Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
The fourth wall is a performance convention in which an invisible, imagined wall separates actors from the audience. While the audience can see through this "wall", the convention assumes, the actors act as if they cannot. From the 16th century onwards, the rise of illusionism in staging practices, which culminated in the realism and naturalism of the theatre of the 19th century, led to the development of the fourth wall concept; the metaphor suggests a relationship to the mise-en-scène behind a proscenium arch. When a scene is set indoors and three of the walls of its room are presented onstage, in what is known as a box set, the "fourth" of them would run along the line dividing the room from the auditorium; the "fourth wall", though, is a theatrical convention, rather than of set design. The actors ignore the audience, focus their attention on the dramatic world, remain absorbed in its fiction, in a state that the theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski called "public solitude". In this way, the fourth wall exists regardless of the presence of any actual walls in the set, or the physical arrangement of the theatre building or performance space, or the actors' distance from or proximity to the audience."Breaking the fourth wall" is any instance in which this performance convention, having been adopted more in the drama, is violated.
This can be done through either directly referencing the audience, the play as a play, or the characters' fictionality. The temporary suspension of the convention in this way draws attention to its use in the rest of the performance; this act of drawing attention to a play's performance conventions is metatheatrical. A similar effect of metareference is achieved when the performance convention of avoiding direct contact with the camera used by actors in a television drama or film, is temporarily suspended; the phrase "breaking the fourth wall" is used to describe such effects in those media. Breaking the fourth wall is possible in other media, such as video games and books; the concept is attributed to the philosopher and dramatist Denis Diderot. The term itself was used by Molière; the presence of the fourth wall is an established convention of modern realistic theatre, which has led some artists to draw direct attention to it for dramatic or comic effect when a boundary is "broken", when an actor or character addresses the audience directly.
Breaking the fourth wall is common in pantomime and children's theatre where, for example, a character might ask the children for help, as when Peter Pan appeals to the audience to applaud in an effort to revive the fading Tinker Bell. Many Shakespearian plays use this technique for comic effect; the acceptance of the transparency of the fourth wall is part of the suspension of disbelief between a work of fiction and an audience, allowing them to enjoy the fiction as though they were observing real events. Critic Vincent Canby described it in 1987 as "that invisible scrim that forever separates the audience from the stage"; the earliest recorded breaking of the fourth wall in serious cinema was in Mary MacLane's revolutionary 1918 silent film Men Who Have Made Love to Me, in which the enigmatic authoress - who portrays herself - interrupts the vignettes onscreen to address the audience directly. In 1918, in A Dog's Life, written and starring Charlie Chaplin, after finding a wallet with money in it, "The Tramp", Chaplin's most famous character, looks right at the audience with his signature eyebrow raised.
Oliver Hardy was one of the first notable examples of breaking the fourth wall in his films with Stan Laurel, when he would stare directly at the camera to seek sympathy from viewers. Groucho Marx spoke directly to the audience in Animal Crackers, Horse Feathers, in the film advising them to "go out to the lobby" during Chico Marx's piano interlude. Comedy films by Mel Brooks, Monty Python, Zucker and Zucker broke the fourth wall, such that with these films, "the fourth wall is so flimsy and so shattered that it might as well not exist", according to The A. V. Club. In Akira Kurosawa's 1957 adaptation of Gorky's The Lower Depths, the film abruptly ends with Kōji Mitsui breaking the fourth wall to utter a callous remark about a fellow slum dweller's suicide. By having Mitsui use the startling technique, Kurosawa not only stresses his character's victorious nihilism but suggests the film's theatrical origins. Breaking the fourth wall is an integral part of the ending of Alejandro Jodorowsky's 1973 film The Holy Mountain.
