The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, processing, storing, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization as including recreational and commercial fishing, and the harvesting, the commercial activity is aimed at the delivery of fish and other seafood products for human consumption or as input factors in other industrial processes. Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and it is referred to as the seafood industry, although non-food items such as pearls are included among its products. The traditional sector, comprises enterprises and individuals associated with fisheries resources from which aboriginal people derive products in accordance with their traditions, in addition,1.3 million tons of aquatic plants were captured in wild fisheries and 14.8 million tons were produced by aquaculture. The number of fish caught in the wild has been estimated at 0. 97-2.7 trillion per year.
Following is a table of the 2011 world fishing industry harvest in tonnes by capture and by aquaculture. The top producing countries were, in order, the Peoples Republic of China, Peru and those countries accounted for more than half of the worlds production, China alone accounted for a third of the worlds production. Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms, unlike fishing, known as aquafarming, is the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled conditions. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments, particular kinds of aquaculture include algaculture, fish farming, shrimp farming, shellfish farming, and the growing of cultured pearls. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosed pools, fish species raised by fish farms include carp, tilapia and cod. Increasing demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing operations have caused widespread overfishing, fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein.
Fish processing is the processing of fish delivered by commercial fisheries, the larger fish processing companies have their own fishing fleets and independent fisheries. The products of the industry are usually sold wholesale to grocery chains or to intermediaries, fish processing can be subdivided into two categories, fish handling and fish products manufacturing. Aspects of fish processing occur on fishing vessels, fish processing vessels, fisheries are estimated to currently provide 16% of the world populations protein. The flesh of fish are primarily valued as a source of food. Other marine life taken as food includes shellfish, sea cucumber, jellyfish and other marine life can be used for many other uses and mother-of-pearl and rayskin. Sea horses, star fish, sea urchins and sea cucumber are used in traditional Chinese medicine, tyrian purple is a pigment made from marine snails, sepia is a pigment made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish. Fish glue has long valued for its use in all manner of products
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The need to do something for recreation is an element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be fun. The term recreation appears to have used in English first in the late 14th century, first in the sense of refreshment or curing of a sick person. Other factors that account for a role of recreation are affluence, population trends. This direction of thought has even extended to the view that leisure is the purpose of work, and a reward in itself. Leisure is considered a right under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Recreation is difficult to separate from the concept of play. Children may playfully imitate activities that reflect the realities of adult life, a traditional view holds that work is supported by recreation, recreation being useful to recharge the battery so that work performance is improved. Many activities may be work for one person and recreation for another, or, at a level, over time recreational activity may become work.
Thus, for a musician, playing an instrument may be at one time a profession, similarly, it may be difficult to separate education from recreation as in the case of recreational mathematics. Recreation is an part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped naturally by individual interests. Recreational activities can be communal or solitary, active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, a significant section of recreational activities are designated as hobbies which are activities done for pleasure on a regular basis. Some recreational activities - such as gambling, recreational use, or delinquent activities - may violate societal norms. Public space such as parks and beaches are venues for many recreational activities. Tourism has recognized that many visitors are attracted by recreational offerings. In support of recreational activities government has taken an important role in their creation and organization, many recreational activities are organized, typically by public institutions, voluntary group-work agencies, private groups supported by membership fees, and commercial enterprises.
Examples of each of these are the National Park Service, the YMCA, the Kiwanis, Recreation has many health benefits, accordingly, Therapeutic Recreation has been developed to take advantage of this effect
Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products and heavy equipment and facilities, or complex of numerous processes. Because of those factors, heavy industry involves higher capital intensity than light industry does, traditional examples from the mid-19th century through the early 20th included steelmaking, artillery production, locomotive erection, machine tool building, and the heavier types of mining. Modern shipbuilding is considered heavy industry, many East Asian countries rely on heavy industry as part of their overall economies. Heavy industry is sometimes a special designation in local zoning laws. Morris Teubal and Light Industry in Economic Development The American Economic Review, Vol.63, some Definitions in the Vocabulary of Geography, IV, British Association Glossary Committee, The Geographical Journal, Vol.118, No.3. Definition of Heavy Industry according to Investopedia. com
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, using and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals and values for human and environment benefits. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands, the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, social and managerial sciences. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester, other terms are used a verderer and a silviculturalist being common ones. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, and forestry has emerged as a vital applied science and technology. Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries, the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the wooden age, as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy and housing. The development of forestry is closely connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use.
Roman Latifundiae, large estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood that was necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with respectively after the decline of the Romans, however already in the 5th century, monks in the Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy, the use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han Dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan and it was later written about by the Ming Dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests. The notion of commons refers to the traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.
