The Guernsey is a breed of dairy cattle from the island of Guernsey in the Channel Islands. It is fawn or red and white in colour, is hardy and docile, its milk is rich in flavour, high in fat and protein, has a golden-yellow tinge due to its high β-carotene content. The Guernsey is one of three Channel Island cattle breeds, the others being the Alderney – now extinct – and the Jersey; the Guernsey was bred on the British Channel Island of Guernsey. There may have been some influence from Dutch cattle in the eighteenth century.:4 During that century large numbers of cattle were exported from the Channel Islands to England. Exports of cattle and semen were for a while an important economic resource for the island, in the early 20th century, a large number of Guernsey cattle were exported to the United States; the Guernsey breed is on the watch list maintained by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, with fewer than 2,500 annual registrations in the U. S. and an estimated global population less than 10,000 animals.
The Guernsey is of medium size: cows weigh 450 to 500 kg, bulls 600 to 700 kg. The coat is red or fawn, may or may not be pied red-and-white or fawn-and-white.:192 The Guernsey produces rich and flavoursome milk. It traditionally had several other good qualities: it was long-lived, calved without difficulty, grazed well and – being small-sized – was an efficient milk producer.:192 These advantages have been compromised by recent selective breeding strategies, which have led to larger animals, with longer legs. These no longer display the traditional qualities of the breed; the milk has a golden-yellow tinge due to a high content of β-carotene, a provitamin for vitamin A.:192 The milk has a high butterfat content of 5% and a high protein content of 3.7%. Guernsey cows produce around 6000 litres per cow per year; the American Guernsey Association English Guernsey Cattle Society The World Guernsey Cattle Federation Guernsey Cow Parade
Highland cattle are a Scottish cattle breed. They have long horns and long, woolly coats that are coloured black, yellow, grey, "silver", or tan, they may be brindled. Highlands are raised for their meat, they originated in the Highlands and Outer Hebrides islands of Scotland and were first mentioned in the 6th century AD. The first herd book described two distinct types of Highland cattle but, due to crossbreeding between the two, only one type now exists and is registered, they have since been exported worldwide. They are a hardy breed, their long hair gives the breed its ability to overwinter. Bulls can weigh up to 800 kilograms and cows can weigh up to 500 kilograms, their milk has a high butterfat content, their meat, regarded as of the highest quality, is gaining mainstream acceptance as it is lower in cholesterol than other varieties of beef. They have an unusual double coat of hair. On the outside is the oily outer hair—the longest of any cattle breed—covering a downy undercoat; this makes them well suited to conditions in the Highlands, which have a high annual rainfall and sometimes strong winds.
Their skill in foraging for food allows them to survive in steep mountain areas where they both graze and eat plants that many other cattle avoid. They can dig through the snow with their horns to find buried plants. Mature bulls can weigh up to 800 kilograms and cows can weigh up to 500 kilograms. Cows have a height of 90–106 centimetres, bulls are in the range of 106–120 centimetres. Mating occurs throughout the year with a gestation period of 277–290 days. Most a single calf is born, but twins are not unknown. Sexual maturity is reached at about eighteen months. Highland cattle have a longer expected lifespan than most other breeds of cattle, up to 20 years; the hair colour of Highland cattle can vary from black, yellow and grey. The coat colours are caused by alleles at the PMEL or SILV gene, they have a docile temperament and the milk has a high butterfat content, so have traditionally been used as house cows. They are good-natured animals but protective of their young. All European cattle cope well with low temperatures but Highland cattle have been described as "almost as cold-tolerant as the arctic-dwelling caribou and reindeer".
Conversely due to their thick coats they are much less tolerant of heat than zebu cattle, which originated in South Asia and are adapted for hot climates. Highland cattle have been established in countries where winters are colder than Scotland such as Norway and Canada. A fold of semi-wild Highland cattle was studied, over a period of 4 years, it was found that the cattle have a clear structure and hierarchy of dominance, which reduced aggression. Social standing depended on age and sex, with older cattle being dominant to calves and younger ones, males dominant to females. Young bulls would dominate adult cows. Calves from the top ranking cow were given higher social status, despite minimal intervention from their mother. Playfighting and mounting were seen as friendly contact. Breeding occurred with heifers first giving birth at 2 -- 3 years old, they descend from the Hamitic Longhorn, which were brought to Britain by Neolithic farmers in the second millennium BC, as the cattle migrated northwards through Africa and Europe.
