Izabo is an Israeli band. Their musical style is diverse, ranging from indie rock and Middle Eastern music, they represented Israel at the Eurovision Song Contest 2012, with the song "Time". Izabo's debut LP, The Fun Makers, was released late 2003 to great critical acclaim; the songs Morning Hero and Cook Me became significant radio hits in Israel. In the following months Izabo signed on to Sony BMG, which released their British debut, The Morning Hero EP; the release was accompanied by a concert tour which took Izabo to England and the Netherlands. Izabo collaborated with a large variety of artists, on stage and in the studio, from Ahuva Ozeri to award-winning choreographer, Ohad Naharin. Izabo's collaboration with Shotei Hanevuah produced the hit single "Hu", which won the Music 24's "song of the year" award, their second LP, Super Light, was released in July 2008. The first single out of the LP is "Slow Disco", released on June 16, 2008. On March 2010, the band released a music video for their song "On My Way" using Apple Inc.'s iPhones as a creative motif.
On March 26, 2012, Izabo released an EP titled Summer Shade. This EP contains the tracks "Summer Shade", "On My Way" and "Life is on my side". In early February it was revealed that Izabo had been chosen by a group of mass communications and music industry experts to represent Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest 2012 in Baku, Azerbaijan; the song, has verses in English and choruses in Hebrew. However, they did not manage to make it past the semi-final. On the May 21, 2012, Izabo released the album Life is through 100 % Records; the album contains 14 tracks including a bonus track, "A Day In The Sun". The Fun Makers Super Light Life Is On My Side "Morning Hero" "Tomorrow" "Slow Disco" "Slow Disco" "Summer Shade" "Time" "I Like It" "Morning Hero" "Play with Me" "Cook Me" "Shawarma Hunters" "Slow Disco" "On My Way" "Summer Shade" "I Like It" "Time" Ran Shem-Tov and guitar Shiri Hadar, keyboards Jonathan Levy, bass Nir Mantzur, drums Official website Labeleh - The band's Israeli Label
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
Dance music is music composed to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are recorded dance music. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle, ecossaise and polonaise. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music. During the early 20th century, ballroom dancing gained popularity among the working class who attended public dance halls.
Dance music became enormously popular during the 1920s. In the 1930s, called the Swing era, Swing music was the popular dance music in America. In the 1950s, rock and roll became the popular dance music; the late 1960s saw the rise of R&B music. The rise of disco in the early 1970s led to dance music becoming popular with the public. By the late 1970s, electronic dance music was developing; this music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in nightclubs, radio stations and raves. Many subgenres of electronic dance music have evolved. Folk dance music is music accompanying traditional dance and may be contrasted with historical/classical, popular/commercial dance music. An example of folk dance music in the United States is the old-time music played at square dances and contra dances. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances such as carols and the Estampie.
The earliest of these surviving dances are as old as Western staff-based music notation. The Renaissance dance music was written for instruments such as the lute, tabor and the sackbut. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. Examples of dances include the French courante, sarabande and gigue. Collections of dances were collected together as dance suites. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement in four-movement non-vocal works such as sonatas, string quartets, symphonies, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era, as the minuet evolved into the scherzo. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle and polonaise. In the romantic music era, the growth and development of ballet extended the composition of dance music to a new height. Dance music was a part of opera. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music.
Dance music works bear the name of the corresponding dance, e.g. waltzes, the tango, the bolero, the can-can, salsa, various kinds of jigs and the breakdown. Other dance forms include contradance, the merengue, the cha-cha-cha, it is difficult to know whether the name of the music came first or the name of the dance. Ballads are chosen for slow-dance routines; however ballads have been deemed as the opposite of dance music in terms of their tempo. The ballad was a type of dance as well. Ballads are still danced on the Faeroe Islands. "Dansband" is a term in Swedish for bands who play a kind of popular music, "dansbandsmusik", to partner dance to. These terms came into use around 1970, before that, many of the bands were classified as "pop groups"; this type of music is popular in the Nordic countries. Disco is a genre of dance music containing elements of funk, soul and salsa, it was most popular during the mid to late 1970s. It inspired the electronic dance music genre. By 1981, a new form of dance music was developing.