Systematic management of forests for a yield of timber is said to have begun in the German states in the 14th century, e. g. in Nuremberg. Typically, a forest was divided into sections and mapped. Large firs in the black forest were called „Holländer“, as they were traded to the Dutch ship yards, large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs. The crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, ovens, timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland. The notion of Nachhaltigkeit, sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. A client end-user can use their player to begin to play the data file before the entire file has been transmitted. For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popularly available streaming media, the term streaming media can apply to media other than video and audio such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, and real-time text, which are all considered streaming text. As of 2017, streaming is generally taken to refer to cases where a user watches digital video content or listens to audio content on a computer screen. With streaming content, the user does not have to download the digital video or digital audio file before they start to watch/listen to it. There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet, as of 2016, two popular streaming services are the video sharing website YouTube, which contains video and audio files on a huge range of topics and Netflix, which streams movies and TV shows.
Live streaming refers to Internet content delivered in real-time, as events happen, Live internet streaming requires a form of source media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content. Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, in the early 1920s, George O. Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid-20th century, little progress was made for several decades, primarily due to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to various media. These technological improvement facilitated the streaming of audio and video content to users in their homes and workplaces. The band Severe Tire Damage was the first group to live on the Internet. On June 24,1993, the band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, as proof of PARCs technology, the bands performance was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.
Microsoft Research developed a Microsoft TV application which was compiled under MS Windows Studio Suite, realNetworks was a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcast a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995. The first symphonic concert on the Internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, the concert was a collaboration between The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash, Matt Cameron, and Barrett Martin. When Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on the Internet.4 in 1999, in June 1999 Apple introduced a streaming media format in its QuickTime 4 application. It was widely adopted on websites along with RealPlayer. In 2000 Industryview. com launched its worlds largest streaming video archive website to help promote themselves
The modern Western music industry emerged between the 1930s and 1950s, when records replaced sheet music as the most important product in the music business. In the commercial world, the recording industry–a reference to recording performances of songs and pieces, labels outside of these three major labels are referred to as independent labels. The largest portion of the music market for concerts and tours is controlled by Live Nation. Live Nation is a subsidiary of iHeartMedia Inc, which is the largest owner of radio stations in the United States. In the first decades of the 2000s, the industry underwent drastic changes with the advent of widespread digital distribution of music via the Internet. A conspicuous indicator of changes is total music sales, since 2000. In 2011, the largest recorded music retailer in the world was now a digital, Internet-based platform operated by a computer company, printed music in Europe, Music publishing using machine-printed sheet music developed during the Renaissance music era in the mid-15th century.
The development of music followed the evolution of printing technologies that were first developed for printing regular books. After the mid-15th century, mechanical techniques for printing music were first developed. The earliest example, a set of chants, dates from about 1465. Prior to this time, music had to be copied out by hand, to copy music notation by hand was a very costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming process, so it was usually undertaken only by monks and priests seeking to preserve sacred music for the church. The few collections of music that are extant were commissioned and owned by wealthy aristocrats. Examples include the Squarcialupi Codex of Italian Trecento music and the Chantilly Codex of French Ars subtilior music, the use of printing enabled sheet music to reproduced much more quickly and at a much lower cost than hand-copying music notation. This helped musical styles to spread to cities and countries more quickly. With music printing, though, a composers music could be printed, as sheet music of major composers pieces and songs began to be printed and distributed in a wider area, this enabled composers and listeners to hear new styles and forms of music.
A German composer could buy songs written by an Italian or English composer, and this led to more blending of musical styles from different countries and regions. The pioneer of music printing was Ottaviano Petrucci, a printer and publisher who was able to secure a twenty-year monopoly on printed music in Venice during the 16th century. Venice was one of the business and music centers during this period
A business is an organizational entity involved in the provision of goods and services to consumers. Businesses may be social non-profit enterprises or state-owned public enterprises operated by governments with specific social, a business owned by multiple private individuals may form as an incorporated company or jointly organise as a partnership. Countries have different laws that may ascribe different rights to the business entities. The word business can refer to an organization or to an entire market sector or to the sum of all economic activity. Compound forms such as agribusiness represent subsets of the broader meaning. Businesses aim to maximize sales to have their income exceed their expenditures, resulting in a profit, the owner operates the business alone and may hire employees. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, partnership, A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business, the three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are, general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships.
Corporation, The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a legal personality from its owners. Corporations can be either government-owned or privately owned and they can organize either for profit or as nonprofit organizations. A privately owned, for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, a privately owned, for-profit corporation can be either privately held by a small group of individuals, or publicly held, with publicly traded shares listed on a stock exchange. Cooperative, Often referred to as a co-op, a cooperative is a limited-liability business that can organize as for-profit or not-for-profit, a cooperative differs from a corporation in that it has members, not shareholders, and they share decision-making authority. Cooperatives are typically classified as either consumer cooperatives or worker cooperatives, cooperatives are fundamental to the ideology of economic democracy. In contrast, unincorporated businesses or persons working on their own are not as protected.