In the Mel Brooks film Blazing Saddles, the characters break the fourth wall. Woody Allen broke the fourth wall several times in his movie Annie Hall, as he explained, "because I felt many of the people in the audience had the same feelings and the same problems. I wanted to talk to them directly and confront them." His 1985 film The Purple Rose of Cairo features the breaking of the fourth wall as a central plot point. The John Hughes movie Ferris Bueller's Day Off, is another well-known fourth-wall-breaking movie. Bueller, played by Matthew Broderick turns to the camera without breaking character to tell his thought process or explain his reasoning. Another Chicago area fourth-wall-breaking film, High Fidelity, has John Cusack's character Rob intimately sharing his life struggles and confessions with the audience. Two more recent examples are the 2016 film Deadpool, in which it is used as a comic device between the main character and the audience and the 2017 film I, where Tonya Harding and the
James Michael Bennett is an American actor and musician. He is known for his roles as a child actor in Daddy Day Care, Poseidon, Evan Almighty, Shorts, as young James T. Kirk in the 2009 film Star Trek, he starred on the ABC series No Ordinary Family as JJ Powell, a teenager gifted with vast intelligence after a plane crash. Bennett was born in Seal Beach and lives with his parents and sister in Huntington Beach, where the family runs a hard rock-themed crepe restaurant. Bennett plays guitar and sings on his official YouTube channel, he wrote and performed the song "Summer Never Ends", which can be heard at the end of Shorts. Bennett appeared in nearly 30 television advertisements, as well as in episodes of the television series The Guardian and Strong Medicine, before being cast in the role of "Tony", the boy who wants to be The Flash, in the Eddie Murphy comedy Daddy Day Care, he had smaller roles in the films Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy and Arthur Hailey's Detective, appeared in Judging Amy, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation and Everwood, lent his voice to characters in the animated films The Polar Express, Winnie the Pooh: Springtime with Roo and I Want a Dog for Christmas, Charlie Brown.
He has been nominated for Young Artist Awards five times. In August 2011, Bennett released. On July 17, 2015, Bennett's ex-girlfriend, 17 during the time that they dated, filed a temporary restraining order against him, accusing him of stalking, statutory rape and exploiting her for child pornography; the complaint was dismissed one month later. According to documents obtained by The New York Times, a $380,000 settlement was made between Bennett and Asia Argento after Bennett claimed that Argento sexually assaulted him in a California hotel room in 2013, when he was 17. Bennett said that after the encounter he began to feel "extremely confused and disgusted". Bennett's lawyer wrote that in the years after the incident, Bennett was so traumatized that his job performance and mental health declined, they first met when Bennett played Argento's son in the 2004 film The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things when Bennett was seven years old. He notified Argento that he intended to sue in November 2017, shortly after she went public with rape accusations against Harvey Weinstein.
Argento countered that Bennett "sexually attacked" her, that her partner Anthony Bourdain had arranged to pay $380,000 as part of the settlement. Bennett and his lawyer, Gordon Sattro, are working with a Los Angeles County Sheriff's investigation regarding the claims of sexual assault against Argento. Jimmy Bennett on IMDb Jimmy Bennett at AllMovie
Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to the moving images. Modern computer animation uses 3D computer graphics, although 2D computer graphics are still used for stylistic, low bandwidth, faster real-time renderings. Sometimes, the target of the animation sometimes film as well. Computer animation is a digital successor to the stop motion techniques using 3D models, traditional animation techniques using frame-by-frame animation of 2D illustrations. Computer-generated animations are more controllable than other more physically based processes, constructing miniatures for effects shots or hiring extras for crowd scenes, because it allows the creation of images that would not be feasible using any other technology, it can allow a single graphic artist to produce such content without the use of actors, expensive set pieces, or props.
To create the illusion of movement, an image is displayed on the computer monitor and replaced by a new image, similar to it, but advanced in time. This technique is identical to how the illusion of movement is achieved with television and motion pictures. For 3D animations, objects are built on the computer monitor and 3D figures are rigged with a virtual skeleton. For 2D figure animations, separate objects and separate transparent layers are used with or without that virtual skeleton; the limbs, mouth, etc. of the figure are moved by the animator on key frames. The differences in appearance between key frames are automatically calculated by the computer in a process known as tweening or morphing; the animation is rendered. For 3D animations, all frames must be rendered. For 2D vector animations, the rendering process is the key frame illustration process, while tweened frames are rendered as needed. For pre-recorded presentations, the rendered frames are transferred to a different format or medium, like digital video.
The frames may be rendered in real time as they are presented to the end-user audience. Low bandwidth animations transmitted via the internet use software on the end-users computer to render in real time as an alternative to streaming or pre-loaded high bandwidth animations. To trick the eye and the brain into thinking they are seeing a smoothly moving object, the pictures should be drawn at around 12 frames per second or faster. With rates above 75-120 frames per second, no improvement in realism or smoothness is perceivable due to the way the eye and the brain both process images. At rates below 12 frames per second, most people can detect jerkiness associated with the drawing of new images that detracts from the illusion of realistic movement. Conventional hand-drawn cartoon animation uses 15 frames per second in order to save on the number of drawings needed, but this is accepted because of the stylized nature of cartoons. To produce more realistic imagery, computer animation demands higher frame rates.
