanam Shashaa Tirupati - "Endhira Logathu" from 2.0 List of music awards honoring women Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer – Telugu Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer – Kannada Filmfare Award for Best Female Playback Singer – Malayalam 55th Filmfare Awards South Winners 53rd Filmfare Awards South Winners