This music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in dance music nightclubs, radio stations and raves. During its gradual decline in the late 1970s, disco became influenced by computerization. Looping and segueing as found in disco continued to be used as creative techniques within trance music, techno music and house music. Electronic dance music experienced a boom after the proliferation of personal computers in the 1980s, manifest in the dance element of Tony Wilson's Haçienda scene and London clubs like Delirium, The Trip, Shoom; the ongoing influence of Shoom can be seen in its 25th anniversary party, held at Cable Nightclub on 8 December 2012, which sold out in four days. The scene expanded to the Summer Of Love in Ibiza, which became the European capital of house and trance. Clubs like Sundissential and Manumission became househo
The Zohar is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah. It is a group of books including commentary on the mystical aspects of the Torah and scriptural interpretations as well as material on mysticism, mythical cosmogony, mystical psychology; the Zohar contains discussions of the nature of God, the origin and structure of the universe, the nature of souls, the relationship of Ego to Darkness and "true self" to "The Light of God", the relationship between the "universal energy" and man. Its scriptural exegesis can be considered an esoteric form of the Rabbinic literature known as Midrash, which elaborates on the Torah; the Zohar is written in what has been described as a cryptic, obscure style of Aramaic. Aramaic, the day-to-day language of Israel in the Second Temple period, was the original language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, is the main language of the Talmud. However, the Aramaic is not sophisticated and appears to be written by someone who did not know Aramaic as a native language.
Moreover, vocabulary from medieval Spanish and Portuguese is prevalent in the language of the Zohar. The Zohar first appeared in Spain in the 13th century, was published by a Jewish writer named Moses de León. De León ascribed the work to Shimon bar Yochai, a rabbi of the 2nd century during the Roman persecution who, according to Jewish legend, hid in a cave for thirteen years studying the Torah and was inspired by the Prophet Elijah to write the Zohar; this accords with the traditional claim by adherents that Kabbalah is the concealed part of the Oral Torah. While the traditional majority view in religious Judaism has been that the teachings of Kabbalah were revealed by God to Biblical figures such as Abraham and Moses and were transmitted orally from the Biblical era until their redaction by Shimon bar Yochai, modern academic analysis of the Zohar, such as that by the 20th century religious historian Gershom Scholem, has theorized that de León was the actual author; the view of some Orthodox Jews and Orthodox groups, as well as non-Orthodox Jewish denominations conforms to this latter view, as such, most such groups have long viewed the Zohar as pseudepigraphy and apocrypha, while sometimes accepting that its contents may have meaning for modern Judaism.
Jewish prayerbooks edited by non-Orthodox Jews may therefore contain excerpts from the Zohar and other kabbalistic works if the editors do not believe that they are oral traditions from the time of Moses. There are people of religions besides Judaism, or those without religious affiliation, who delve in the Zohar out of curiosity, or as a technology for seeking meaningful and practical answers about the meaning of their lives, the purpose of creation and existence and their relationships with the laws of nature, so forth. In the Bible, the word "Zohar" appears in the vision of Ezekiel 8:2 and is translated as meaning radiance or light, it appears again in Daniel 12:3, "Those who are wise will shine like the brightness of the heavens". Suspicions aroused by the facts that the Zohar was discovered by one person and that it refers to historical events of the post-Talmudic period while purporting to be from an earlier time, caused the authorship to be questioned from the outset. Joseph Jacobs and Isaac Broyde, in their article on the Zohar for the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, cite a story involving the Kabbalist Isaac of Acco, supposed to have heard directly from the widow of de León that her husband proclaimed authorship by Shimon bar Yochai for profit: A story tells that after the death of Moses de Leon, a rich man of Avila named Joseph offered Moses' widow a large sum of money for the original from which her husband had made the copy.
She confessed. She had asked him several times, she said, why he had chosen to credit his own teachings to another, he had always answered that doctrines put into the mouth of the miracle-working Shimon bar Yochai would be a rich source of profit; the story indicates that shortly after its appearance the work was believed by some to have been written by Moses de Leon. Isaac's testimony, which appeared in the first edition of Sefer Yuchasin, was censored from the second edition and remained absent from all editions thereafter until its restoration nearly 300 years in the 1857 edition. Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan states that Isaac evidently did not believe her since Isaac quotes the Zohar was authored by Rabbi Shimon bar Yohai in a manuscript in Kaplan's possession; this leads him to hypothesize that Moses de León's wife sold the original manuscript, as parchment was valuable, was embarrassed by the realization of its high ancient worth, leading her to claim it was written by her husband. Kaplan concludes saying.