Films seen in theaters in the United States run at 24 frames per second, sufficient to create the illusion of continuous movement. For high resolution, adapters are used. Early digital computer animation was developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1960s by Edward E. Zajac, Frank W. Sinden, Kenneth C. Knowlton, A. Michael Noll. Other digital animation was practiced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In 1967, a computer animation named "Hummingbird" was created by James Shaffer. In 1968, a computer animation called "Kitty" was created with BESM-4 by Nikolai Konstantinov, depicting a cat moving around. In 1971, a computer animation called "Metadata" was created. An early step in the history of computer animation was the sequel to the 1973 film Westworld, a science-fiction film about a society in which robots live and work among humans; the sequel, used the 3D wire-frame imagery, which featured a computer-animated hand and face both created by University of Utah graduates Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke.
This imagery appeared in their student film A Computer Animated Hand, which they completed in 1972. Developments in CGI technologies are reported each year at SIGGRAPH, an annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, attended by thousands of computer professionals each year. Developers of computer games and 3D video cards strive to achieve the same visual quality on personal computers in real-time as is possible for CGI films and animation. With the rapid advancement of real-time rendering quality, artists began to use game engines to render non-interactive movies, which led to the art form Machinima; the first full length computer animated television series was ReBoot, which debuted in September 1994. The first feature-length computer animated film was Toy Story, made by Pixar, it followed an adventure centered around their owners. This groundbreaking film was the first of many computer-animated movies. In most 3D computer animation systems, an animator creates a simplified representation of a character's anatomy, analogous to a skeleton or stick figure.
They are by default arranged into a default position known. The position of each segment of the skeletal model is defined by animation variables, or Avars for short. In human and animal characters, many parts of the skeletal mo
A multi-tool is any one of a range of portable, versatile hand tools that combines several individual functions in a single unit. The smallest are credit-card or key sized units designed for carrying in a wallet or on a keyring, but others are designed to be carried in a trouser pocket or belt-mounted pouch; the idea of incorporating several tools in one small portable unit is old, dating back at least as far as Middle Roman times. Many of these were based around eating. Among the earliest contemporary examples is the Swiss Army knife as supplied by makers Victorinox and Wenger; the actual version supplied to the Swiss army includes a knife blade, a reamer, a bottle-opener–screwdriver–wire stripper, a can-opener–screwdriver. Besides Victorinox and Wenger, many other manufacturers now make similar knives. Other versions may include items like a nail file, folding scissors, a tooth pick, a magnifying glass, screwdriver bits and others. There are versions that have special tools for specific sports or outdoor activities like golf, horseback riding, hunting or fishing.
Versions intended for cyclists may have a selection of allen keys, a selection of wrenches, screwdrivers, a spoke key, a chain-breaker. Models like the Wenger SwissGrip, Wenger Pocketgrip, Al Mar 4x4, SOG ToolClip, Snap-on and CRKT Zilla-Tool are similar in style. In 1983 Tim Leatherman sold his first "Pocket Survival Tool", larger and more robust than a pocket-knife-based tool, incorporating a set of needle-nosed pliers in a balisong-style mechanism. Too large for most pockets, it came with a belt pouch. In recent years, a number of urban and outdoor multi-tools have sprouted offering non-traditional tools one would not expect to find in a single unit. Substituting a toolbox, these multi-tools functions include a hammer, spirit level, camera tripod, LED light, tape measure and an assortment of screwdriver bits. Multifunction tools may be specialized for use in certain activities. Cyclists may carry a folding tool with multiple screwdriver bits or wrenches to allow adjustment of bicycle fasteners during a ride, or for repairing a broken chain.
