History of manga
The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century. Manga is a Japanese term that can be translated as "comic", their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-war and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war and pre-Meiji culture and art; the other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan, stresses that manga was shaped by United States cultural influences, including US comics brought to Japan by the GIs and by images and themes from US television and cartoons. According to Sharon Kinsella, the booming Japanese publishing industry helped create a consumer-oriented society in which publishing giants like Kodansha could shape popular taste.
Manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 13th centuries. During the Edo period, another book of drawings, Toba Ehon, embedded the concept of manga; the word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai who lived from 1760–1849. Rakuten Kitazawa first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. Writers stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga, they include Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, Eric Peter Nash. Schodt points to the existence in the 13th century of illustrated picture scrolls like Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga that told stories in sequential images with humor and wit. Schodt stresses continuities of aesthetic style and vision between ukiyo-e and shunga woodblock prints and modern manga.
While there are disputes over whether Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga or Shigisan-engi was the first manga, both scrolls date back to about the same time period. However others like Isao Takahata, Studio Ghibli co-founder and director, contends there is no linkage with the scrolls and modern manga. Schodt and Nash see a significant role for kamishibai, a form of street theater where itinerant artists displayed pictures in a light box while narrating the story to audiences in the street. Torrance has pointed to similarities between modern manga and the Osaka popular novel between the 1890s and 1940, argues that the development of widespread literacy in Meiji and post-Meiji Japan helped create audiences for stories told in words and pictures. Kinko Ito roots manga in aesthetic continuity with pre-Meiji art, but she sees its post-WWII history as driven in part by consumer enthusiasm for the rich imagery and narrative of the newly developing manga tradition. Ito describes how this tradition has produced new genres and markets, e.g. for girls' manga in the late 1960s and for Ladies Comics in the 1980s.
Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books. These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous and romantic themes. Although Kern does not believe that kibyoshi were a direct forerunner of manga, for Kern the existence of kibyoshi nonetheless points to a Japanese willingness to mix words and pictures in a popular story-telling medium; the first recorded use of the term "manga" to mean "whimsical or impromptu pictures" comes from this tradition in 1798, Kern points out, predates Katsushika Hokusai's better known Hokusai Manga usage by several decades. Inoue sees manga as being a mixture of image- and word-centered elements, each pre-dating the Allied occupation of Japan. In his view, Japanese image-centered or "pictocentric" art derives from Japan's long history of engagement with Chinese graphic art, whereas word-centered or "logocentric" art, like the novel, was stimulated by social and economic needs of Meiji and pre-war Japanese nationalism for a populace unified by a common written language.
Both fuse in what Inoue sees as a symbiosis in manga. The roots of the wide-eyed look associated with manga dates back to shōjo magazine illustrations during the late 19th to early 20th centuries; the most important illustrators associated with this style at the time were Yumeji Takehisa and Jun'ichi Nakahara, influenced by his work as a doll creator drew female characters with big eyes in the early 20th century. This had a significant influence on early manga shōjo manga, evident in the work of influential manga artists such as Makoto Takahashi and Riyoko Ikeda. However, other writers such as Takashi Murakami have stressed events after WWII, but Murakami sees Japan's surrender and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as having created long-lasting scars on the Japanese artistic psyche, which, in this view, lost its virile confidence in itself and sought solace in harmless and cute images. However, Takayumi Tatsumi sees a special role for a transpacific economic and cultural transnationalism that created a postmodern and shared international youth culture of cartoo
Yuri known by the wasei-eigo construction Girls' Love, is a Japanese jargon term for content and a genre involving lesbian relationships in light novels, anime, video games and related Japanese media. Yuri focuses on the sexual orientation or the romantic orientation aspects of the relationship, or both, the latter of, sometimes called shōjo-ai by Western fandom; the themes yuri deals with have their roots in the Japanese lesbian fiction of the early twentieth century, with pieces such as Yaneura no Nishojo by Nobuko Yoshiya. It is not until the 1970s that lesbian-themed works began to appear in manga, by the hand of artists such as Ryoko Yamagishi and Riyoko Ikeda; the 1990s brought new trends in manga and anime, as well as in dōjinshi productions, along with more acceptance for this kind of content. In 2003, the first manga magazine dedicated to yuri, Yuri Shimai, was launched, this was followed by its revival Comic Yuri Hime, launched after the former was discontinued in 2004; as a genre, yuri content could target either a female audience.
Although yuri originated in female-targeted works, today it is featured in male-targeted ones as well. Yuri manga from male-targeted magazines include titles such as Kannazuki no Miko and Strawberry Panic!, as well as those from Comic Yuri Hime's male-targeted sister magazine, Comic Yuri Hime S, launched in 2007. The word yuri means "lily", is a common Japanese feminine name. In 1976, Bungaku Itō, editor of Barazoku, a magazine geared towards gay men, first used the term yurizoku in reference to female readers in the title of a column of letters called Yurizoku no heya, it is unclear. Not all women whose letters appeared in this short-lived column were lesbians, but some were and an association developed. For example, the tanbi magazine Allan began running a Yuri Tsūshin personal ad column in July 1983 for "lesbiennes" to communicate. Along the way, many dōjinshi circles incorporated the name "Yuri" or "Yuriko" into lesbian-themed hentai dōjinshi, the "zoku" or "tribe" portion of this word was subsequently dropped.
Since the meaning has drifted from its pornographic connotation to describe the portrayal of intimate love, sex, or the intimate emotional connections between women. As of 2009, the term yuri is used in Japan to mean the depiction of attraction between women in manga and related entertainment media, as well as the genre of stories dealing with this content; the wasei-eigo construction "Girls Love" spelled "Girl's Love" or "Girls' Love", or abbreviated as "GL", is used with this meaning. Yuri is a form of fanspeak amongst fans, but its usage by authors and publishers has increased since 2005; the term "Girls Love", on the other hand, is used by the publishers. In North America, yuri has been used to denote only the most explicit end of the spectrum, deemed as a variety of hentai. Following the pattern of shōnen-ai, a term in use in North America to describe content involving non-sexual relationships between men, Western fans coined the term shōjo-ai to describe yuri without explicit sex. In Japan, the term shōjo-ai is not used with this meaning, instead tends to denote pedophilia, with a similar meaning to the term lolicon.
The Western use of yuri has broadened in the 2000s. American publishing companies such as ALC Publishing and Seven Seas Entertainment have adopted the Japanese usage of the term to classify their yuri manga publications. Among the first Japanese authors to produce works about love between women was Nobuko Yoshiya, a novelist active in the Taishō and Shōwa periods of Japan. Yoshiya was a pioneer in Japanese lesbian literature, including the early twentieth century Class S genre; these kinds of stories depict lesbian attachments as intense yet platonic relationships, destined to be curtailed by graduation from school, marriage, or death. The root of this genre is in part the contemporary belief that same-sex love was a transitory and normal part of female development leading into heterosexuality and motherhood. Class S stories in particular tell of strong emotional bonds between schoolgirls, a mutual crush between an upperclassman and an underclassman. Around the 1970s, yuri began to appear in shōjo manga, presenting some of the characteristics found in the lesbian literature of the early twentieth century.
This early yuri features an older looking, more sophisticated woman, a younger, more awkward admirer. The two deal with some sort of unfortunate schism between their families, when rumors of their lesbian relationship spread, they are received as a scandal; the outcome is a tragedy, with the more sophisticated girl somehow dying at the end. In general, the yuri manga of this time could not avoid a tragic ending. Ryoko Yamagishi's Shiroi Heya no Futari, the first manga involving a lesbian relationship, is a prime example, as it was "prototypical" for many yuri stories of the 1970s and 1980s, it is in the 1970s that shōjo manga began to deal with transsexualism and transvestism, sometimes depicting female characters as manly looking, inspired by the women playing male roles in the Takarazuka Revue. These traits are most prominent in Riyoko Ikeda's works, including The Rose of Versailles, Oniisam
Satoshi Kon was a Japanese film director, animator and manga artist from Sapporo, Hokkaidō and a member of the Japanese Animation Creators Association. He was a graduate of the Graphic Design department of the Musashino Art University, he was the younger brother of guitarist and studio musician Tsuyoshi Kon. Satoshi Kon was born on October 12, 1963. Due to his father's job transfer, Kon's education from the fourth elementary grade up to the second middle school grade was based in Sapporo. Kon was a close friend of manga artist Seihō Takizawa. While attending Hokkaido Kushiro Koryo High School, Kon aspired to become an animator, his favorite works were Space Battleship Yamato, Girl of the Alps, Future Boy Conan and Mobile Suit Gundam, as well as Katsuhiro Otomo's Domu: A Child's Dream. Yasutaka Tsutsui served as an influence on Kon's drawings. Kon graduated from the Graphic Design course of the Musashino Art University in 1982. During that time, Kon viewed numerous foreign films and enthusiastically read Yasutaka Tsutsui's books.
While in college, Kon made his debut as a manga artist with the short manga Toriko and earned a runner-up spot in the 10th Annual Tetsuya Chiba Awards held by Young Magazine. Afterward, he found work as Katsuhiro Otomo's assistant. After graduating from college in 1987, Kon authored the one-volume manga Kaikisen and wrote the script for Katsuhiro Otomo's live-action film World Apartment Horror. In 1991, Kon worked as an animator and layout artist for the animated film Roujin Z. Kon worked as a supervisor for Mamoru Oshii's Patlabor 2: The Movie along with other animated films, he worked on the manga Seraphim: 266,613,336 Wings with Oshii, it was published in 1994 in Animage. In 1995, Kon served as the scriptwriter, layout artist and art director of the short film Magnetic Rose, the first of three short films in Katsuhiro Otomo's omnibus Memories. Kon's work afterward would be distinguished by the recurring theme of the blending of fantasy and reality. In 1993, Kon scripted and co-produced the fifth episode of the original video animation JoJo's Bizarre Adventure.
In 1997, Kon began work on his directorial debut Perfect Blue. A suspense story centered on a pop idol, it was the first film by Kon to be produced by Madhouse. Kon was unsatisfied with the original screenplay written by the author and requested to make changes to it. Aside from maintaining three elements of the novel, Kon was allowed to make any changes; the screenplay was written by Sadayuki Murai, who worked in the idea of a blurred border between the real world and imagination. Following Perfect Blue, Kon considered adapting the 1993 Yasutaka Tsutsui novel Paprika into his next film. However, these plans were stalled. Coincidentally, Kon's next work would feature the theme of the blending of imagination and reality. In 2002, Kon's second film, Millennium Actress, was released to the public; the film centers on a retired actress who mysteriously withdraws from the public eye at the peak of her career. Having the same estimated budget as Perfect Blue, Millennium Actress garnered higher critical and financial success than its predecessor and earned numerous awards.
The screenplay was written by Sadayuki Murai, who utilized a seamless connection between illusion and reality to create a "Trompe-l'œil kind of film". Millennium Actress was the first Satoshi Kon film to feature Susumu Hirasawa, of whom Kon was a long-time fan, as composer. In 2003, Kon's third work, Tokyo Godfathers, was announced; the film centers on a trio of homeless persons in Tokyo who discover a baby on Christmas Eve and set out to search for her parents. Tokyo Godfathers cost more to make than Kon's previous two films, centered on the themes of homelessness and abandonment, with a comedic touch worked in; the screenplay was written by Keiko Nobumoto. In 2004, Kon released the 13-episode television series Paranoia Agent, in which Kon revisits the theme of the blending of imagination and reality, as well as working in additional social themes; the series was created from an abundance of unused ideas for stories and arrangements that Kon felt were good but did not fit into any of his projects.