Highland cattle were of great importance to the economy, with the cattle being raised for meat and trade occurring over the Scottish-English border. The 1885 herd book describes two distinct types of Highland cattle. One was the West Highland, or Kyloe and living on the Western Islands, which had harsher conditions; these cattle tended to be smaller, to have black coats and, due to their more rugged environment, to have long hair. These cattle were named due to the practice of relocating them; the kyles were narrow straits of water. The other type was the mainland, they came in a range of colours, most dun or red. These types have now been crossbred. Since the early 20th century, breeding stock has been exported to many parts of the world Australia and North America, it is estimated. Small farmers kept Highlands as house cows to produce milk and for meat; the Highland cattle registry was established in 1885. This is the oldest herd book in the world, which makes them the oldest registered cattle in the world.
Although a group of cattle is called a herd, a group of Highland cattle is known as a "fold". This is because in winter, the cattle were kept in open shelters made of stone called folds to protect them from the weather at night, they were known as kyloes in Scots. In 1954, Queen Elizabeth ordered Highland cattle to be kept at Balmoral Castle where they are still kept today. Highland cattle were first imported into Australia by the mid-19th century by Scottish migrants such as Chieftain Aeneas Ronaldson MacDonell of Glengarry, Scotland. Arriving in Port Albert, Victoria, in 1841 with his clan, they drove their Highland cattle to a farm at Greenmount, on the Tarra River, preceded by a piper. Samuel Amess from Scotland, who made a fortune in the Victorian gol
The Hereford is a British breed of beef cattle that originated in the county of Herefordshire, in the West Midlands of England. It has been exported to many countries, there are more than five million purebred Hereford cattle in over fifty nations worldwide; the Hereford cattle export trade began from United Kingdom in 1817, starting in Kentucky, United States, spreading across the United States and Canada through Mexico to the great beef-raising countries of South America. Today, Hereford cattle dominate the world scene from Australasia to the Russian steppes, they can be found in Israel and throughout continental Europe and Scandinavia, in the temperate parts of Australia, the United States and Russia, in the centre and east of Argentina, in Uruguay, in Chile and New Zealand, where they make up the largest proportion of registered cattle. They are found all around Brazil and they are found in some Southern African countries, they found great popularity among ranchers of the American Southwest, testament to the hardiness of the breed.
The World Hereford Council is based in the United Kingdom. There are 17 member countries with 20 Hereford societies and 10 nonmember countries, with a total of eight societies. In the United States, the official Hereford organization, breed registry, is the American Hereford Association, it is the second-largest society of its kind in the country. Until the 18th century, the cattle of the Herefordshire area were similar to other cattle of southern England, being wholly red with a white switch, similar to the modern North Devon and Sussex breeds. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, other cattle were used to create a new type of draught and beef cattle which at first varied in colour, different herds ranging from yellow to grey and light brown, with varying amounts of white. However, by the end of the 18th century the white face characteristic of the modern breed was well established, the modern colour was established during the 19th century; the Hereford is still seen in the Herefordshire countryside today and featured prominently at agricultural shows.
The first imports of Herefords to the United States were around 1817 by the politician Henry Clay, with larger importation of the breed beginning in the 1840s. The Polled Hereford is a hornless variant of the Hereford with the polled gene, a natural genetic mutation, selected into a separate breed beginning in 1889. Iowa cattle rancher Warren Gammon capitalised on the idea of breeding Polled Herefords and started the Polled Hereford registry with 11 polled cattle; the American Polled Hereford Association was formed in 1910. The American Polled Hereford and American Hereford breeds have been combined since 1995, under the same American Hereford Association name. Many strains of Hereford have used other cattle breeds to import desired characteristics, this has led to changes in the breed as a whole. However, some strains have been kept separate, these have retained characteristics of the earlier breed, such as hardiness and thriftiness; the Traditional Hereford is now treated as a minority breed of value for genetic conservation.
Eye cancer occurs in Herefords in particular in countries with continued bright sunlight and those that prefer traits of low levels of red pigmentation around the eye. Studies have been made into eye cancer in Hereford cattle in the US and Canada, lid and corneoscleral pigment were found to be heritable and to decrease the risk of cancer. Vaginal prolapse is considered a heritable problem in Hereford cattle, but it may be influenced by nutrition. Another problem is exposed skin on the udder being of light pigmentation and therefore vulnerable to sun burn. Dwarfism is known to be prevalent in Hereford cattle and has been determined to be caused by an autosomal recessive gene. Due to equal occurrence in heifers and bulls, dwarfism is not considered a sex-linked characteristic. Black Hereford Hereford pig List of cattle breeds World Hereford Council American Hereford Association Australian Hereford Society Canadian Hereford Association Irish Hereford Breed Society New Zealand Hereford Association List of US State/National Hereford Associations List of Other International Hereford Associations Polled Hereford Breed Information - Cattle.com The Origin and Growth of Polled Herefords - Oklahoma State University Romanian Hereford cattle Society
The Aberdeen Angus, sometimes Angus, is a Scottish breed of small beef cattle. It derives from cattle native to the counties of Angus in north-eastern Scotland; the Angus is polled and solid black or red, though the udder may be white. The native colour is black, but more red colours have emerged; the UK registers both in the same herd book, but in the United States they are regarded as two separate breeds – Red Angus and Black Angus. Black Angus is the most common breed of beef cattle in the United States, with 332,421 animals registered in 2017. In 2014, the British Cattle Movement Service named Angus the UK's most popular native beef breed, the second most popular beef breed overall. Aberdeen Angus cattle have been recorded in Scotland since at least the 16th century in the country's northeast. For some time before the 1800s, the hornless cattle in Aberdeenshire and Angus were called Angus doddies. In 1824, William McCombie of Tillyfour, M. P. for South Aberdeenshire, began to improve the stock and is regarded today as the father of the breed.
Many local names emerged, including hummlies. The first herd book was created in 1862, the society was formed in 1879; this is considered late, given that the cattle gained mainstream acceptance in the middle of the eighteenth century. The cattle became commonplace throughout the British Isles in the middle of the 20th century; as stated in the fourth volume of the Herd Book of the UK's Angus, this breed was introduced to Argentina in 1879 when "Don Carlos Guerrero" imported one bull and two cows for his Estancia "Charles" located in Juancho, Partido de General Madariaga, Provincia de Buenos Aires. The bull was born on April 19, 1878; the cows were named "Aunt Lee 4697" raised by J. James and "Cinderela 4968" raised by R. Walker and were both born in 1878, on January 31 and April 23, respectively. Angus cattle were first introduced to Tasmania in the 1820s and to the southern mainland in 1840; the breed is now found in all Australian states and territories with 62,000 calves registered with Angus Australia in 2010.
In 1876 William Brown, a professor of agriculture and superintendent of the experimental farm at Guelph, was granted permission by the government of Ontario to purchase Aberdeen Angus cattle for the Ontario Agricultural College. The herd comprised a yearling bull, a cow, bred by the Earl of Fife and a cow, Leochel Lass 4th, bred by R. O. Farquharson. On January 12, 1877, Eyebright gave birth to a calf, sired by Sir Wilfrid, it was the first to be born outside of Scotland. The OAC went on to import additional bulls and cows began selling Aberdeen Angus cattle in 1881. On 17 May 1873, George Grant brought four Angus bulls, to Victoria, Kansas; these were seen as unusual as the normal American cattle consisted of Shorthorns and Longhorns, the bulls were used only in crossbreeding. However, the farmers noticed the good qualities of these bulls and afterwards, many more cattle of both sexes were imported. On 21 November 1883, the American Angus Association was founded in Illinois; the first herd book was published on March 1885.
At this time both red and black animals were registered without distinction. However, in 1917 the Association barred the registering of red and other coloured animals in an effort to promote a solid black breed; the Red Angus Association of America was founded in 1954 by breeders of Red Angus cattle. It was formed because the breeders had had their cattle struck off the herd book for not conforming to the changed breed standard regarding colour. A separate breed was cross bred in Germany called the German Angus, it is a cross between the Angus and several different cattle such as the German Black Pied Cattle and Fleckvieh. The cattle are larger than the Angus and appear in black and red colours; because of their native environment, the cattle are hardy and can survive the Scottish winters, which are harsh, with snowfall and storms. Cows weigh 550 kilograms and bulls weigh 850 kilograms. Calves are born smaller than is acceptable for the market, so crossbreeding with dairy cattle is needed for veal production.
The cattle are polled and black in colour. They mature earlier than other native British breeds such as the Hereford or North Devon. However, in the middle of the 20th century a new strain of cattle called; the United States does not accept Red Angus cattle into herd books, while the Canada do. Except for their colour genes, there is no genetic difference between black and red Angus, but they are regarded as different breeds in the US. However, there have been claims that black angus are more sustainable to cold weather, though unconfirmed; the cattle are regarded as medium-sized. The meat is popular in Japan for its marbling qualities. There are four recessive defects. A recessive defect occurs. One in four calves will show the defect when both parents carry the defective gene; the four recessive defects in the Black Angus breed that are managed with DNA tests are arthrogryposis multiplex, referred to as curly calf, which lowers the mobility of joints. Both parents need to carry the genes for a calf to be affected with one of these
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times. Beef is a source of high-quality protein and nutrients. Beef skeletal muscle meat can be used as is by cutting into certain parts roasts, short ribs or steak, while other cuts are processed. Trimmings, on the other hand, are mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages; the blood is used in some varieties called blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and offal, such as the oxtail, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, the heart, the brain, the kidneys, the tender testicles of the bull; some intestines are cooked and eaten as is, but are more cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers is similar. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies; the meat from older bulls, because it is tougher, is used for mince. Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot, where they are fed a ration of grain, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend.
Beef is the third most consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. In absolute numbers, the United States and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef. According to the data from OECD, the average Uruguayan ate over 42 kg of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about 24 kg beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita. In 2015, the world's largest exporters of beef were India and Australia. Beef production is important to the economies of Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina and Nicaragua; the word beef is from the Latin bōs, in contrast to cow, from Middle English cou. After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England used French words to refer to the meats they were served.
Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal by the peasants, but the meat was called boef by the French nobles — who did not deal with the live animal — when it was served to them. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals and their meat, found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry. Beef is cognate with bovine through the Late Latin bovīnus. People have eaten the flesh of bovines from prehistoric times. People domesticated cattle around 8000 BC to provide ready access to beef and leather. Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids, which originated in the Americas. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent, it is unknown when people started cooking beef. Cattle were used across the Old World as draft animals, for milk, or for human consumption. With the mechanization of farming, some breeds were bred to increase meat yield, resulting in Chianina and Charolais cattle, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the Murray Grey and Wagyū.
Some breeds have been selected for both milk production, such as the Brown Swiss. In the United States, the growth of the beef business was due to expansion in the Southwest. Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the Mexican–American War of 1848, the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets. Beef cattle are raised and fed using a variety of methods, including feedlots, free range, ranching and Intensive animal farming. Beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat butchering; these are basic sections from which other subdivisions are cut. The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, sometimes use the same name for a different cut.
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
South Devon cattle
South Devon cattle are a breed of British beef cattle. They are the largest of the British native breeds, are believed to have descended from the large red cattle of Normandy which were imported during the Norman invasion of England; the breed is a rich, medium red with copper tints, though it varies in shade and can appear mottled. The breed today is predominately used for beef production; the official governing body, The South Devon Herd Book Society was founded in 1891. It is believed South Devon cattle evolved from the large red cattle of Normandy which were imported to England at the time of the Norman invasion; the South Devon of today originated in South West England, in an area of Devon known as the South Hams from where they spread right across the counties of Devon and Cornwall. Historical evidence indicates that isolation caused the divergence of the North and South Devon into physically distinct types, though occasional crossing between the two breeds occurred until the mid-nineteenth century.
The South Devon had been established as a breed by the year 1800. With a light red coat, they were powerfully built and supplied rich milk and good beef, finely grained and marbled, were relied upon to pull ploughshares until well into the nineteenth century. Careful selection of breeding stock improved the breed considerably; the South Devon Herd Book Society was founded in 1891 when it was recognised by the government as an official body, the South Devons become one of the fourteen breeds of cattle whose herd books date back to the second half of the nineteenth century. During the early years of the twentieth century the breed was considered as dual purpose, for the production of milk and beef. Although most herds were milked during and soon after the Second World War the trend has been towards beefier sires since the 1960s. Although it is now a purely beef breed, the dual-purpose heritage has significance for the suckling of calves. There have been attempts to re-introduce the breed into dairy farming.
Taverner's Farm in Devon has a small herd. They have attempted to produce a bull for this herd by artificial insemination of their aged prize heifer with 45-year-old semen from the Rare Breeds Survival Trust's national genetic archive; as of August 2008, this has been unsuccessful. The breed is exceptionally adaptable to varying climatic conditions and is presently well established on five continents. Wherever they have been introduced South Devon cattle have been well accepted and exhibited strong performance for production and profitability. South Devons were one of the few British breeds to have been selected for draught purposes as well as for beef and milk; the first importations into Australia were of milking cows carried on sailing ships. Several large importations occurred in the late 19th and early 20th centuries but the breed lost its identity through crossbreeding. Importations from Britain took place in 1969, the first purebred animals were imported from New Zealand in 1971; the breed occurs in most states of Australia.
The first South Devons were taken to the United States in 1969, in 1974 the North American South Devon Association was formed for the purpose of development and promotion of the South Devon breed in that country. Females may calve at two years of age. A dam can calve every year for as long as 15 years, with the average gestation of 286 days. Most births are single calves but twins do occur in 10% of calvings. Bulls can sire at around 15 -- 18 months. Bulls can work up to the age of 12. A mature bull can weigh between 1,200 and 1,600 kg, though the largest South Devon recorded has been weighed at 2,000 kg; the breed has enjoyed much success on the show circuit. The performance of the 85 entries at the 2005 Royal Cornwall were described by Farmers Weekly as "always a force, the South Devons were on world class form this year as the Royal Cornwall formed the launch pad to the South Devon World Association’s sixth World Congress." The South Devon Herd Book Society compiles a list of show results for the major events.
South Devon Herd Book Society, UK South Devon New Zealand Canadian South Devon Association The American Devon Cattle Association