In the Vedas, Aditi is mother of the gods specially Sun.or the "Mother of Sun"and all twelve zodiacal spirits from whose cosmic matrix, the heavenly bodies were born. As celestial mother of every existing form and being, the synthesis of all things, she is associated with space and with mystic speech, she may be associated with the primal substance in Vedanta. She is mentioned nearly 80 times in the Rigveda: the verse "Daksha sprang from Aditi and Aditi from Daksha" is seen by Theosophists as a reference to "the eternal cyclic re-birth of the same divine Essence" and divine wisdom. Aditi is second wife of Rishi Kashyap. In contrast, the Puranas, such as the Shiva Purana and the Bhagavata Purana, suggest that Aditi is wife of Rishi Kashyap and gave birth to the Adityas such as Indra and Vamana; the name is mentioned in Vedas as other celestial bodies or gods Adityas. The first mention of goddess Aditi is found in Rigveda, estimated to have been composed during 1700-1100 BC. Aditi with sage Kashyapa had 33 sons, out of which twelve are called Aditya including Surya, eleven are called Rudras and eight are called Vasus.
Aditi is said to be the mother of kings and the mother of gods. In the Vedas, Aditi is Devamata in her cosmic matrix all the heavenly bodies were born, she is preeminently the mother of 12 Adityas whose names include Vivasvān, Aryamā, Pūṣā, Tvaṣṭā, Bhaga, Dhātā, Varuṇa, Mitra, Śakra, Vishnu She is the mother of the Vamana avatar of Vishnu. Accordingly, Lord Vishnu was born in his Vamana avatar as the son of Aditi in the month of Shravana under the star Shravana. Many auspicious signs appeared in the heavens. In the Rigveda, Aditi is one of the most important figures of all; as a mothering presence, Aditi is asked to guard the one who petitions her or to provide him or her with wealth and abundance. Aditi is mentioned in the Rigveda along with other gods and goddesses. There is no one hymn addressed to her, unlike other Vedic gods, she is not related to a particular natural phenomenon like other gods. Compared to Usha and Prithvi, Aditi can be defined as the cosmic creator. Aditi means Freedom; the name Aditi suggests another attribute of her character.
As A-diti, she is an unbound, free soul and it is evident in the hymns to her that she is called to free the petitioner from different hindrances sin and sickness.. In one hymn, she is asked to free a petitioner, tied up like a thief; as one who unbinds, her role is similar to her son Varuna's as guardian of Rta, cosmic moral order. She is called the supporter of creatures, it means'one of its kind' or'unique.' Aditi challenges the modern idea. Aditi was regarded as both the sky goddess, earth goddess, rare for a prehistoric civilization. Most prehistoric civilizations venerated a dual principle, Sky Father and Earth Mother, which appears to be borrowed from the concept of Prithivi and Dyaus Pita. Aditi was attributed the status of first deity by the Vedic culture, although she is not the only one attributed this status in the Vedas, she is addressed, in the Rigveda as "Mighty". Like many other Hindu gods and goddesses, Aditi has a savari. Aditi flies across the boundless sky on a rooster; the rooster symbolizes honour.
Her weapons include a sword. We can find one old temple of Aditi devi near rock cut cave in Kerala. Payovrata Rishi Kashyapa Kinsley, David. Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions, Motilal Banarsidass Publications, 1998. ISBN 978-81-208-0394-7 Aditi in Bhagavad-gītā
Prajapati is a Vedic deity of Hinduism. The term connotes many different gods, depending on the Hindu text, ranging from being the creator god to being same as one of the following: Brahma, Shiva, Indra, Bharata and many others. According to George Williams, the inconsistent and evolving Prajapati concept in Hindu mythology reflects the diverse Hindu cosmology. In classical and medieval era literature, Prajapati is equated to the metaphysical concept called Brahm as Prajapati-Brahm, or alternatively Brahm is described as one who existed before Prajapati. Prajapati is a compound of "praja" and "pati"; the term means "lord of creatures", or "lord of all born beings". In the Vedic texts, Prajapati is a distinct Vedic deity, but whose significance diminishes; the term is synonymous with other gods Brahma or Vishnu or Shiva. Still the term evolves to mean any divine, semi-divine or human sages who create something new; the origins of Prajapati are unclear. He appears late in the Vedic layer of texts, the hymns that mention him provide different cosmological theories in different chapters.
