A showrunner is the leading producer of a television series. They are credited in the United States as an executive producer and in other countries as a producer, such as Canada or Britain. A showrunner has creative and management responsibility of a television series production through combining the responsibilities of employer and, in comedy or dramas also character creator, head writer, script editor. In films, the director has creative control of a production, but in television, the showrunner outranks the episodic directors. Traditionally, the executive producer of a television program was the chief executive, responsible for the show's creative direction and production. Over time, the title of executive producer was applied to a wider range of roles—from someone who arranges financing to an "angel" who holds the title as an honorific with no management duties in return for providing backing capital; the term showrunner was created to identify the producer who holds ultimate management and creative authority for the program.
The blog and book Crafty Screenwriting defines a showrunner as "the person responsible for all creative aspects of the show and responsible only to the network. The boss. A writer."Los Angeles Times columnist Scott Collins describes showrunners as: "Hyphenates", a curious hybrid of starry-eyed artists and tough-as-nails operational managers. They're not just writers, they hire and fire writers and crew members, develop story lines, write scripts, cast actors, mind budgets and run interference with studio and network bosses. It's one of the most unusual and demanding, right-brain/left-brain job descriptions in the entertainment world....howrunners make – and create – the show and now more than shows are the only things that matter. In the "long tail" entertainment economy, viewers don't watch networks, they don't care about networks. They watch shows, and they don't care. Shane Brennan, the showrunner for NCIS and NCIS: Los Angeles, stated in an interview that:... the moniker was created to identify the producer who held ultimate management and creative authority for the program, given the way the honorific "executive producer" was applied to a wider range of roles.
There's the fact that anyone with any power wanted a producer's credit, including the leading actors, who did no more than say the writers' lines. "It had got to the stage where it was confusing. The showrunner is the creator or co-creator of the series, but they move on and day-to-day responsibilities of the position fall to other writers or writing teams. Law & Order, ER, The Simpsons, The West Wing, Star Trek: The Next Generation, NYPD Blue and The Walking Dead are all examples of long-running shows that had successive, multiple showrunners; the Writers Guild of Canada, the union representing screenwriters in Canada, established the Showrunner Award in 2007, at the annual Canadian Screenwriting Awards. The first Showrunner Award was presented in April 2007 to Brad Wright, executive producer of Stargate Atlantis and Stargate SG-1. In the first decade of the 21st century, the concept of a showrunner interpreted as a writer or presenter with overall responsibility for a television production, began to spread to the British television industry.
The first British comedy series to use the term was My Family, which had several showrunners in succession. The show was overseen by creator Fred Barron from series 1–4. Ian Brown and James Hendrie took over for series 5, followed by American writer Tom Leopold for series 6. Former Cheers showrunner Tom Anderson was in charge from series 7 to the final series, series 11; the first writer appointed the role of showrunner on a British primetime drama was Tony McHale and creator of Holby City, in 2005. Jed Mercurio had carried out a similar role on the less conspicuous medical drama Bodies, but Russell T Davies' work on the 2005 revival of Doctor Who brought the term to prominence in British television. In an interview, Davies said that he felt the role of the showrunner was to establish and maintain a consistent tone in a drama. Doctor Who remains the most prominent example of a British television programme with a showrunner, with Steven Moffat having taken over the post from Davies from 2010 until 2017.
Chris Chibnall has since taken over from Moffat. The term has been used to refer to other writer-producers, such as Tony Jordan on Moving Wallpaper and Echo Beach, Ann McManus on Waterloo Road, Adrian Hodges on Primeval and Jed Mercurio on Bodies, Line of Duty, Critical. Television program creators Television producer Television crew Screenwriter Television director Producer
The Best of Connie Smith, Vol. 2 is the second compilation album by American country music artist, Connie Smith. The album was produced by Bob Ferguson; the album contained Smith's major hits between 1967 and 1970, included two new tracks, "You and Your Sweet Love", released as a single, "Only For Me", not. The Best of Connie Smith contained ten tracks, nine of which were recorded by Connie Smith; the album included Smith's major hit singles back to 1967, including "Burning a Hole in My Mind," "Baby's Back Again," "Run Away Little Tears," and "Ribbon of Darkness". The album included previous album tracks that were never single releases: "How Great Thou Art," "Don't Feel Sorry for Me," and "Seattle", it was issued on a 12-inch LP album, with five songs on each side of the record. The album has not been reissued since its original release on vinyl; the Best of Connie Smith, Vol. 2 included one new track, "You and Your Sweet Love." The song was released as a single in October 1969, became a Top 10 hit, peaking at #6 on the Billboard Magazine Hot Country Songs chart.
In addition, the album itself reached a peak position. The album reached a peak of #26 on the Billboard Top Country Albums chart upon its official release in March 1970. AlbumsSingles
The Speculum Humanae Salvationis or Mirror of Human Salvation was a bestselling anonymous illustrated work of popular theology in the late Middle Ages, part of the genre of encyclopedic speculum literature, in this case concentrating on the medieval theory of typology, whereby the events of the Old Testament prefigured, or foretold, the events of the New Testament. The original version is in rhyming Latin verse, contains a series of New Testament events each with three Old Testament ones that prefigure it, it is one of the most common books found as an illuminated manuscript, in early printing in both blockbook and incunabulum forms. After a short Prologue and Prohemium, both unillustrated, the first two chapters deal with the Creation, the Fall of Satan, the story of Adam and Eve and the Deluge in four pages. Follow forty more double-page chapters where a New Testament event is compared with three from the Old Testament, with four pictures each above a column of text; each chapter occupies one two page opening.
The last three chapters cover the Seven Stations of the Cross, the Seven Joys and Sorrows of Mary, at double this length. In all a complete standard version has fifty-two leaves, or 104 pages, 192 illustrations; the blockbook editions were much shorter, with two to a woodblock. The writing of the text follows an exact scheme: twenty-five lines per column, with two columns per page, one under each miniature, so a hundred lines per standard chapter. Sometimes there are captions over the pictures as well, of varying content. Many copies reduced the original text by omitting the non-standard chapters at the beginning or end, whilst others boosted the content with calendars and commentaries, or extra illustrations; the work originated between 1309, as a reference to the Pope being at Avignon indicates, 1324, the date on two copies. A preface from the original manuscript, says the author does not give his name out of humility, though numerous suggestions have been made, he was certainly a cleric, there is evidence he was a Dominican.
Ludolph of Saxony is a leading candidate for authorship, Vincent of Beauvais has been suggested. The first versions are in illuminated manuscript form, in Latin. Many copies were made, several hundred still survive in translations into different vernacular languages. There were translations into German and Czech. Manuscript versions covered the whole range of the manuscript market: some are lavishly and expensively decorated, for a de luxe market, whilst in many the illustrations are simple, without colour. In particular, superb Flemish editions were produced in the 15th century for Philip the Good and other wealthy bibliophiles; the Speculum is the most popular title in this particular market of illustrated popular theology, competing with the Biblia pauperum and the Ars moriendi for the accolade. In the 15th century, with the advent of printing, the work appeared in four blockbook editions, two Latin and two in Dutch, in sixteen incunabulum editions by 1500; the blockbooks present unique questions as only editions of this work combine hand-rubbed woodcut pages with text pages printed in movable type.
Further eccentricities include a run of twenty pages in one edition which are text cut as a woodcut, based on tracings of pages from another edition printed with movable type. Though the circumstances of production of these editions are unknown, two of the editions are in Dutch and the Netherlands was the centre of production, as with most blockbooks. Hind places them in Holland, from about 1470–75, it appears the Prohemium may have been sold separately as a pamphlet, as one version speaks of the usefulness of it for "poor preachers who cannot afford the entire book". The incunabulum editions, from eleven different presses but not all, printed their woodcut illustrations in the printing press with the text; some seem to have been printed in two sessions for images. Günther Zainer of Augsburg, a specialist in popular illustrated works, produced the first one in 1473, in Latin and German, with a metrical summary newly added for each chapter. Further incunabulum editions include Latin, French and Dutch versions, it was the first illustrated book printed in both Switzerland, at Basel, France, at Lyon, which used the Basel picture blocks also used in Spain.
A Speyer edition has woodcuts. In addition, the first of the somewhat legendary editions produced by Laurens Janszoon Coster, working earlier than Johannes Gutenberg, was a Speculum. If the Coster story is ignored, the work seems to have been the first printed in the Netherlands in the early 1470s. Editions continued to be printed until the Reformation, which changed the nature of religious devotion on both sides of the Catholic/Protestant divide, made the Speculum seem outdated; the images in the Speculum were treated in many different styles and media over the course of the two centuries of its popularity, but the essentials of the compositions remained stable because most images had to retain their correspondence with their opposite number, the figures were posed to highlight these correspondences. Many works of art in other media can be seen to be derived from the illustrations.