In 2006, Paprika was announced, after materializing for several years. The story centers on a new form of psychotherapy that utilizes dream analysis to treat mental patients; the film was successful and earned a number of film awards. Kon summed up the film with "Kihonteki na story igai wa subete kaeta" —roughly, "Everything but the fundamental story was changed." Much like Kon's previous works, the film focuses on the synergy of dreams and reality. After Paprika, Kon teamed up with Mamoru Oshii and Makoto Shinkai to create the 2007 NHK television production Ani*Kuri15, for which Kon created the short Ohayō; that same year, Kon helped establish and served as a member of the Japan Animation Creators Association. Following Ohayō, Kon began work on Dreaming Machine. In May 2010, Kon was diagnosed with terminal pancreatic cancer. Given half a year to live, Kon chose to spend the remainder of his life in his home. Shortly before his death Kon composed a final message, uploaded to his blog by his family upon his death.
As Kon explained in the message, he chose not to make news of his advancing illness public, in part out of embarrassment at how drastically emaciated and ravaged his body had become. The result was that the announcement
Shotaro Ishinomori was a Japanese manga artist who became an influential figure in manga and tokusatsu, creating several immensely popular long-running series such as Cyborg 009, the Super Sentai series, the Kamen Rider Series. He was twice awarded by the Shogakukan Manga Award, in 1968 for Sabu to Ichi Torimono Hikae and in 1988 for Hotel and Manga Nihon Keizai Nyumon, he was born and named Shotaro Onodera in Tome and was known as Shotaro Ishimori before 1986, when he changed his family name to Ishinomori with "ノ". On December 1954, Ishinomori published Nikyuu Tenshi, in Manga Shonen. In 1956 he became an assistant to Osamu Tezuka. During his time working under Tezuka, Ishinomori worked on Alakazam the Great. In 1960, Ishinomori published Flying Phantom Ship and in 1969 it was made into an animated feature film. Cyborg 009, created in 1963, became the first superpowered hero team created in Japan, featuring nine cybernetic warriors; that same year, Kazumasa Hirai and Jiro Kuwata created 8 Man.
The success of the tokusatsu superhero TV series Kamen Rider, produced by Toei Company Ltd. in 1971, led to the birth of the "Transforming" superhero, resulted in many sequel shows to this day. Ishinomori created many similar superhero dramas, which were once again all produced by Toei or in Sarutobi Ecchan's case Toei Animation, including Android Kikaider, Henshin Ninja Arashi, Robotto Keiji, Himitsu Sentai Gorenger, Kaiketsu Zubat, Akumaizer 3, Sarutobi Ecchan, the Toei Fushigi Comedy Series, countless others, he created popular children's shows such as Hoshi no Ko Chobin, Ganbare!! Robokon. In 1963, he founded the anime company Studio Zero. From 1967 to 1970, the manga 009-1 was serialized in the Futabasha publication Weekly Manga Action, it was illustrated by Ishinomori. There was a television drama of it in 1969 and an anime in 2006. Ishinomori's art is reminiscent of that of Osamu Tezuka; the true story of his first meeting with Tezuka was illustrated in a short four-page tale drawn up as supplementary material for the 1970s Astro Boy manga reprints.
In 1954, Ishinomori submitted his first official work, Nikyu Tenshi, to a contest seeking new talent in the magazine, Manga Shōnen. Tezuka was impressed by his drawings and sent a telegraph to Ishinomori, asking him to work as his assistant with Astro Boy. In the American release, this story can be seen in Volume 15, along with Ishinomori's earliest work on the "Electro" story arc. After graduating from high school in 1956 Ishinomori moved to Tokiwa-so with Tezuka, lived there until the end of 1961. Ishinomori illustrated a comic adaptation of the Super NES video game The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past, produced for the American publication Nintendo Power; the comic consisted of 12 chapters, which were serialized from January 1992 to December 1992. The comic was republished as a graphic novel collection in 1993, and, as of 2015, is back in print through Viz Media. At the end of 1997, Kazuhiko Shimamoto, a young and up and coming manga artist was contacted by an ill Shotaro Ishinomori and asked if he would do a continuation of his 100-page, one-shot manga from 1970, Skull Man.