He is missing from the Samhita layer of Vedic literature, conceived in the Brahmana layer, states Jan Gonda. Prajapati is younger than Savitr, the word was an epithet for the sun, his profile rises in the Vedas, peaking within the Brahmanas. Scholars such as Renou and Bhattacharji posit Prajapati originated as an abstract or semi-abstract deity in the Vedic milieu as speculations evolved from the archaic to more learned speculations. A possible connection between Prajapati and the Prōtogonos of the Greek Orphic tradition has been proposed: Protogonos is the Orphic equivalent of Vedic Prajapati in several ways: he is the first god born from a cosmic egg, he is the creator of the universe, in the figure of Dionysus— a direct descendant of Protogonos—worshippers participate in his death and rebirth. According to Robert Graves, the name of /PRA-JĀ-pati/ is etymologically equivalent to that of the oracular god at Colophon, namely /prōtogonos/; the cosmic egg concept linked to Prajapati and Protogonos is common in many parts of the world, states David Leeming, which appears in Orphic cult in Greece.
Prajapati is described in many ways and inconsistently in Hindu texts, both in the Vedas and in the post-Vedic texts. These range from being the creator god to being same as one of the following: Brahma, Shiva, Indra, Bharata and many others, his role varies within the Vedic texts such as being one who created heaven and earth, all of water and beings, the chief, the father of gods, the creator of devas and asuras, the cosmic egg and the Purusha. His role peaked in the Brahmanas layer of Vedic text declined to being a group of helpers in the creation process. In some Brahmana texts, his role remains ambiguous since he co-creates with the powers with goddess Vāc. In the Rigveda, Prajapati appears as an epithet for Savitr, Soma and Indra, who are all praised as equal and lord of creatures. Elsewhere, in hymn 10.121 of the Rigveda, is described Hiranyagarbha, born from the waters containing everything, which produced Prajapati. It created manah and tapas. However, this Prajapati is a metaphor, one of many Hindu cosmology theories, there is no supreme deity in the Rigveda.
One of the striking features about the Hindu Prajapati myths, states Jan Gonda, is the idea that work of creation is a gradual process, completed in stages of trial and improvement. In the Shatapatha Brahmana, embedded inside the Yajurveda, Prajapati emanated from Purusha and Prajapati co-creates the world with the goddess of Language, it includes the "golden cosmic egg" mythology, wherein Prajapati is stated to be born from a golden egg in primeval sea after the egg was incubated for a year. His sounds became the earth and the seasons; when he inhaled, he created the devas and light. When he exhaled, he darkness. Together with the goddess of Language, he created all beings and time. In Chapter 10 of the Shatapatha Brahmana, as well as chapter 13 of Pancavimsa Brahmana, is presented another theory wherein he is a mother, becomes self-pregnant with all living creatures self-generated evil Mrtyu seizes these beings within his womb, but because these beings are part of the eternal Prajapati, they desire to live long like him.
The Aitareya Brahmana offers a different myth, wherein Prajapati, having created the gods, metamorphosed into a stag and approached his daughter Dawn, in the form of a doe, to produce other earthly beings. The gods were horrified by the incest, joined forces to produce angry destructive Rudra to punish Prajapati for "doing what is not done". Prajapati was killed by Rudra; the Kausitaki Brahmana offers yet another myth, wherein Prajapati created from his own self fire, moon and feminine dawn. The first four released their seeds, which became existence. In section 2.266 of Jaiminiya Brahmana, Prajapati is presented as a spiritual teacher. His student Varuna lives with him for 100 years, studying the art and duties of being the "father-like king of gods". Prajapati appears among the most influential texts in Hinduism, he is described in the Upanishads in diverse ways. For example, in different Upanishads, he is presented as the
Suryavansha is a historical dynasty of ancient India. The term Suryavanshi refers to a person belonging to the Suryvansha dynasty. Raghuvanshi is an offshoot of the Suryavanshi clan. Rajput is Suryavanshi and some Rajput is Chandravanshi The Puranas the Vishnu Purana, the Ramayana of Valmiki and the Mahabharata of Vyasa all contain accounts of this dynasty; the Raghuvansha of Kalidasa mentions the names of some of the kings of this dynasty. Historical Rama, website
Ila or Ilā is an androgyne deity in Hindu mythology, known for their sex changes. As a man, he is known as Sudyumna and as a woman, is called Ilā. Ilā is considered the chief progenitor of the Lunar dynasty of Indian kings – known as the Ailas. While many versions of the tale exist, Ila is described as a daughter or son of Vaivasvata Manu and thus the sibling of Ikshvaku, the founder of the Solar Dynasty. In versions in which Ila is born female, she changes into a male form by divine grace soon after her birth. After mistakenly entering a sacred grove as an adult, Ila is either cursed to change his/her gender every month or cursed to become a woman; as a woman, Ilā married Budha, the god of the planet Mercury and the son of the lunar deity Chandra, bore him a son called Pururavas, the father of the Lunar dynasty. After the birth of Pururavas, Ilā fathered three sons. In the Vedas, Ilā is praised as Idā, goddess of speech, described as mother of Pururavas; the tale of Ila's transformations is told in the Puranas as well as the Indian epic poems, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
According to the Linga Purana and the Mahabharata, Ilā was born as the eldest daughter of Vaivasvata Manu, the progenitor of mankind, his wife Shraddha. However, the parents desired a son and so prayed and performed austerities to propitiate the deities Mitra and Varuna, who changed Ilā's gender; the boy was named Sudyumma. The Bhagavata Purana, the Devi-Bhagavata Purana, the Kurma Purana, the Harivamsa, the Markandeya Purana and the Padma Purana narrate a variant: Ila's parents could not have any children for a long time and approached the sage Agastya for a solution; the sage performed a yajna dedicated to Varuna to attain a son for the couple. Due to either an error in the ritual, or a failure to offer the appropriate sacrifice and Varuna instead sent a daughter to the couple. In one version, the couple supplicated the deities. In another version, this transformation happens after the erroneous hymns are rectified and the son is called Ila. According to a variant, Shraddha wished for a daughter.
However, Manu desired a son. Ilā was renamed Sudhyumna; the accounts describe Ila as the youngest child of Manu. As the child of Manu, Ila had nine brothers, the most notable was Ikshvaku, the founder of the Solar dynasty; as the son of Manu, Ila is the grandson of Surya. According to another account found in the Vayu Purana and the Brahmanda Purana, Ilā was born female and remained female. In the Ramayana, Ila is born as a son of the Prajapati born of the god Brahma's shadow. Ila's tale is told in the Uttara Kanda chapter of the Ramayana, while describing the greatness of the Ashvamedha – the horse sacrifice. In the Ramayana, the Linga Purana and the Mahabharata, Ila grows to become the king of Bahlika. While hunting in a forest, Ila accidentally trespassed Sharavana, the sacred grove of the goddess Parvati, the consort of the god Shiva. Upon entering Sharavana, all male beings except for Shiva, including trees and animals, are transformed into females. In the Ramayana Shiva had assumed the form of a female to please the goddess.