Franchises, A franchise is a system in which entrepreneurs purchase the rights to open, franchising in the United States is widespread and is a major economic powerhouse. One out of retail businesses in the United States are franchised and 8 million people are employed in a franchised business. Real estate businesses sell, invest and develop properties – including land, residential homes, retailers and distributors act as middlemen and get goods produced by manufacturers to the intended consumers, they make their profits by marking up their prices. Most stores and catalog companies are distributors or retailers, transportation businesses such as railways, shipping companies that deliver goods and individuals to their destinations for a fee
Oil shale industry
Oil shale industry is an industry of mining and processing of oil shale—a fine-grained sedimentary rock, containing significant amounts of kerogen, from which liquid hydrocarbons can be manufactured. The industry has developed in Brazil, Estonia and to some extent in Germany, several other countries are currently conducting research on their oil shale reserves and production methods to improve efficiency and recovery. However, Australia has halted their pilot projects due to environmental concerns, Estonia accounted for about 70% of the worlds oil shale production in a study published in 2005. Oil shale has been used for industrial purposes since the early 17th century, since the late 19th century, shale oil has been used for its oil content and as a low grade fuel for power generation. However, barring countries having significant oil deposits, its use for power generation is not particularly widespread. Similarly, oil shale is a source for production of crude oil. Oil shale has been used since ancient times, modern industrial oil shale mining began in 1837 at the Autun mines in France, followed by Britain and several other countries.
The oil shale industry started growing just before World War I because of the production of automobiles and trucks. In 1924, the Tallinn Power Plant was the first power plant in the world to switch to oil shale firing, following the end of World War II, the oil shale industry declined due to the discovery of large supplies of easily accessible and cheaper crude oil. Oil shale production however, continued to grow in Estonia, following the 1973 oil crisis, the oil shale industry was restarted in several countries, but in the 1980s, when oil prices fell, many industries faced closure. The global oil industry has grown again from the mid-1990s. In 2003, the oil shale development program was initiated in the United States, and in 2005, as of May 2007, Estonia is actively engaged in exploitation of oil shale on a significant scale and accounts for 70% of the worlds processed oil shale. Estonia is unique in that its oil shale deposit account for just 17% of total deposits in European Union, Oil shale industry in Estonia employs 7,500 people, which is about 1% of national employment, accounting for 4% of its gross domestic product.
Oil shale is mined either by traditional underground mining or surface mining techniques, the main methods of surface mining are open pit mining and strip mining. An important method of mining is the room-and-pillar method. In this method, the material is extracted across a plane while leaving pillars of untouched material to support the roof. These pillars reduce the likelihood of a collapse, Oil shale can be obtained as a by-product of coal mining. The largest oil shale mine in the world is the Estonia Mine, in 2005, Estonia mined 14.8 million tonnes of oil shale
The term circus describes the performance which has followed various formats through its 250-year modern history. Philip Astley is credited with being the father of the circus when he opened the first circus in 1768 in England. Early circuses were almost exclusively demonstrations of equestrian skills with a few types of acts to link the horsemanship performances. Performances developed significantly through the next fifty years, with large scale theatrical battle reenactments becoming a significant feature, as styles of performance have changed since the time of Astley, so too have the types of venues where these circuses have performed. The earliest modern circuses were performed in open air structures with limited covered seating, from the late 18th to late 19th century custom-made circus buildings were built with various types of seating, a centre ring, and sometimes a stage. The traditional large tents, commonly known as Big Tops were introduced in the mid 19th century as touring circuses superseded static venues and these tents eventually became the most common venue and remain so to the present day.
Contemporary circuses perform in a variety of venues including tents, many circus performances are still held in a ring usually 13 m in diameter. This dimension was adopted by Philip Astley in the late 18th century as the minimum diameter that enabled a horse rider to stand upright on a cantering horse to perform their tricks. In the book De Spectaculis early Christian writer Tertullian claimed that the first circus games were staged by the goddess Circe in honour of her father Helios, the modern and commonly held idea of a circus is of a Big Top with various acts providing entertainment therein. For many, circus history begins with Englishman Philip Astley, while for others its origins go back much further—to Roman times. In Ancient Rome, the circus was a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, gladiatorial combat, the Roman circus buildings were, not circular but rectangular with semi circular ends. The lower seats were reserved for persons of rank, There were various state boxes for the giver of the games, the circus was the only public spectacle at which men and women were not separated.
It was constructed during the monarchy and, at first, built completely from wood, after being rebuilt several times, the final version of the Circus Maximus could seat 250,000 people, it was built of stone and measured 400m in length and 90m in width. Next in importance were the Circus Flaminius and the Circus Neronis, a fourth circus was constructed by Maxentius, its ruins have helped archaeologists reconstruct the Roman circus. For some time after the fall of Rome, large buildings fell out of use as centres of mass entertainment. Instead, itinerant performers, animal trainers and showmen travelled between towns throughout Europe, performing at local fairs, Astley performed stunts in a 42 ft diameter ring, which is the standard size used by circuses ever since. Astley referred to the arena as a Circle and the building as an amphitheatre. Joseph Grimaldi, the first mainstream clown, had his first major role as Little Clown in the pantomime The Triumph of Mirth, or, the Royal Circus opened in London on 4 November 1782 by Charles Dibdin and his partner Charles Hughes
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange