Hard Rock Cafe
Hard Rock Cafe Inc. is a chain of theme restaurants founded in 1971 by Isaac Tigrett and Peter Morton in London. In 1979, the cafe began covering its walls with rock and roll memorabilia, a tradition which expanded to others in the chain. In 2007, Hard Rock Cafe International, Inc. was sold to the Seminole Tribe of Florida and was headquartered in Orlando, Florida until April 2018 when the corporate offices were relocated to Davie, Florida. As of July 2018, Hard Rock International has venues in 74 countries, including 185 cafes, 25 hotels, 12 casinos; the first Hard Rock Cafe opened on 14 June 1971 at Old Park Lane, London, under the ownership of young Americans Isaac Tigrett and Peter Morton. Hard Rock had an eclectic decor, but it started to display memorabilia; the chain began to expand worldwide in 1982 with locations in Toronto, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago and Berlin. Hard Rock Cafe locations in the United States vary from smaller, more tourist driven markets to large metropolises.
Hard Rock Cafe does not franchise cafe locations in the United States. All US cafes are corporate owned and operated, except for cafes in Tampa and Four Winds New Buffalo casino. However, in the transition of the Las Vegas Hard Rock Hotel property owned and later sold to Rank by founder Peter Morton, Morton retained hotel naming rights west of the Mississippi; when Morton sold his Las Vegas Hard Rock Hotel to the Morgans Hotel Group, he sold those naming rights, which gave rise to two US franchised hotels in Albuquerque and Tulsa. The Albuquerque hotel no longer pays for the Hard Rock rights and reverted to its former name in June 2013. More hotels franchised from Morgan's are planned for Sioux Vancouver. In 1990, The Rank Group, a London-based leisure company, acquired Mecca Leisure Group and continued expansion of the concept in its geographic territory. Rank went on to purchase Hard Rock America from Peter Morton as well as Hard Rock Canada from Nick Bitove. After the completion of these acquisitions, Rank gained worldwide control of the brand.
In March 2007, the Seminole Tribe of Florida acquired Hard Rock Cafe International, Inc. and other related entities from Rank for US$965 million. In 2008, anonymous members of the wait staff criticized the business because of its practice of paying them less than half the official minimum wage in the UK, with the business allocating tips to staff to bring their salaries within the law. Most customers, it was argued, do not realize that they are subsidizing a low wage when they give the tip. HRC is known for its collection of rock-and-roll memorabilia; the cafes solicit donations of music memorabilia but purchase a number of items at auctions around the world, including autographed guitars, costumes from world tours and rare photographs. The collection began in 1979 with an un-signed Red Fender Lead II guitar from Eric Clapton, a regular at the first restaurant in London. Clapton wanted management to hang the guitar over his regular seat in order to lay claim to that spot, they obliged; this prompted Pete Townshend of The Who to give one of his guitars un-signed with the note "Mine's as good as his!
Love, Pete." Hard Rock's archive includes over 80,000 items, is the largest private collection of Rock and Roll memorabilia in the world. Marquee pieces from the collection were displayed in a Hard Rock museum named "The Vault" in Orlando, Florida from January 2003 until September 2004. After the closure, items were disbursed to various restaurant locations; the London Vault remains open and free to visitors, located in the retail Rock Shop of the original cafe. The Hard Rock Café is in possession of a Bedford VAL 6 axle coach used in the 1967 film The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour; the vehicle was refurbished after filming. It is displayed in the US, but makes regular appearances in events in the UK at the original Hard Rock Cafe in London. In 2001, a competition was run to win the actual bus, but it was never given away and remained with the cafe. In 1995, Peter Morton spent $80 million to open the Hard Rock Hotel near the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada. A subsequent $100 million expansion in 1999 nearly doubled the hotel's capacity.
In May 2006, Morton sold the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas to Morgans Hotel Group for $770 million, including the rights to the Hard Rock Hotel brand west of the Mississippi, including Texas, California and Vancouver, British Columbia. The hotel began another expansion in 2007 at a cost of $750 million; the project added 875 rooms in expanded meeting space. In March 2011, Morgans surrendered control of the property to partner Brookfield Asset Management, citing the high debt on the property in the face of the economic downturn. In April 2018, the Hard Rock Hotel in Las Vegas was sold to Richard Branson with plans to renovate the property under the Virgin Hotels brand. Today, the Seminole Tribe of Florida owns and operates all units except the Las Vegas, Sioux City and Vancouver properties. In 2004, Hard Rock International and Sol Melia Hotels and Resorts launched Lifestar Hoteles España SL, a joint venture that intended to manage Europe's first Hard Rock Hotel in Madrid, but it was never opened as a Hard Rock property upon the dissolution of the joint venture in 2007.
The other joint venture hotels are in Chicago, New York, San Diego. Hard Rock operates hotels and resorts in Orlando, Florida.
An amusement arcade is a venue where people play arcade games such as video games, pinball machines, electro-mechanical games, redemption games, merchandisers, or coin-operated billiards or air hockey tables. In some countries, some types of arcades are legally permitted to provide gambling machines such as slot machines or pachinko machines. Games are housed in cabinets; the term used for ancestors of these venues in the beginning of the 20th century was penny arcades. Video games were introduced in amusement arcades in the late 1970s and were most popular during the golden age of arcade video games, the early 1980s. Arcades became popular with children and adolescents, which led parents to be concerned that video game playing might cause them to skip school. A penny arcade can be any type of venue for coin-operated devices for entertainment; the term came into use about 1905-1910. The name derives from the penny, once a staple coin for the machines; the machines used included: bagatelles, a game with elements of billiards and non-electrical pinball, early forms of non-electrical pinball machines, fortune-telling machinery, slot machines, coin-operated Amberolas peep show machines, which allowed the viewer to see various objects and pictures Mutoscopes love tester machines.
Coin operated shooter gamesPenny arcades led to the creation of video arcades in the 1970s. Arcades catering for video games began to gain momentum in the late 1970s with games such as Space Invaders and Galaxian and became widespread in 1980 with Pac-Man and others; the central processing unit in these games allowed for more complexity than earlier discrete-circuitry games such as Atari's Pong. During the late 1970s video-arcade game technology had become sophisticated enough to offer good-quality graphics and sounds, but it remained basic and so the success of a game had to rely on simple and fun gameplay; this emphasis on the gameplay explains why many of these games continue to be enjoyed as of 2018, despite the progress made by modern computing technology. The golden age of video arcade games in the 1980s became a peak era of video arcade game popularity and earnings. Color arcade games became more prevalent and video arcades themselves started appearing outside their traditional bowling-alley and bar locales.
Designers experimented with a wide variety of game genres, while developers still had to work within strict limits of available processor-power and memory. The era saw the rapid spread of video arcades across Western Europe and Japan; the number of video-game arcades in North America, for example, more than doubled between 1980 and 1982, reaching a peak of 13,000 video game arcades across the region. Beginning with Space Invaders, video arcade games started to appear in supermarkets, liquor stores, gas stations and many other retail establishments looking for extra income; this boom came to an end in the mid-1980s, in what has been referred to as "the great coin-op video crash of 1983". On November 30, 1982, Jerry Parker, the Mayor of Ottumwa, declared his city the "Video Game Capital of the World"; this initiative resulted in many firsts in video game history. Playing a central role in arcade history, Ottumwa saw the birth of the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard and the U. S. National Video Game Team, two organizations that still exist today.
Other firsts that happened in the Video Game Capital of the World included: the first video-game-themed parade the first video game world championship the first study of the brain waves of video-game champions the first billion-point video-game performance the first official day to honor a video-game player High game-turnover in Japanese arcades required quick game-design, leading to the adoption of standardized systems like JAMMA, Neo-Geo and CPS-2. These systems provided arcade-only consoles where the video game ROM could be swapped to replace a game; this allowed easier development and replacement of games, but it discouraged the hardware innovation necessary to stay ahead of the technology curve. Most US arcades didn't see the intended benefit of this practice since many games weren't exported to the US, if they were, distributors refused to release them as a ROM, preferring to sell the entire ROM, sometimes the cabinet as a package. In fact, several arcade systems such as Sega's NAOMI board are arcade versions of home systems.
The arcade industry entered a major slump in mid-1994. Arcade attendance and per-visit spending, though not as poor as during the 1983 crash, declined to the point where several of the largest arcade chains either were put up for sale or declared bankruptcy, while many large arcade machine manufacturers moved to get out of the business. In the second quarter of 1996, video game factories reported 90,000 arcade cabinets sold, as compared to 150,000 cabinets sold in 1990; the main reason for the slump was increasing competition from console ports. During the 1980s it took several years for an arcade game to be released on a home console, the port differed from the arcade version. In the late 1990s, a bar opened in the new Crown Casino complex in Melbourne, Australia named Barcode
Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century; the drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients: coca leaves, kola nuts. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published; the Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce can contains 38 grams of sugar; the bottlers sell and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines throughout the world.
The Coca-Cola Company sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name; the most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, special versions with lemon and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. In 1885 at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, he registered Pemberton's French Wine Coca nerve tonic.
Pemberton's tonic may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French-Corsican coca wine, but his recipe additionally included the African kola nut, the beverage's source of caffeine. It is worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-Cola; the rights for this Spanish drink were bought by Coca-Cola in 1953. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of Pemberton's French Wine Coca; the first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886, where it sold for five cents a glass. Drugstore soda fountains were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health, Pemberton's new drink was marketed and sold as a patent medicine, Pemberton claiming it a cure for many diseases, including morphine addiction, nerve disorders and impotence.
Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J. C. Mayfield, A. O. Murphey, C. O. Mullahy, E. H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side.
Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler states: "... on April 14, 1888, the young druggist Asa Griggs Candler purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." The deal was between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750. In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; when Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" destroyed in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.
After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious t
Lingerie is a category of women's clothing including at least undergarments and lightweight robes. The specific choice of the word is motivated by an intention to imply the garments are alluring, fashionable or both. Lingerie is made of lightweight, smooth, sheer or decorative fabrics such as silk, Lycra, chiffon or lace; these fabrics can be made of natural fibres like silk or cotton or of synthetic fibres like polyester or nylon. The word lingerie is a word taken directly from the French language, meaning undergarments, used for more lightweight items of female undergarments; the French word in its original form derives from the old French word linge, meaning'linen'. So faire le linge, comes to mean "do the laundry". In French the word lingerie applies to all undergarments for either sex. In English it means women's underwear or nightclothes. Lingerie as a word was first used to refer to underwear and bras in 1922. Informal usage suggests visually appealing or erotic clothing. Although most lingerie is designed to be worn by women, some manufacturers now design lingerie for men.
The concept of lingerie is a visually appealing undergarment, developed during the late nineteenth century. Lady Duff-Gordon of Lucile was a pioneer in developing lingerie that freed women from more restrictive corsets. Through the first half of the 20th century, women wore underwear for three primary reasons: to alter their outward shape, for hygienic reasons and for modesty. Before the invention of crinoline, women's underwear was very large and bulky. During the late 19th century, corsets became smaller, less bulky and more constricting and were supplanted by the brassiere, first patented in the 20th century by Mary Phelps Jacob; when the First World War broke out, women found themselves filling in men's work roles, creating a demand for more practical undergarments. Manufacturers began to use more breathable fabrics. In 1935 brassières were updated with padded cups to flatter small breasts and three years underwire bras were introduced that gave a protruding bustline. There was a return to a small waist achieved with girdles.
The 1940s woman had curvaceous hips and breasts that were pointy and shapely. In the 1960s the female silhouette was liberated along with social mores; the look was slim hips and extreme thinness. André Courrèges was the first to make a fashion statement out of the youth culture when his 1965 collection presented androgynous figures and the image of a modern woman comfortable with her own body; as the 20th century progressed, underwear became more form fitting. In the 1960s, lingerie manufacturers such as Frederick's of Hollywood begin to glamorise lingerie; the lingerie industry expanded in the 21st century with designs. The French refer to this as'dessous-dessus,' meaning something akin to innerwear as outerwear; the lingerie market at the turn of the 21st century was driven by the advent of modern technologies and fabrics that help in designing innovative products such as laser-cut seamless bras and moulded T-shirt bras. Designers are putting greater emphasis on rich-looking fabrics, laces and brighter colours.
The global lingerie market in 2003 was estimated at $29 billion, while in 2005, bras accounted for 56 per cent of the lingerie market and briefs represented 29 per cent. The United States’s largest lingerie retailer, Victoria's Secret, operates exclusively in North America, but the European market is fragmented, with Triumph International and DB Apparel predominant. Prominent are French lingerie houses, including Chantelle and Simone Pérèle, each with a long history and a commitment to innovation and French style. Since the mid-1990s, women have had more choice in bra sizes. In the UK, for instance, the media are fuelling an awareness campaign about the need for each woman to have a proper bra fitting before every purchase. Babydoll, a short nightgown, or negligee, intended as nightwear for women. A shorter style, it is worn with panties. Babydolls are loose-fitting with an empire waist and thin straps. Basque, a tight, form-fitting bodice or coat. Bloomers, baggy underwear that extends to just below or above the knee.
Bloomers were worn for several decades during the first part of the 20th century, but are not worn today. Bodystocking, a unitard. Bodystockings may be worn over the torso. Bodice, covers the body from the neck to the waist. Bodices are low cut in the front and high in the back and are connected with laces or hooks. Bodices may be reinforced with steel or bone to provide greater breast support. Brassiere, more referred to as a bra, a close-fitting garment, worn to help lift and support a woman’s breasts Bustier, a form fitting garment used to push up the bust and to shape the waist. Camisole and covering the top part of the body. Camisoles are constructed of light materials and feature thin "spaghetti straps". Chemise, a one-piece undergarment, the same in shape as a straight-hanging sleeveless dress, it is similar to the babydoll, but it is fitted more around the hips. Corset, a bodice worn to mould and shape the torso; this effect is achieved through boning, either of bone or steel. Corselet, or merry widow, combined girdle.
The corselet is considered to be a type of foundation garment, the modern corselet is most known as a shaping slip. G-strin
Grand Canal Shoppes
The Grand Canal Shoppes is a 500,000 sq ft upscale shopping mall inside The Venetian Hotel & Casino and The Palazzo on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. The mall was opened along with the Venetian in 1999; the mall has indoor canals. The mall is anchored by a flagship, high-fashion Barneys New York store and contains many designer and upscale boutiques. Live performances can be found throughout the mall; the mall had 20 million visitors a year in 2008. Grand Canal Shoppes opened in 1999; the place was a Venetian-styled shopping mall with 91 shops for retail and entertainment. Retail includes Ann Taylor, Banana Republic and more. General Growth Properties acquired the 400,000 sq ft mall from Las Vegas Sands in 2004 for $776 million. In 2005, plans were made for an expansion to add 50 more shops for retail and more theater space. Plans were approved and built in 2007; the expansion was named "The Grand Canal Shoppes", but was renamed "The Shoppes at the Palazzo" to reflect the name of the hotel.
Now the mall has over 140 eateries. On May 16, 2013, General Growth sold half of its interest in the Grand Canal Shoppes, including the Shoppes at the Palazzo, in Las Vegas for net proceeds of $410 million as part of a new joint venture with TIAA-CREF. A replica of the Grand Canal Shoppes is built at The Venetian Macao in Macau SAR, China
Las Vegas Strip
The Las Vegas Strip is a stretch of South Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada, known for its concentration of resort hotels and casinos. The Strip is 4.2 miles in length, located south of the Las Vegas city limits in the unincorporated towns of Paradise and Winchester. However, the Strip is referred to as being in Las Vegas. Many of the largest hotel and resort properties in the world are located on the Strip; the boulevard's cityscape is highlighted by its use of contemporary architecture, a wide variety of attractions. Its hotels, restaurants, residential high-rises, entertainment offerings, skyline have established the Strip as one of the most popular and iconic tourist destinations in the world. Most of the Strip has been designated as an All-American Road and is considered a scenic route at night; the casinos that were not in Downtown Las Vegas along Fremont Street were limited to outside the city limits on Las Vegas Boulevard. In 1959, the Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas sign was constructed 4.5 miles outside the city limits.
The sign is today located in the median just south of Russell Road, across from the now-demolished Klondike Hotel & Casino, about 0.4 miles south of the southernmost entrance to Mandalay Bay. In the strictest sense, "the Strip" refers only to the stretch of Las Vegas Boulevard, between Sahara Avenue and Russell Road, a distance of 4.2 miles. However, the term is used to refer not only to the road but to the various casinos and resorts that line the road, to properties that are not on the road but are in proximity to it. Phrases such as Strip Area, Resort Corridor or Resort District are sometimes used to indicate a larger geographical area, including properties 1 mile or more away from Las Vegas Boulevard, such as the Hard Rock, Rio and Hooters casinos. A long-standing definition considers the Strip's northern terminus as the SLS, though travel guides extend it to include the Stratosphere 0.4 miles to the north. Mandalay Bay, located just north of Russell Road, is the southernmost resort considered to be on the Strip.
Because of the number and size of the resorts, the resort corridor can be quite wide. Interstate 15 runs parallel and 0.5 to 0.8 miles to the west of Las Vegas Boulevard for the entire length of the Strip. Paradise Road runs to the east in a similar fashion, ends at St. Louis Avenue; the eastern side of the Strip is bounded by McCarran International Airport south of Tropicana Avenue. North of this point, the resort corridor can be considered to extend as far east as Paradise Road, although some consider Koval Lane as a less inclusive boundary. Interstate 15 is sometimes considered the western edge of the resort corridor from Interstate 215 to Spring Mountain Road. North of this point, Industrial Road serves as the western edge. Newer hotels and resorts such as South Point, Grandview Resort, M Resort are on Las Vegas Boulevard South as distant as 8 miles south of the "Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas" sign. Marketing for these casinos states that they are on southern Las Vegas Boulevard and not "Strip" properties.
The first casino to be built on Highway 91 was the Pair-o-Dice Club in 1931, but the first resort on what is the Strip was the El Rancho Vegas, opening on April 3, 1941, with 63 rooms. That casino/ resort stood for 20 years before being destroyed by a fire in 1960, its success spawned a second hotel on what would become the Strip, the Hotel Last Frontier in 1942. Organized crime figures such as New York's Bugsy Siegel took interest in the growing gaming center leading to other resorts such as the Flamingo, which opened in 1946, the Desert Inn, which opened in 1950; the funding for many projects was provided through the American National Insurance Company, based in the notorious gambling empire of Galveston, Texas. Las Vegas Boulevard South was called Arrowhead Highway, or Los Angeles Highway; the Strip was named by Los Angeles police officer and businessman Guy McAfee, after his hometown's Sunset Strip. Caesars Palace was established in 1966. In 1968, Kirk Kerkorian purchased the Flamingo and hired Sahara Hotels Vice President Alex Shoofey as President.
Alex Shoofey brought along 33 of Sahara's top executives. The Flamingo was used to train future employees of the International Hotel, under construction. Opening in 1969, the International Hotel, with 1,512 rooms, began the era of mega-resorts; the International is known as Westgate Las Vegas today. The first MGM Grand Hotel and Casino a Kerkorian property, opened in 1973 with 2,084 rooms. At the time, this was one of the largest hotels in the world by number of rooms; the Rossiya Hotel built in 1967 in Moscow, for instance, had 3,200 rooms. On November 21, 1980, the MGM Grand suffered the worst resort fire in the history of Las Vegas as a result of electrical problems, killing 87 people, it reopened eight months later. In 1986, Kerkorian sold the MGM Grand to Bally Manufacturing, it was renamed Bally's; the Wet'n Wild water park was located on the south side of the Sahara hotel. It closed at the end of the 2004 season and was demolished; the opening of The Mirage in 1989 set a new level to the Las Vegas experience, as smaller hotels and casinos made way for the larger mega-resorts.
The Rio and the Excalibur opened in 1990. These huge facil