One legend tells that a female yakshini disguised herself as a deer and purposefully led Ila to the grove in order to save her husband from the king. The Linga Purana and the Mahabharata emphasize the sex change of Ila to be a deliberate act of Shiva to start the Lunar dynasty; the Bhagavata Purana et al. texts tell that Ila's entire entourage as well as his horse changed their genders. According to the Ramayana, when Ila approached Shiva for help, Shiva laughed with scorn but the compassionate Parvati reduced the curse and allowed Ila to switch genders every month. However, as a male he would not remember his life as a vice versa. While Ilā roamed the forest in her new form with her female attendants, the god of the planet Mercury and the son of the moon-god Chandra, noticed her. Although he had been practising asceticism, Ilā's beauty caused him to fall in love with her at first sight. Budha turned Ilā's attendants into Kimpurushas and ordered them to run away, promising that they would find mates as Ilā had.
Ilā spent an entire month with him and consummated the marriage. However, Ilā remembered nothing about the past month. Budha told Ila that his retinue had been killed in a rain of stones and convinced Ila to stay with him for a year. During each month she spent as a woman, Ilā had good time with Budha. During each month as a man, Ila turned to pious ways and performed austerities under the guidance of Budha. In the ninth month, Ilā gave birth to Pururavas, who grew to become the first king of the Lunar dynasty; as per the advice of Budha and Ila's father Kardama, Ila pleased Shiva with a horse sacrifice and Shiva restored Ila's masculinity permanently. Another legend from the Vishnu Purana credits Vishnu of restoring Ilā's manhood as Sudyumma; the Bhagavata Purana et al. texts tell that after Pururavas's birth, the nine brothers of Ila – by horse sacrifice – or the sage Vasistha – the family priest of Ila – pleased Shiva to compel him to give the boon of alternate month manhood to Ila, turning him into a Kimpurusha.
The Linga Purana and the Mahabharata record the birth of Pururavas, but do not narrate the end of Ila's alternating gender condition. In fact, the Mahabharata describes Ilā to be the mother as well
An avatar, a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth. The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to any guru or revered human being; the word avatar does not appear in the Vedic literature, but appears in verb forms in post-Vedic literature, as a noun in the Puranic literature after the 6th century CE. Despite that, the concept of an avatar is compatible with the content of the Vedic literature like the Upanishads as it is symbolic imagery of the Saguna Brahman concept in the philosophy of Hinduism; the Rigveda describes Indra as endowed with a mysterious power of assuming any form at will. The Bhagavad Gita expounds the doctrine of Avatara but with terms other than avatar. Theologically, the term is most associated with the Hindu god Vishnu, though the idea has been applied to other deities. Varying lists of avatars of Vishnu appear in Hindu scriptures, including the ten Dashavatara of the Garuda Purana and the twenty-two avatars in the Bhagavata Purana, though the latter adds that the incarnations of Vishnu are innumerable.
The avatars of Vishnu are important in Vaishnavism theology. In the goddess-based Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, avatars of the Devi in different appearances such as Tripura Sundari and Kali are found. While avatars of other deities such as Ganesha and Shiva are mentioned in medieval Hindu texts, this is minor and occasional; the incarnation doctrine is one of the important differences between Vaishnavism and Shaivism traditions of Hinduism. Incarnation concepts similar to avatar are found in Buddhism and other religions; the scriptures of Sikhism include the names of numerous Hindu gods and goddesses, but it rejected the doctrine of savior incarnation and endorsed the view of Hindu Bhakti movement saints such as Namdev that formless eternal god is within the human heart and man is his own savior. The Sanskrit noun is derived from the Sanskrit roots ava and tṛ; these roots trace back, states Monier-Williams, to -taritum, -tarati, -rītum. Avatar means "descent, alight, to make one's appearance", refers to the embodiment of the essence of a superhuman being or a deity in another form.
The word implies "to overcome, to remove, to bring down, to cross something". In Hindu traditions, the "crossing or coming down" is symbolism, states Daniel Bassuk, of the divine descent from "eternity into the temporal realm, from unconditioned to the conditioned, from infinitude to finitude". An avatar, states Justin Edwards Abbott, is a saguna embodiment of Atman. Neither the Vedas nor the Principal Upanishads mention the word avatar as a noun; the verb roots and form, such as avatarana, do appear in ancient post-Vedic Hindu texts, but as "action of descending", but not as an incarnated person. The related verb avatarana is, states Paul Hacker, used with double meaning, one as action of the divine descending, another as "laying down the burden of man" suffering from the forces of evil. Mahesh is an avatar of Lord Vishnu; the term is most found in the context of the Hindu god Vishnu. The earliest mention of Vishnu manifested in a human form to empower the good and fight against evil, uses other terms such as the word sambhavāmi in verse 4.6 and the word tanu in verse 9.11 of the Bhagavad Gita, as well as other words such as akriti and rupa elsewhere.
