Charley Burley was an American boxer who fought as a welterweight and middleweight from 1936 to 1950. Archie Moore, the light-heavyweight champion, defeated by Burley in a 1944 middleweight bout, was one of several fighters who called Burley the greatest fighter ever. Burley was the penultimate holder of both the World Colored Welterweight Championship and the World Colored Middleweight Championship, he was born Charles Duane Burley in Bessemer, Pennsylvania on September 6, 1917 to a mixed-race couple: his father was a black coal miner and his mother a white Irish immigrant from County Cork. Raised in Bessemer, the only son of seven children, the family moved to Pittsburgh when his father was killed in an industrial accident in 1925, he began boxing at the age of 12 at a Boys Club and, as a lightweight, won city and national junior boxing titles and a Golden Gloves junior title. As a welterweight, he won a Golden Gloves Senior and lost the 1936 National Senior Championship finals; that same year, he refused an invitation to participate in the Olympic trials due to his objection to the Nazi regime.
He did accept an invitation to attend a scheduled'Workers Games' to be held in Republican Spain as a protest to the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics, but the games were cancelled by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Burley had excelled at baseball, he was offered a contract by the Homestead Grays, the local Negro Leagues franchise. The 5' 9 1/2 Burley fought at weights between 162 lbs, he made his pro debut on September 29, 1936, fighting as a welterweight at 150¾ lbs. at Pittsburgh's Moose Temple. He knocked out George Liggins in the fourth round of a four-round bout. Less than two years on August 22, 1938, Burley met the Cocoa Kid at Hickey Park in Millvale, Pennsylvania for the World Colored Welterweight Championship, he won a unanimous decision in the 15-round bout, knocking the Kid to the canvas three times and defeating him decisively, taking his title. Burley did not defend that title as part of a strategy to win a shot at Henry Armstrong's World Welterweight title, he won the World Colored Middleweight Title in a ninth round technical knockout against Holman Williams at Victory Arena in New Orleans, Louisiana on 14 August 1942.
In their rematch for the title two months at the same venue, Williams won a 15-round decision. Jack Kincaid of the Times-Picayune reported that Burley had won nine rounds of the fight and had been the aggressor throughout. Burley was never granted a world title shot by any of the world welterweight and world middleweight champions of his era and was avoided by many of the top white contenders. Among the fighters who "ducked" Burley were Hall of Famers Billy Conn, Frenchman Marcel Cerdan and Sugar Ray Robinson, considered by many boxing historians as the best pound-for-pound fighter of all time. Of course, not everyone ducked the slick Pittsburgh warrior. Burley won two out of three matches against future welterweight champion Fritzie Zivic, defeated the great Archie Moore by decision, defeated future NYSAC middleweight king Billy Soose. Burley faced future heavyweight champion Ezzard Charles, but dropped two 10-round decisions to him. Another notable Burley fight was the one against heavyweight J.
D. Turner, who outweighed him by around 70 lbs. "Turner, face beaten to raw beefsteak in six rounds, failed to answer the bell for the seventh.". Burley himself was never stopped in 98 bouts, he compiled a record of 83 wins against 12 losses and two draws with 1 "no contest". He battled financial problems at times during his career and was forced to work as an aircraft mechanic and garbage man in order to earn enough money to live off. Burley's second fight with Oakland Billy Smith in 1946 is the only known boxing film for him, known to exist, it shows a conservative counter-puncher taming a much larger opponent with relative ease. Burley's former sparring partner A. J. "Blackie" Nelson offers this comparison: "I see a lot of Charley in Roy Jones Jr.. Both could hit you from any angle, both hard to hit. Charley jabbed more than Jones, if Jones would concentrate on boxing as Charley did, he would become an all-time great." Eddie Futch, the great trainer, called Burley "the finest all-around fighter I saw."
Burley was named to the Ring Magazine's list of 100 greatest punchers of all time, elected to the Boxing Hall of Fame in 1983 and the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1992. Burley was ranked 39th on Ring Magazine's list of the 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years. An exhibit at the Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum at Pittsburgh's Senator Heinz History Center states that Burley was the model for the character Troy in August Wilson's play Fences. List of bare-knuckle boxers Murderers' Row Professional boxing record for Charley Burley from BoxRec
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Ring (magazine)
The Ring is an American boxing magazine, first published in 1922 as a boxing and wrestling magazine. As the sporting legitimacy of professional wrestling came more into question, The Ring shifted to becoming a boxing oriented publication; the magazine is owned by Oscar De La Hoya's Golden Boy Enterprises, which acquired it in 2007. Ring publishes boxers annual ratings since 1924; the Ring and published by future International Boxing Hall of Fame member Nat Fleischer, has perpetrated boxing scandals, helped make unknown fighters famous worldwide, covered boxing's biggest events of all time. Dan Daniel was a prolific contributor to The Ring through most of its history, it refers to itself as "The Bible of Boxing." During the Fleischer years, the contents page or indicia of every issue carried the claim: "The Ring is a magazine which a man may take home with him. He may leave it on his library table safe in the knowledge that it does not contain one line of matter either in the text or the advertisements which would be offensive.
