Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, about 24 km west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a village located near the former course of the Ravi River. The current village of Harappa is 6 km from the ancient site, although modern Harappa has a legacy railway station from the period of the British Raj, it is today just a small crossroads town of population 15,000. The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, centered in Sindh and the Punjab. Per archaeological convention of naming a previously unknown civilization by its first excavated site, the ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore-Multan Railway. In 2005, an amusement park scheme at the site was abandoned when builders unearthed many archaeological artifacts during the early stages of building work. A plea from the Pakistani archaeologist Ahmad Hasan Dani to the Ministry of Culture resulted in a restoration of the site, the Indus Valley Civilization has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BCE.
The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab, the bricks discovered were made of red sand, clay and were baked at very high temperature. As early as 1826 Harappa located in west Punjab attracted the attention of a British officer in India, Indus Valley civilization was mainly an urban culture sustained by surplus agricultural production and commerce, the latter including trade with Sumer in southern Mesopotamia. Both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are generally characterized as having differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, the weights and measures of the Indus Valley Civilization, on the other hand, were highly standardized, and conform to a set scale of gradations. Distinctive seals were used, among other applications, perhaps for identification of property, although copper and bronze were in use, iron was not yet employed. Wheel-made pottery—some of it adorned with animal and geometric motifs—has been found in profusion at all the major Indus sites, harappans had many trade routes along the Indus River that went as far as the Persian Gulf and Egypt.
Some of the most valuable things traded were carnelian and lapis lazuli, what is clear is that Harappan society was not entirely peaceful, with the human skeletal remains demonstrating some of the highest rates of injury found in South Asian prehistory. The excavators of the site have proposed the following chronology of Harappas occupation, Ravi Aspect of the Hakra phase, kot Dijian phase, c.2800 –2600 BC. Harappan Phase, c.2600 –1900 BC, transitional Phase, c.1900 –1800 BC. Late Harappan Phase, c.1800 –1300 BC, by far the most exquisite and obscure artifacts unearthed to date are the small, square steatite seals engraved with human or animal motifs. A large number of seals have been found at sites as Mohenjo-Daro. Many bear pictographic inscriptions generally thought to be a form of writing or script, despite the efforts of philologists from all parts of the world, and despite the use of modern cryptographic analysis, the signs remain undeciphered
The ancient site at Kot Diji was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization. The occupation of this site is attested already at 3300 BCE, the remains consist of two parts, the citadel area on high ground, and outer area. The Pakistan Department of Archaeology excavated at Kot Diji in 1955 and 1957, located about 24 kilometers south of Khairpur in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It is on the east bank of the Indus opposite Mohenjo-daro, the site is situated at the foot of the Rohri Hills where a fort was built around 1790 by Talpur dynasty ruler of Upper Sindh, Mir Suhrab who reigned from 1783 to 1830 AD. This fort built on the ridge of a narrow hill is well preserved. The development of farming communities in different parts of Baluchistan and Lower Sind. The earliest fortified town to date is found at Rehman Dheri, other fortified towns found to date are at Amri and Kot Diji in Sind and at Kalibangan, India at the Hakra River. The earliest occupation of this site is termed Kot Dijian, which is pre-Harappan, at the earliest layer, Kot Diji I, copper and bronze were not used.
The houses and fortifications were made from unbaked mud-bricks, lithic material, such as leaf-shaped chert arrowheads, shows parallels with Mundigak layers II-IV. The pottery seems to anticipate Harappan Ware, bronze was used, but only for personal ornaments. Also, potters wheel was already used, the Early Harappan phase consists of two clearly defined areas. Citadel on high ground for the elites separated by a wall with bastions at regular intervals. This area measures about 500 ft x 350 ft. Outer area, pottery found from this site have design with horizontal and wavy lines, or loops and simple triangular patterns. Other objects found are pots, storage jars, toy carts, bangles, terracotta figurines of mother goddess and animals, well fashioned stone implements were discovered. The interesting find at Kot Diji is a toy cart, which shows that potter’s wheel lead to wheels for bullock carts, there was a clear transition from the earlier Ravi pottery to what is commonly referred to as Kot Diji pottery.
Red slip and black painted designs replaced polychrome decorations of the Ravi Phase, there was a gradual transformation into what is commonly referred to as Harappa Phase pottery. Early Indus script may have appeared at Kot Diji on pottery, the use of inscribed seals and the standardization of weights may have occurred during the Kot Diji period. Late Kot-Diji type pots were found as far as Burzahom in Jammu, signs of cleavage were observed at Early Harappan phase Period I at Kalibangan
Mohenjo-daro is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. The site is threatened by erosion and improper restoration. Mohenjo-daro, the name for the site, has been variously interpreted as Mound of the Dead Men in Sindhi. The citys original name is unknown, based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the citys ancient name could have been Kukkutarma. Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, Mohenjo-daro may have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens. Mohenjo-daro is located west of the Indus River in Larkana District, Pakistan and it is sited on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometres from the town of Larkana.
The Indus still flows east of the site, but the Ghaggar-Hakra riverbed on the side is now dry. Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BCE and it was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, known as the Harappan Civilization, which developed around 3,000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture. Mohenjo-daro was the most advanced city of its time, with remarkably sophisticated civil engineering, when the Indus civilization went into sudden decline around 1900 BCE, Mohenjo-daro was abandoned. The ruins of the city remained undocumented for around 3,700 years until R. D and this led to large-scale excavations of Mohenjo-daro led by Kashinath Narayan Dikshit in 1924–25, and John Marshall in 1925–26. In the 1930s, major excavations were conducted at the site under the leadership of Marshall, D. K. Dikshitar, further excavations were carried out in 1945 by Ahmad Hasan Dani and Mortimer Wheeler. The last major series of excavations were conducted in 1964 and 1965 by Dr.
George F. Dales, a dry core drilling conducted in 2015 by Pakistans National Fund for Mohenjo-daro revealed that the site is larger than the unearthed area. Mohenjo-daro has a layout based on a street grid of rectilinear buildings. Most were built of fired and mortared brick, some incorporated sun-dried mud-brick, the covered area of Mohenjo-daro is estimated at 300 hectares. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History offers an estimate of a peak population of around 40,000. The sheer size of the city, and its provision of buildings and facilities. The city is divided into two parts, the so-called Citadel and the Lower City
The Kulli culture was a prehistoric culture in southern Balochistan in Pakistan ca.2500 -2000 BCE. The culture is named after a site discovered by Sir Aurel Stein. More than 100 settlement sites are known but very few are excavated, some of them have the size of small towns and are similar to those of the Indus Valley Civilization. The houses are built of stone along streets. The latter are sometimes paved. There are stairs on the street for getting access to higher levels, the settlements are often placed at important strategic positions on small hills overlooking the surrounding country side. Most settlements are close to dams, murda Sang is one town, about 35 ha big. The latest occupation level belongs to the Kulli culture, agriculture was the economical base of this people. Near many Kulli culture sites dams were found, providing evidence for a highly developed water management system, the pottery of the Kulli culture shows different forms. There are globular beakers, small flasks, tall vases, large storage jars are sometimes painted.
The only types in common with the Indus Valley Civilization are dishes on a stand, Kulli culture pottery bears sometimes a painted decoration. The paintings are arranged in horizontal bands over the vessels, there are geometrical patterns and sometimes bands with figures of animals with plants. A popular motif is the zebu-bull, the paint used is always black on the red surface of the vessels. This is similar to the pottery of the Indus Valley Civilization. Other typical Kulli culture objects are rough clay figurines of zebu bulls, the women figurines are again highly stylized but show elaborate hair styles and many personal ornaments, such as necklaces and bangles. The bull figures are often painted, there were found clay carts for the bulls. At Mehi were found several decorated chlorite vessels, imported from Tepe Yahya, Indus Valley Civilization Gedrosia Nindowari Possehl, Gregory L. Kulli, An exploration of ancient civilization in South Asia. Carolina Academic Press, North Carolina, ISBN 0-89089-173-7 Stuart Piggott, Prehistoric India to 1000 B. C.
Harmondsworth 1961, 98-1142005 article by Feiyan Zhou Kulli culture as trading partners of the Indus Valley civilization on the Kulli culture on Harappa. com
Turkmenistan has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times, Merv was one of the cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan figured prominently in the movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkmenistan possesses the worlds fourth largest reserves of natural gas resources. Most of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert, since 1993, citizens have received government-provided electricity and natural gas free of charge. Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov until his death in 2006, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected president in 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries, after suspending the death penalty, the use of capital punishment was formally abolished in the 2008 constitution. Historically inhabited by the Indo-Iranians, the history of Turkmenistan begins with its annexation by the Achaemenid Empire of Ancient Iran.
In the 8th century AD, Turkic-speaking Oghuz tribes moved from Mongolia into present-day Central Asia, part of a powerful confederation of tribes, these Oghuz formed the ethnic basis of the modern Turkmen population. In the 10th century, the name Turkmen was first applied to Oghuz groups that accepted Islam, There they were under the dominion of the Seljuk Empire, which was composed of Oghuz groups living in present-day Iran and Turkmenistan. Turkmen soldiers in the service of the played a important role in the spreading of Turkic culture when they migrated westward into present-day Azerbaijan. In the 12th century and other tribes overthrew the Seljuk Empire, in the next century, the Mongols took over the more northern lands where the Turkmens had settled, scattering the Turkmens southward and contributing to the formation of new tribal groups. The sixteenth and eighteenth centuries saw a series of splits and confederations among the nomadic Turkmen tribes, by the 16th century, most of those tribes were under the nominal control of two sedentary Uzbek khanates and Bukhoro.
Turkmen soldiers were an important element of the Uzbek militaries of this period, in the 19th century and rebellions by the Yomud Turkmen group resulted in that groups dispersal by the Uzbek rulers. According to Paul R. Spickard, Prior to the Russian conquest, Russian forces began occupying Turkmen territory late in the 19th century. From their Caspian Sea base at Krasnovodsk, the Russians eventually overcame the Uzbek khanates, in 1916 the Russian Empires participation in World War I resonated in Turkmenistan, as an anticonscription revolt swept most of Russian Central Asia. In 1924 the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic was formed from the tsarist province of Transcaspia, by the late 1930s, Soviet reorganization of agriculture had destroyed what remained of the nomadic lifestyle in Turkmenistan, and Moscow controlled political life. The Ashgabat earthquake of 1948 killed over 110,000 people, during the next half-century, Turkmenistan played its designated economic role within the Soviet Union and remained outside the course of major world events
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous. The term is used to refer to the natural, brownish orange color, of most terracotta. This article covers the senses of terracotta as a medium in sculpture, as in the Terracotta Army and Greek terracotta figurines and European sculpture in porcelain is not covered. Glazed architectural terracotta and its version as exterior surfaces for buildings were used in Asia for some centuries before becoming popular in the West in the 19th century. In archaeology and art history, terracotta is used to describe objects such as figurines not made on a potters wheel. An appropriate refined clay is formed to the desired shape, after drying it is placed in a kiln or atop combustible material in a pit, and fired. The typical firing temperature is around 1,000 °C, though it may be as low as 600 °C in historic and archaeological examples. In some contexts, such as Roman figurines, white-colored terracotta is known as pipeclay, as such clays were preferred for tobacco pipes, fired terracotta is not watertight, but surface-burnishing the body before firing can decrease its porousness and a layer of glaze can make it watertight.
It is suitable for use below ground to carry pressurized water, for garden pots or building decoration in many environments, most other uses, such as for tableware, sanitary piping, or building decoration in freezing environments, require the material to be glazed. Terracotta, if uncracked, will ring if lightly struck, painted terracotta is typically first covered with a thin coat of gesso, painted. It has been widely used but the paint is only suitable for indoor positions and is much less durable than fired colors in or under a ceramic glaze. Terracotta sculpture was rarely left in its raw fired state in the West until the 18th century. Terracotta/earthenware was the known type of ceramic produced by Western and pre-Columbian people until the 14th century. Terracotta has been used throughout history for sculpture and pottery as well as for bricks, in ancient times, the first clay sculptures were dried in the sun after being formed. They were placed in the ashes of open hearths to harden, only after firing to high temperature would it be classed as a ceramic material.
Terracotta female figurines were uncovered by archaeologists in excavations of Mohenjo-daro, along with phallus-shaped stones, these suggest some sort of fertility cult and a belief in a mother goddess. The Burney Relief is a terracotta plaque from Ancient Mesopotamia of about 1950 BC. In Mesoamerica, the majority of Olmec figurines were in terracotta
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia on the crossroads of Central Asia and Western Asia. It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 200 million people, in terms of area, it is the 33rd-largest country in the world with an area covering 881,913 square kilometres. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistans narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries in that it is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and it is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic, an ethnic civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. The new constitution stipulated that all laws were to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran.
Pakistan has an economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector. The Pakistani economy is the 24th-largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is backed by one of the worlds largest and fastest-growing middle classes. The post-independence history of Pakistan has been characterised by periods of military rule, the country continues to face challenging problems such as illiteracy and corruption, but has substantially reduced poverty and terrorism and expanded per capita income. It is a member of CERN. Pakistan is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, the Paris Agreement, the name Pakistan literally means land of the pure in Urdu and Persian. It is a play on the word pāk meaning pure in Persian and Pashto, the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation and form the linguistically correct and meaningful name. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan, the earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab.
The Vedic Civilization, characterised by Indo-Aryan culture, laid the foundations of Hinduism, Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region. Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of education in the world. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled this region, the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharampala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Indus valley from Sindh to Multan in southern Punjab in 711 AD, the Pakistan governments official chronology identifies this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laid
Balakot is a town in Mansehra District in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Balakot is located on the banks of the Kunhar River before it enters the Kashmir Valley, Balakot has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters. Rainfall in Balakot is much higher than in most other parts of Pakistan, the heaviest rainfall occurs either in late winter associated with frontal systems, or in the monsoon season, all months see significant rainfall on average. Balakot is one of the cities of Mansehra District. It serves as the city of Balakot Tehsil, which is the largest Tehsil of Mansehra District. It has a Union Council and administers the many surrounding smaller towns, the Sikhs tried to free Mansehra in the 1818 but were met with resistance from the occupying army. As the Mansehra region fell under Sikh control, it was annexed to Punjab, the movement placed Waziristan, the Mohmand country beyond Kunhar and Yusufzai tribes within the control and responsibility of the Indian government.
At last on 6 May 1831, during a battle, Syed Ahmad Shaheed. The central mosque of Balakot is named after Syed Ahmed Barelvi, the areas includes diverse groups, especially Pashtuns and Hindko speakers. The town or village of Balakot is occupied mainly by Khankhel Swati family, Awan, Syed, Mughal, the town was completely destroyed in a destructive earthquake on 8 October 2005. The fault almost passes through the main bazar of Balakot and it follows the hilly area to the north up to Allai and leads to the Bagh in Azad Jammu & Kashmir from the villages of Balakot like Kanshian and Jabri Kaleesh. The United Arab Emirates has volunteered to rebuild this town into a one with housing colonies, hospitals. However the Pakistan government has announced that the city will be relocated, the town will be reconstructed about 20 km away at a safer spot with more earthquake-proof buildings. The hillside town of Balakot, comprising 12 union councils with a population of 30,000 people, was destroyed by the earthquake on 8 October 2005.
Over 90 per cent of the houses were reduced to muddy smears, the survivors will be relocated to the New Balakot City, currently being developed near Mansehra. Http, //tribune. com. pk/story/269962/2005-earthquake-balakot-remembers-its-dead-amid-tears-and-sobs/ aerial view of the Hope Floats – A series of documentaries by Pakistani filmmaker Azfar Rizvi