Ishinomori, one of Shimamoto's boyhood heroes, faxed him copies of the proposed story and plot notes. Shimamoto was astounded that he had been chosen to work on his idol's great work. Shimamoto had been involved in the revival of one of Ishinomori's other earlier works but little did he dream that, as only one of many whom Ishinomori had inspired, he would be chosen for the final collaboration and resurrection of Skull Man, it was recently adapted into an anime in 2007. Ishinomori died of heart failure on 28 January 1998, just three days after his 60th birthday, his final work was the tokusatsu superhero TV series, televised a year later. Two years the Kamen Rider Series would be revived with Kamen Rider Kuuga. All of the series made in the Heisei period credit Ishinomori as the creator; the Ishinomori Manga Museum named in his honor opened in Ishinomaki, Miyagi in 2001. Special trains in the Senseki Line were commissioned featuring his artwork leading to the museum, his work posthumously awarded him the Guinness World Record for most comics published by one author, totaling over 128,000 pages across 770 titles across 500 volumes.
Ishimori Production Inc. – Official website Ishimori Production Inc. – Official website Ishimori Production Inc. – Official website Mangattan Museum website Shotaro Ishinomori Complete Comic Works Shotaro Ishinomori Memorial Museum – Official website Entry in the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
Manga are comics or graphic novels created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. They have a complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art; the term manga in Japan is a word used to refer to cartooning. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers to comics published in Japan. In Japan, people of all ages read manga; the medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action, adventure and commerce, detective, historical, mystery, science fiction and fantasy, erotica and games, suspense, among others. Many manga are translated into other languages. Since the 1950s, manga has become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books and manga magazines in Japan. Manga have gained a significant worldwide audience. In 2008, in the U. S. and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million. Manga represent 38% of the French comics market, equivalent to ten times that of the United States.
In France, the manga market was valued at about €460 million in 2005. In Europe and the Middle East, the market was valued at $250 million in 2012. Manga stories are printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist. In Japan, manga are serialized in large manga magazines containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. Collected chapters are republished in tankōbon volumes but not paperback books. A manga artist works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated during its run. Sometimes manga are drawn centering on existing live-action or animated films. Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world in Algeria, Hong Kong and South Korea; the word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画, composed of the two kanji 漫 meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 meaning "pictures".
The same term is the root of the Korean word for the Chinese word. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. Rakuten Kitazawa first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside Japan; the term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels. The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. During the Edo period, Toba Ehon embedded the concept of manga; the word itself first came into common usage in 1798, with the publication of works such as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the Hokusai Manga books.
Adam L. Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books; these graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous and romantic themes. Some works were mass-produced as serials using woodblock printing. Writers on manga history have described two complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war and pre-Meiji culture and art; the other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan, stresses U. S. cultural influences, including U. S. comics and images and themes from U. S. television and cartoons. Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity occurred in the post-war period, involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka and Machiko Hasegawa. Astro Boy became immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere, the anime adaptation of Sazae-san drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011.
Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots; this kind of visual dynamism was adopted by manga artists. Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience came to characterize shōjo manga. Between 1950 and 1969, an large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls. In 1969 a group of female manga artists made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the
Manga outside Japan
Manga, or Japanese comics, have appeared in translation in many different languages in different countries. France represents about 40% of the European manga market and in 2011 manga represented 40% of the comics being published in the country. In 2007, 70% of the comics sold in Germany were manga. In the United States, manga comprises a small industry when compared to the inroads that Japanese animation or Japanese Video Games have made in the USA. One example of a manga publisher in the United States, VIZ Media, functions as the American affiliate of the Japanese publishers Shogakukan and Shueisha; the UK has fewer manga publishers than the U. S. Since written Japanese fiction flows from right to left, manga artists draw and publish this way in Japan; when first translating various titles into Western languages, publishers reversed the artwork and layouts in a process known as "flipping", so that readers could follow the books from left-to-right. However, various creators did not approve of the modification of their work in this way, requested that foreign versions retain the right-to-left format of the originals.
Soon, due both to fan demand and to the requests of creators, more publishers began offering the option of right-to-left formatting, which has now become commonplace in North America. Left-to-right formatting has gone from the rule to the exception. Translated manga includes notes on details of Japanese culture that foreign audiences may not find familiar. One company, TOKYOPOP, produces manga in the United States with the right-to-left format as a publicized point-of-difference; the Chinese Ministry of Culture announced in 2015 that it has blacklisted 38 Japanese anime and manga titles from distribution in China, including popular series like Death Note and Attack on Titan online or in print, citing "scenes of violence, pornography and crimes against public morality." Manga in Indonesia is published by Elex Media Komputindo, Level Comic, M&C and Gramedia, has influenced Indonesia's original comic industry. The wide distribution of scanlations contributes to the growth of publication of bootleg manga, printed in lower quality.
One of the most notable publisher is Seventh Heaven. Many popular titles, such as Bleach, Magister Nagi, Rose Hip Zero, Kingdom Hearts, have been pirated, which draws controversy toward manga readers in Indonesia. Manga in the Philippines were imported from the USA and were sold only in specialty stores and in limited copies; the first manga in Filipino language is Doraemon, published by J-Line Comics and was followed by Case Closed. A few local publishing companies like VIVA-PSICOM Publishing feature manga created by local artists whose stories are based from popular written books from the writing site Wattpad and are read from left to right instead of the usual right-to-left format for Japanese manga; the first commercial local manga is She Died, an adaptation of the book written by Wattpad writer HaveYouSeenThisGirl. The art was done by Enjelicious. In 2015, VIVA-PSICOM Publishing has announced that they will start publishing manga titles in the Filipino language with the line-up starting with Hiro Mashima's Fairy Tail and Isayama Hajime's Attack on Titan.
In 2015, Boy's Love manga became popular through the introduction of BL manga by printing company BLACKink. Among the first BL titles to be printed were Poster Boy and Sprinters, all were written in Filipino. BL manga have become bestsellers in the top three bookstore companies in the Philippines since their introduction in 2015; the company Chuang Yi publishes manga in Chinese in Singapore. Singapore has its own official Comics Society, led by manga artist Wee Tian Beng, illustrator of the Dream Walker series. In Thailand, before 1992 all available manga were fast, poor quality bootlegs. However, due to copyright laws, this has changed and copyrights protect nearly all published manga. Thailand's prominent manga publishers include Nation Edutainment, Siam Inter Comics and Bongkoch. Many parents in Thai society are not supportive of manga. In October 2005, there was a television programme broadcast about the dark side of manga with exaggerated details, resulted in many manga being banned; the programme issued an apology to the audience.
In 2015, Boy's Love manga have become popular in mainstream Thai consumers, leading to television series adapted from BL manga stories since 2016. France has a strong and diverse manga market. Many works published in France belong to genres not well represented outside Japan, such as too adult-oriented drama, or too experimental and avant-garde works. Early editors like Tonkam have published Hong-Kong authors or Korean authors in their manga collection during 1995/1996, quite uncommon; some Japanese authors, such as Jiro Taniguchi, are unknown in other western countries but received much acclaim in France. Since its introduction in the 1990s, manga publishing and anime broadcasting have become intertwined in France, where the most popular and exploited shōnen, shōjo and seinen TV series were imported in their paper version. Therefore, Japanese books were and accepted by a large juvenile public, familiar with the series and received the manga as part of their own culture. A strong parallel backup was the emergence of Japanese video games, Nintendo/Sega, which were based o
Clamp (manga artists)
Clamp is an all-female Japanese manga artist group that formed in the mid-1980s. It consists of leader Nanase Ohkawa, three artists whose roles shift for each series: Mokona, Tsubaki Nekoi, Satsuki Igarashi. 100 million Clamp tankōbon copies have been sold worldwide as of October 2007. Beginning as an eleven-member dōjinshi circle in the mid-1980s, they began creating original work in 1987. By the time they debuted with RG Veda in 1989, the group was reduced to seven members. In 1993, three more members left, leaving the four members who are still part of the group. In 2006, the members decided to change their names. Clamp began in the mid-1980s as an eleven-member dōjinshi circle named Clamp Cluster; this included O-Kyon, Sei Nanao, Tamayo Akiyama, Leeza Sei, Sōshi Hishika, Kazue Nakamori, Shinya Ōmi. Three of Clamp's artists—Mokona, Tsubaki Nekoi, Satsuki Igarashi—first began drawing manga when they were teenagers, inspired by friends; the three artists were good friends in the same school. They befriended Nanase Ohkawa through one of her friends who had bought comics from Mokona.
The original group of twelve members began to meet at every event held in Osaka and Kobe, which occurred once a month. Before they began creating original work, the group produced dōjinshi of Captain Tsubasa, yaoi dōjinshi of Saint Seiya. However, in 1987 the group began creating original work, their first collaborative work was entitled "Clamp", which they continued to work on until shortly after their debut. The group debuted as professional manga artists when they decided to print the manga RG Veda, which they had first started as a fan comic. After seeing the comic digest of the manga series that Clamp had published, an editor for Shinshokan's Wings manga magazine asked the group to work for them, they submitted an sixty-page story as a sample, but the work was rejected. Ohkawa lambasted the draft, stating that "everything was bad" and attributing the quality to the group's lack of experience, since they had never before completed a story as a cohesive group; the group was given another chance at publication should they submit a new story that Shinshokan liked.
During the time before their official debut, the group moved to Tokyo and rented a small, two-bedroom apartment. Ohkawa stated that she thought she was "gonna die there". Nekoi stated that "the only private space had was under desk." By the group's professional debut in 1989 with the manga RG Veda, serialized in Shinshokan's Wings magazine, its members had gone down to seven. During the production of the manga RG Veda, O-Kyon had left the group. In June 1990, Sei Nanao left the group, Sōshi Hishika, Kazue Nakamori, Shinya Omi left in March 1993. In October 1992, Tamayo Akiyama and Leeza Sei left the group. RG Veda was planned to be a single story rather than a series, although because of good reader response and higher-than-expected sales for its first volume Shinshokan permitted the group to create more volumes, however after each chapter of the manga was released, Shinshokan threatened that it would cease serialization should its popularity fall. In July 1989, Genki Comics began serializing Man of Many Faces.
It began serializing Duklyon: Clamp School Defenders in August 1991, which became the work that the three artists Mokona and Igarashi enjoyed working on most. In March 1990, Wings began serializing Tokyo Babylon. In December 1990, Monthly Asuka ran Clamp School Detectives, in May 1992, it began serializing X. Clamp was serialized by many other magazines and publishers including Kobunsha publishing Shirahime-Syo: Snow Goddess Tales on June 10, 1992. In 1993, Clamp released two different manga: in March, Miyuki-chan in Wonderland, which began serializing in Newtype, in November, Magic Knight Rayearth, serialized in Nakayoshi. Nakayoshi began to serialize Cardcaptor Sakura in May 1996. Kadokawa Shoten published The One I Love on July 17, 1995. Wish first began serializing in Asuka Comics DX in October 1996. In December 1998, Suki: A Like Story began first serializing in Asuka Comics DX, in January 1999, Angelic Layer first began serializing in Monthly Shōnen Ace. In 2001, Young Magazine began serializing Clamp's Chobits which completed its run in 2002.
Although their previous works are targeted at a female audience, Chobits marked the first time Clamp wrote for an older teen male audience. Clamp began writing the two works that tell separate parts of the same overarching plot, xxxHolic serialized in Young Magazine beginning in 2003 followed by Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle serialized in the Weekly Shōnen Magazine beginning in the same year. Tsubasa marked the first time Clamp had tried writing for a younger male audience, although their first work published in the Shōnen genre was Angelic LayerIn 2004, Clamp's 15th anniversary as a manga artist group, the members changed their names from Nanase Ohkawa, Mokona Apapa, Mick Nekoi, Satsuki Igarashi to Ageha Ohkawa, Tsubaki Nekoi and Satsuki Igarashi