For sport fishermen, a specialized multitool may combine common functions such as cutting fishing line, crimping weights, removing hooks or opening split rings. A specialized multitool may be used for adjustment, cleaning or minor repair of a firearm in field use; the advantage of a multitool is saving weight and space over a set of individual tools to perform the same functions. Leatherman Gerber Legendary Blades Swiss Army knife Ballpoint pen knife SOG Specialty Knives
Robert Anthony Rodriguez is an American filmmaker. He shoots, edits and scores many of his films in Mexico and his home state, Texas. Rodriguez directed the 1992 action film El Mariachi, a commercial success after grossing $2 million against a budget of $7,000; the film spawned two sequels known collectively as the Mexico Trilogy: Desperado and Once Upon a Time in Mexico. He developed its television adaptation series. Rodriguez co-directed the 2005 neo-noir crime thriller anthology Sin City and the 2014 sequel, Sin City: A Dame to Kill For. Rodriguez directed the Spy Kids films, The Faculty, The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl, Planet Terror and Alita: Battle Angel, he is a friend and frequent collaborator of filmmaker Quentin Tarantino, who founded the production company A Band Apart, of which Rodriguez was a member. In December 2013, Rodriguez launched El Rey. Rodríguez was born in San Antonio, the son of Mexican parents Rebecca, a nurse, Cecilio G. Rodríguez, a salesman, he began his interest in film at age eleven, when his father bought one of the first VCRs, which came with a camera.
While attending St. Anthony High School Seminary in San Antonio, Rodríguez was commissioned to videotape the school's football games. According to his sister, he was fired soon afterward as he had shot footage in a cinematic style, getting shots of parents' reactions and the ball traveling through the air instead of shooting the whole play. In high school, he met Carlos Gallardo. Rodriguez went to the College of Communication at the University of Texas at Austin, where he developed a love of cartooning. Not having grades high enough to be accepted into the school's film program, he created a daily comic strip entitled Los Hooligans. Many of the characters were based on his siblings – in particular, one of his sisters, Maricarmen; the comic ran for three years in the student newspaper The Daily Texan, while Rodríguez continued to make short films. Rodríguez edited on two VCRs. In late 1990, his entry in a local film contest earned him a spot in the university's film program. There he made the award-winning 16 mm short Bedhead.
The film chronicles the amusing misadventures of a young girl whose older brother sports an tangled mess of hair which she detests. At this early stage, Rodríguez's trademark style began to emerge: quick cuts, intense zooms, fast camera movements deployed with a sense of humor. Bedhead was recognized for excellence in the Black Maria Film Festival, it was selected by Film/Video Curator Sally Berger for the Black Maria 20th-anniversary retrospective at MoMA in 2006. The short film "Bedhead" attracted enough attention to encourage him to attempt a career as a filmmaker, he went on to shoot the action flick El Mariachi in Spanish. Rodriguez won the Audience Award for this film at the Sundance Film Festival in 1993. Intended for the Spanish-language low-budget home-video market, the film was "cleaned up" by Columbia Pictures with post-production work costing several hundred thousand dollars before it was distributed in the United States, its promotion still advertised it as "the movie made for $7,000".
Rodríguez described his experiences making the film in his book Rebel Without a Crew. Desperado was a sequel to El Mariachi that starred Antonio Banderas and introduced Salma Hayek to American audiences. Rodríguez went on to collaborate with Quentin Tarantino on the vampire thriller From Dusk till Dawn, he wrote and produced the TV series for his own cable network, El Rey. Rodriguez has worked with Kevin Williamson, on the horror film The Faculty. In 2001, Rodríguez enjoyed his first Hollywood hit with Spy Kids, which went on to become a movie franchise. A third "mariachi" film appeared in late 2003, Once Upon a Time in Mexico, which completed the Mexico Trilogy, he operates a production company called Troublemaker Studios Los Hooligans Productions. Rodríguez co-directed Sin City, an adaptation of the Frank Miller Sin City comic books. During production in 2004, Rodríguez insisted Miller to be credited as co-director, because he considered the visual style of Miller's comic art to be just as important as his own in the film.
However, the Directors Guild of America would not allow it, citing that only "legitimate teams", e.g. the Wachowskis, could share the director's credit. Rodríguez chose to resign from the DGA, stating, "It was easier for me to resign before shooting because otherwise I'd be forced to make compromises I was unwilling to make or set a precedent that might hurt the guild on." By resigning from the DGA, Rodríguez was forced to relinquish his director's seat on the film John Carter of Mars for Paramount Pictures. Rodríguez had signed on and had been announced as director of that film, planning to begin filming soon after completing Sin City. Sin City was a critical hit in 2005 as well as a box office success for a hyperviolent comic book adaptation that did not have name recognition comparable to the X-Men or Spider-Man, he has an interest in adapting all of Miller's Sin City comic books. Rodríguez released The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 2005, a superhero-kid movie intended for the same younger audiences as his Spy Kids series.