The publisher of The Ring guards this reputation of his magazine jealously. It is entertaining and it is clean."In 1972, following Fleischer's death, managing editor Nat Loubet, his son-in-law, took over as publisher, launching, in 1977, three international editions of the magazine. The Spanish version, Ring En Español, was published in Venezuela and distributed to all Spanish-speaking countries and the United States until 1985. There was a Japanese version published in Tokyo, a French version published in Paris. In 1979, the magazine was purchased from Loubet by flamboyant publisher Bert Randolph Sugar, who hired future New York boxing commissioner Randy Gordon as editor-in-chief. By 1985, both Sugar and Gordon had moved on watched from the sidelines as The Ring neared bankruptcy in 1989, causing the magazine to cease publication for most of the year, until rebounding under new ownership and management in 1990; the Ring magazine was saved from ruin in 1990 by Boxing Hall of Fame Publisher Stanley Weston who founded Boxing Illustrated, KO & World Boxing and GC London Publishing Corp.
Weston was a sentimentalist and 52 years after joining The Ring magazine as a stock boy, Weston purchased the magazine that gave him his first job. He not only resurrected the magazine from its imminent collapse, he re-established the publication as the definitive source for boxing news. An outstanding boxing artist, Weston painted 57 covers for The Ring with his first cover, a painting of Billy Conn, for the December 1939 issue. Weston was a photographer who, according to his own estimate, shot over 100,000 boxing photos—the majority of which are housed in the archives of The Ring magazine; some of the boxers featured on the magazine covers have included Tommy Ryan, Salvador Sánchez, Jack Dempsey, Pancho Villa, Max Schmeling, Joe Louis, Sugar Ray Robinson, Jake LaMotta, Rocky Marciano, Willie Pep, Muhammad Ali, Alexis Argüello, Wilfred Benítez, Wilfredo Gómez, Roberto Durán, Larry Holmes, Marvin Hagler, Sugar Ray Leonard, Bud Taylor, Mike Tyson, Evander Holyfield, Floyd Mayweather Jr. Thomas Hearns, Roy Jones Jr.
Bernard Hopkins, Julio César Chávez, Félix Trinidad, Manny Pacquiao, Oscar De La Hoya, Mauro Mina, Ricardo Mayorga. In 1977, boxer Cathy "Cat" Davis became the first female to be on a cover of The Ring, holding the distinction of being the only woman featured on the cover of the magazine until January 2016, when Ronda Rousey joined her and became the first Mixed Martial Arts fighter featured on Ring's cover; the Ring has used cover artwork created by famed artists such as Richard T. Slone; the Ring was published by London Publications and Kappa Publishing Group, which published sister magazines KO Magazine and World Boxing, which were former competitors of The Ring but ceased operations while under Kappa's ownership. The Ring magazine was led by International Boxing Hall of Famer Nigel Collins. Sports and Entertainment Publications, LLC, owns The Ring, which it acquired from Kappa Publishing Group in 2006. Sports and Entertainment Publications, LLC is owned by a group of private investors led by Oscar de la Hoya.
Acquired were KO Magazine and World Boxing. The magazine's rankings are recognized as "official" by some in the U. S. media ESPN. While some may see a conflict of interest in a boxing promoter being paymaster of what is a magazine/rankings organization that awards world titles and belts, De La Hoya says, not the case. "These magazines will be held in an editorial trust where they will be operating independent of any influence from me or others from the Golden Boy Companies as it relates to editorial direction or content". There is a 35-member ratings advisory panel, which include many of the media that cover boxing, who would prevent Golden Boy Promotions from using the magazine for self gain; the Ring was headquartered in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania until 2011 when it was relocated to Los Angeles. The magazine had a sister publication named The Ring Wrestling which came about due to professional wrestling writer Bob Leonard contacting the magazine and expressing that it was too focused on boxing and not giving wrestling enough coverage.
Nat Loubet served as the editor of the wrestling magazine as well. The Ring has its own championship belt in a given weight class where The Ring champion holds a linear reign to the throne, the man who beat the man; the Ring began awarding championship belts in 1922. The first Ring world title belt was awarded to heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey and the second was awarded to flyweight champion Pancho Villa; the Ring stopped giving belts to world champions in the 1990s reintroduced their t
Archie Moore was an American professional boxer and the longest reigning World Light Heavyweight Champion of all time. He had one of the longest professional careers in the history of the sport, competing from 1935 to 1963. Nicknamed "The Mongoose", "The Old Mongoose" in the latter half of his career, Moore was a strategical and defensive boxer, with a great chin and durability. Archie Moore ranks fourth on The Ring's list of "100 greatest punchers of all time". Moore is rated by prominent boxing website BoxRec as the 3rd greatest pound-for-pound boxer of all-time. Archie Moore is ranked #1 greatest light heavyweight boxer of all time and #6 greatest boxer of all time by Boxing Action Magazine. Moore was a trainer for a short time after retirement, training boxers such as Muhammad Ali, George Foreman and James Tillis. A native of Benoit, Moore was raised in St. Louis and grew up in poverty. A victim of racism for much of his career, Moore was denied a shot at the world title for over ten years, spent many of those years fighting on the road with little to show for it.
An important figure in the American black community, he became involved in African American causes once his days as a fighter were over. He established himself as a successful character actor in television and film. Moore died in his adopted home of California. Born Archibald Lee Wright, the son of Thomas Wright, a farm laborer and drifter, Lorena Wright, he always insisted that he was born in 1916 in Collinsville, but his mother told reporters that he was born in 1913 in Benoit, Mississippi. His father abandoned the family. Unable to provide for him and his older sister, his mother gave them into the care of an uncle and aunt and Willie Pearl Moore, who lived in St. Louis. Archie explained why he was given their surname: "It was less questions to be called Moore." He attended segregated all-black schools in St. Louis, including Lincoln High School, although he never graduated, his uncle and aunt provided him with a stable upbringing, but after his uncle died in a freak accident around 1928, Moore began running with a street gang.
One of his first thefts was a pair of oil lamps from his home, which he sold so that he would have money to buy boxing gloves. He recalled of his stealing: "It was inevitable that I would be caught. I think I knew this before I started, but somehow the urge to have a few cents in my pocket made me overlook this eventuality". After he was arrested for attempting to steal change from a motorman's box on a streetcar, he was sentenced to a three-year term at a reform school in Booneville, Missouri, he was released early from the school for good behavior after serving twenty-two months. Around 1933 Moore joined the Civilian Conservation Corps, working for the forestry division at a camp in Poplar Bluff, Missouri. Having determined to become a boxer, he decided to make his work at the camp a form of training, he recalled that the other boys kidded him about one daily exercise—standing upright in the bed of a truck as it drove along primitive forest roads, waiting until the last possible moment before ducking or weaving away from tree branches.
The captain of the camp permitted him to organize a boxing team, which competed in Golden Gloves tournaments in southern Missouri and Illinois. Many of his fights occurred in a racially charged atmosphere, his brother... was the referee. He told me to keep my punches up. Since I had been hitting Bill in the head I would have missed him altogether if I threw my punches any higher, but the referee said I had fouled him.... I got offered to fight, too. I resolved not to hit Bill any place but his head.... In the second round I dropped him with a left hook that spun his head like a top.... I heard a man at ringside say, "For two cents I'd shoot that nigger." After the bout, the boxing team was followed back to camp by a line of cars loaded with angry "townies". They dispersed only, he boxed all but one of his 12 bouts that year in San Diego. Moore had eight bouts in 1939, going 5–2 during that span, with one "no contest", he lost to former Middleweight Champion and future Hall of Famer Teddy Yarosz during that time, his no-contest was against Jack Coggins, in eight rounds.
In 1940, Moore made a tour of Australia and fought in Melbourne, Tasmania and Sydney. He won all of his seven bouts there, including six by knockout. Upon returning to the United States, he defeated Pancho Ramirez by a knockout in five but lost to Shorty Hogue on a six-round decision. Moore had four fights during which he went 2 -- 1 -- 1, with the draw against Eddie Booker. By however, he had suffered through several stomach ulcers, with the resulting operations, he announced his retirement from boxing, his retirement was brief, by 1942 he was back in the ring. He won his first six bouts that year, including a second-round knockout of Hogue in a rematch, a ten-round decision over Jack Chase, he met Booker in a rematch, reached the same conclusion as their first meeting had: another 10-round draw. In 1943, Moore fought seven bouts, losing two, he won and lost the California State Middleweight title against Chase, both by 15-round decisions, beat Chase again in his last bout of that year, in a ten-round decision.
He lost a decision