It is in medieval era texts, those composed after the sixth century CE, that the noun version of avatar appears, where it means embodiment of a deity. The idea proliferates thereafter, in the Puranic stories for many deities, with ideas such as ansha-avatar or partial embodiments; the term avatar, in colloquial use, is an epithet or a word of reverence for any extraordinary human being, revered for his or her ideas. In some contexts, the term avatara just means a "landing place, site of sacred pilgrimage", or just "achieve one's goals after effort", or retranslation of a text in another language; the term avatar is not unique to Hinduism. It is found in the Trikaya doctrine of Mahayana Buddhism, in descriptions for the Dalai Lama in Tibetan Buddhism, many ancient cultures; the manifest embodiment is sometimes referred to as an incarnation. The translation of avatar as "incarnation" has been questioned by Christian theologians, who state that an incarnation is in flesh and imperfect, while avatar is mythical and perfect.
The theological concept of Christ as an incarnation, as found in Christology, presents the Christian concept of incarnation. According to Oduyoye and Vroom, this is different from the Hindu concept of avatar because avatars in Hinduism are unreal and is similar to Docetism. Sheth disagrees and states that this claim is an incorrect understanding of the Hindu concept of avatar. Avatars are true embodiments of spiritual perfection, one driven by noble goals, in Hindu traditions such as Vaishnavism; the concept of avatar within Hinduism is most associated with Vishnu, the preserver or sustainer aspect of God within the Hindu Trinity or Trimurti of Brahma and Shiva. Vishnu's avatars descend thereby restoring Dharma. Traditional Hindus see themselves not as Vaishnava, Shaiva, or Shakta; each of the deities has its own iconography and mythology, but common to all is the fact that the divine reality has an explicit form, a form that the worshipper can behold. An oft-quoted passage from the Bhagavad Gita describes the typical role of an avatar of Vishnu: The Vishnu avatars appear in Hindu mythology whenever the cosmos is in
Sandhya, Saranya is the wife of Surya, the twin of Trisiras, the goddess of clouds in Hindu mythology, the mother of Revant and the twin Asvins. She is the mother of Manu, of the twins Yama and Yami. According to Farnell, the meaning of the epithet is to be sought in the original conception of Erinys, akin to Ge. Saraṇyū is the female form of the adjective saraṇyú, meaning "quick, nimble", used for rivers and wind in the Rigveda. Saranyu has been described as "the swift-speeding storm cloud". Saranyu or Sanghya is depicted in the show, Karmaphal Daata Shani, airing on Colors TV. Chhaya: the shadow-image of Saranyu Hindu deities Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions by David Kinsley
In Hinduism, Shesha known as Sheshanaga or Adishesha, is the nagaraja or king of all nāgas and one of the primal beings of creation. In the Puranas, Shesha is said to hold all the planets of the universe on his hoods and to sing the glories of the God Vishnu from all his mouths, he is sometimes referred to as Ananta Shesha, which translates as endless-Shesha or Adishesha "first Shesha". It is said that creation takes place, he is described in Buddhism as Vasuki. Vishnu is depicted as resting on Shesha. Shesha is considered a manifestation of Vishnu, he is said to have descended to avatars: Lakshmana, brother of Rama. "Shesha" in Sanskrit texts those relating to mathematical calculation, implies the "remainder"—that which remains when all else ceases to exist. Shesha is depicted with a massive form that floats coiled in space, or on the ocean of bliss, to form the bed on which Vishnu lies. Sometimes he is shown as five-headed or seven-headed, but more as a many thousand-headed serpent, sometimes with each head wearing an ornate crown.
His name means "that which remains", from the Sanskrit root śiṣ, because when the world is destroyed at the end of the kalpa, Shesha remains as he is. In the Bhagavadgita of Chapter 10, verse 29, Shri Krishna while describing 75 of his common manifestations, declares, "anantaś ca asmi nāgānāṁ": Of the nagas, I am Ananta; as per the Mahabharata, Shesha was born to his wife Kadru. Kadru gave birth to a thousand snakes. After Shesha, Vasuki and Takshaka were born, in order. A lot of Shesha's brothers were bent upon inflicting harm on others, they were unkind to Garuda, Kashyapa's son through Vinatha, sister of Kadru.. Shesha, disgusted by the cruel acts of his brothers, left his mother and kin, took to austere penances, he lived on air and meditated in places including Gandhamadhana, Gokarna and Himalayas. His penances were so severe that his flesh and muscles dried up and merged with his frame. Brahma, convinced of his Shesha's will, asked Shesha to request a boon. Shesha asked that he be able to keep his mind under control so that he could continue to perform ascetic penances.
Brahma gladly accepted the request. Brahma asked a favour of Shesha: to go beneath the unstable earth and stabilize it. Shesha went to the netherworld and stabilized her with his hood, he is known to support her today, thus making Patala his perennial residence. Shesha is depicted as floating in the ocean of the changing world, forming the bed of Maha Vishnu. Since he is known as Adishesha and because he is Anantashesha or Ananta. In the Bhagavata Purana Shesha is named Sankarshana, the tamasic energy of Lord Narayana himself, is said to live deep within the inner layers of patala, where there are many serpents with gems on their heads and where Sankarshana is the ruler, he is said to live since before the creation of the universe. When the universe is towards its end, he creates 11 Rudras from Them to destroy the universe for a new one to be created. Sankarshana is one of the four vyuha forms of Vishnu or Krishna, the other three being Vāsudeva and Aniruddha. Sankarshana expands himself as Garbhodakshayi-Vishnu in the beginning of the universe to create Brahma.
In other words, Lord Sankarshana is Lord Narayana himself. In previous chapters of the Purana it is said that Lord Sankarshana spoke the Bhagavata to the Four Kumaras, who in their turn passed this message of the Bhagavata. At some point the message was passed to sage Maitreya. Lakshmana and Balarama are considered avatara of Sheshanaga, it is considered in Vaishnavism, that Lord Balarama is the first manifestation from Lord Krishna, that Lord Balarama incarnates into Sesha to serve Krishna as Vishnu. In a story from the Puranas, Shesha's younger brother Vasuki loosens Mount Mandara, to enable it to be used in the churning of the ocean by the devas and asuras. According to the Mahabharata, his father was his mother Kadru; the city of Thiruvananthapuram is named after him as the "City of Lord Anantapadmanabha." "The foremost manifestation of Lord Vishnu is Sankarṣana, known as Ananta. He is the origin of all incarnations within this material world. Previous to the appearance of Lord Shri Krishna, this original Sankarsana will appear as Baladeva, just to please the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna in His transcendental pastimes."
Bhāgavata Purāṇa 10.1.24 "Sri Anantadeva has thousands of faces and is independent. Always ready to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He waits upon him constantly. Sankarsana is the first expansion of Vasudeva and because he appears by his own will, He is called svarat independent, he is therefore transcendental to all limits of time and space. He Himself appears as the thousand-headed Shesha." Srila Jiva Gosvami, in his Krishna-Sandarbha "Sankarsana of the quadruple form descends with Lord Shri Rama as Lakshmana. When Lord Shri Rama disappears, Shesha again separates himself from the personality of Lakshmana. Shesha returns to his own abode in the Patala regions and Lakshmana returns to His abode in Vaikuntha." A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada In the Bhagavad-Gita, when in the middle of the battlefield Kurukshetra, Shri Krishna explaining his omnipresence