The Zohar spread among the Jews with remarkable swiftness. Scarcely fifty years had passed since its appearance in Spain before it was quoted by many Kabbalists, including the Italian mystical writer Menahem Recanati and by Todros Abulafia. Certain Jewish communities, such as the Dor Daim and some Italian communities, never accepted it as authentic. By the 15th century, its authority i
Metula is a town in the Northern District of Israel. Metula is located between the sites of the Biblical cities of Dan, Abel Bet Ma'akha, Eyon, bordering Lebanon. In 2017 it had a population of 1,607. Metula is the most northern town in Israel. A settlement existed in the area in Byzantine periods. Ancient wine presses and a mosaic pavement have been found here. A tomb excavated in 1967 contained at least four graves dating from between the late third century and the late sixth century. In 1816, the traveller Buckingham visited "a large village, called Metully, altogether inhabited by Druses". In 1875, Victor Guérin described Methelleh or Metelleh as a village with a spring, occupied by Druzes from the Hauran who cultivated a garden to the east. Soon afterwards, in 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine recorded "El Mutallah: A small village, built of stone, containing about 100 Druzes, situated on slope of hill, near a large stream, surrounded by arable land." When the Druze Rebellion of 1895 broke out, the men of Mutallah joined its ranks.
Since the women were not able to cope with the work, the owner of the land, a Christian from Sidon named Jabur Bey Riskalas, sold 12,800 dunams of land to Baron de Rothschild's chief officer Joshua Ossovetski. It had been cultivated by more than 600 Druze tenant farmers; when the Druze Rebellion was put down, the men demanded their tenancy rights back. Ossovetski called in the Turkish authorities, who came to arrest the Druse as deserters and rebels, while Ossovetski offered them paltry compensation to leave the land. Many were unsatisfied and eight years of feuds and violent clashes ensued. An agreement was reached between the villagers and the Jewish Colonization Association in 1904 for an additional payment of 60,000 francs; this episode brought much criticism of the methods of Rothschild's agents, including some from other Zionists such as Ahad Ha'am. The Jewish moshava settlement was founded in June 1896 by 60 farming families from more established settlements and 20 families of non-farming professions.
Most of the founders were immigrants from Russia. Pioneers from Petah Tikva joined in settling Metula, as did some religious scholars from Safed. At the end of World War I, Metula was in the area of French military occupation; the British Zionist Norman Bentwich wrote in 1919: "Metullah, the most northern outpost, is acquiring a new function as a summer resort for the rest of the country. Its mountain air and its splendid site, high up above a ravine, down which a stream dashes headlong to Jordan, makes it a chosen place in the dry days, its few homesteads are crowded in July and August. Metullah is a summer station for the hardy women of the colonies. During the intervening years, the residents of Metula took part in elections for the Lebanese parliament; the bridge over Nahal Ayyun was built by the British in the years 1943-44. On June 17, 1946 all four Palmach battalions destroyed 11 border bridges; as a consequence, on June 29, 1946, the British soldiers imprisoned many Yishuv leaders and Palmach members.
The bridge was blown up again by the Palmach during the War of Independence. The bridge was repaired in the 1980s. In modern Israel, Metula is known as a wealthy town popular as a tourist destination for Israeli schoolchildren during summer vacation; the Good Fence was a border crossing from Metula to Lebanon opened in 1976 and closed in 2000 after Israel's withdrawal from Lebanon. The border crossing allowed the population of southern Lebanon to find jobs in northern Israel, access health services, attend school in Israel, transport goods; the Safari Disaster happened during the South Lebanon conflict. In the afternoon of Sunday, March 10, 1985, a convoy of IDF soldiers on their "Safari" model trucks were driving from Metula towards the Lebanese town of Marjayoun. Dozens of soldiers, just returned from Shabbat, were on their way to duty. In accordance with regulations, one armed jeep in the forefront and two on the tail, the soldiers were wearing helmets and bullet-proof vests, they were just crossing the narrow bridge over Nahal Ayyun at 13:45, when they noticed on the other side a red Chevrolet pickup truck driving towards them.
The soldiers of the first jeep noticed just one driver. They signaled him to pull over to let the convoy pass; the first jeep and the first safari truck passed, when at 13:50 a tremendous explosion occurred, which shattered windows back in Metula. The red truck exploded in a huge fireball, hurled soldiers through the air. Twelve soldiers were killed and 14 wounded in the explosion. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Metula became a ghost town as its population temporarily fled to escape Hezbollah rocket fire; the town was hit by 120 rockets during the war. The municipality governs a land area of 2,000 dunams. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, in September 2003 Metula had a population of 1,400, predominantly Jewish. Metula was declared a local council in 1949. According to the CBS, the population over the years was: 1948 – 172 1961 – 261 1972 – 333 1983 – 589 1995 – 942 200
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre