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Shroud refers to an item, such as a cloth, that covers or protects some other object. The term is most used in reference to burial sheets, mound shroud, grave clothes, winding-cloths or winding-sheets, such as the famous Shroud of Turin or Tachrichim that Jews are dressed in for burial. Traditionally, mound shrouds are made of white cotton, wool or linen, though any material can be used so long as it is made of natural fibre. Intermixture of two or more such fibres is forbidden, a proscription that derives from the Torah, viz. Deut. 22:11. A traditional Orthodox Jewish shroud consists of a tunic. Early shrouds incorporated a cloth, the sudarium, that covered the face, as depicted in traditional artistic representations of the entombed Jesus or His friend, Lazarus. An pious man may next be enwrapped in either his kittel or his tallit, one tassel of, defaced to render the garment ritually unfit, symbolizing the fact that the decedent is free from the stringent requirements of the 613 mitzvot; the shrouded body is wrapped in a winding sheet, termed a sovev in Hebrew, before being placed either in a plain coffin of soft wood or directly in the earth.

Croesus-rich or dirt-poor, every Orthodox Jew is dressed to face the Almighty on the same terms. The Early Christian Church strongly encouraged the use of winding-sheets, except for monarchs and bishops; the rich were wrapped in cerecloths, which are fine fabrics soaked or painted in wax to hold the fabric close to the flesh. An account of the opening of the coffin of Edward I says that the "innermost covering seems to have been a fine linen cerecloth, dressed close to every part of the body", their use was general until at least the Renaissance – clothes were expensive, they had the advantage that a good set of clothes was not lost to the family. In Europe in the Middle Ages, coarse linen shrouds were used to bury most poor without a coffin. In poetry shrouds have been described as of sable, they were embroidered in black, becoming more elaborate and cut like shirts or shifts. Orthodox Christians still use a burial shroud decorated with a cross and the Trisagion; the special shroud, used during the Orthodox Holy Week services is called an Epitaphios.

Some Catholics use the burial shroud the Eastern Catholics and traditionalist Roman Catholics. Muslims as well use burial shrouds that are made of white linen; the Burying in Woollen Acts 1666–80 in England were meant to support the production of woollen cloth. Sudarium of Oviedo Islamic funeral Media related to Shrouds at Wikimedia Commons

Sue Sumii

Sue Sumii was a Japanese social reformer and novelist. She was an active advocate for victims of discrimination, most notably the Burakumin, she is best known for Hashi no nai kawa. Sumii graduated Haramoto Women's High School receiving a degree as a teacher. At the age of 18, she worked for the publishing house, Kodansha. After a couple of years, Sumii left Kodansha due to discriminatory treatment and working conditions of women. During the time with her husband and children, Sumii started writing short stories and publishing novels based on the lives of young people associated with nomin bungaku, or the agrarian literature movement. In 1954, her work for Yoake asaake was awarded the Mainichi Culture Prize. In 1957, Sumii's husband died. In the following year, 1958, she began writing the first volume of the seven-part novel Hashi no nai kawa, which focused on the fate of the discriminated Burakumin, her work was first published in Buraku, the magazine of the Buraku Mondai Kenkyusho or Buraku Study Group.

After its success, it was published in hardcover in 1961. Hashi no nai kawa has sold over eight million copies, has been filmed twice, an English translated version, The River with No Bridge, was published in 1992. and an Italian translated version, Il fiume senza ponti, was published in 2016 by Atmosphere libri. In 1921, Sumii married Shigeru Inuta, a literary activist of the proletarian agrarian movement, which produced “peasant literature,” protecting poor farmers. In 1935, they moved to Inuta's birthplace, Hitachino, in the Ibaraki Prefecture, where they farmed the land, they had four children. At the age of 95, Sumii died on June 16, 1997. Right before her death, she was working on an eighth part of Hashi no nai kawa


CalDriCon is an electrical digital signaling interface that for high definition liquid crystal displays for high-definition televisions and mobile handsets. It was developed by THine Electronics, Inc. Clock separated point-to-point interface Data rate up to 2.0 Gbit/s/lane CalDriCon searches the best sampling point at the receiving devices and finds the best pre-emphasis level at the transmitting devices in order to adjust The pre-emphasis at the transmitter enables to keep good quality of signal integrity. Because of this feature the set systems can use low-cost cables to achieve stable high-speed data transmission Terminating both of the transmitting side and the receiving side enables to reduce bad reflection effects from multi-drop points CalDriCon can reduce pin counts and cables for transmission of high-definition pixel data that resulted in lowering total costs and required space for internal interface systems In around 2000, LCD-panels selected high-speed driver interfaces such as mini-LVDS, developed by Texas Instruments, RSDS, developed by National Semiconductor.

However, as full HD televisions were launched in 2005 and full HD with double frame rate in 2007, higher-speed demands in high-definition televisions have required advanced technologies in driver interfaces. In such situation, new LCD driver interfaces such as Advanced PPmL and CalDriCon have appeared to solve the constraints of high-speed technologies. Among new LCD driver interfaces, CalDriCon satisfies both of high-speed requirements of 2.0 Gbit/s/lane and noise tolerances against unstable power sources and grounds as well as auto-adjustment of skew between clock and data. As driver ICs are loaded as COF, they are affected by noises from unstable power sources and ground. While mini-LVDS and RSDS were based on differential signaling and tolerant for noise, they have faced difficulties to achieve higher-speed performance than 1 Gpbs because of no skew adjustment between clock and power. On the other hand, many of advanced LCD driver interfaces, using CDR technology, remove the necessities to adjust skew between clock and data and achieved higher data rate over 1 Gbit/s.

However, CDR technology requires having PLL circuits on receiving driver ICs. COF is affected by the noise of power source and ground. CalDriCon, instead of using CDR, detects the optimal sampling points at receiving driver ICs and adjust the transmitting phase between clock and data; this feature achieves both of high-speed of 2 Gbit/s and noise tolerances in unstable power sources and ground as well solution of skew adjustment. In addition, CalDriCon and many other advanced driver interfaces adopt Point-to-Point connection that brings much less distortion of signal integrity in the multi-drop connection than mini-LVDS, affected by noise because of its bus topology. Low voltage differential signaling V-by-One HS “Trend of high-speed in LCD driver: 2Gbps becomes available,” Nikkei Electronics (Nov.01,2010, pp. 12~pp. 13) THine Electronics

Margaret Fell

Margaret Fell or Margaret Fox was a founder of the Religious Society of Friends. Known popularly as the "mother of Quakerism", she is considered one of the Valiant Sixty early Quaker preachers and missionaries, her daughter Sarah Fell was a leading Quaker. She was born Margaret Askew at the family seat of Marsh Grange in the parish of Kirkby Ireleth, Lancashire, she married Thomas Fell, a barrister, in 1632, became the lady of Swarthmoor Hall. In 1641, Thomas became a Justice of the Peace for Lancashire, in 1645 a member of the Long Parliament, he ceased to be a member from 1647 to 1649, disapproving of Oliver Cromwell's assumption of authority. In late June 1652, George Fox visited Swarthmoor Hall. Margaret Fell met him, wrote that he "opened us a book that we had never read in, nor indeed had never heard that it was our duty to read in it the Light of Christ in our consciences, our minds never being turned towards it before." A day or two it was lecture day at the parish church, she invited Fox to attend with them.

Over the next weeks she and many of her household became convinced. Over the next six years, Swarthmoor Hall became a centre of Quaker activity, she collected and disbursed funds for those on missions. After her husband's death in 1658, she retained control of Swarthmoor Hall, which remained a meeting place and haven from persecution, though sometimes, in the 1660s, raided by government forces; because she was one of the few founding members of the Religious Society of Friends, an established member of the gentry, Margaret Fell was called upon to intercede in cases of persecution or arrest of leaders such as Fox. After the Stuart Restoration, she travelled from Lancashire to London to petition King Charles II and his parliament in 1660 and 1662 for freedom of conscience in religious matters. A submission signed by George Fox and other prominent Quakers was only made subsequently in November 1660. While the structure and phraseology of these submissions were quite different, the import was similar, arguing that, although Friends wished to see the world changed, they would use persuasion rather than violence towards what they regarded as a "heavenly" end.

In 1664 Margaret Fell was arrested for failing to take an oath and for allowing Quaker Meetings to be held in her home. She defended herself by saying that "as long as the Lord blessed her with a home, she would worship him in it", she spent six months in Lancaster Gaol, whereafter she was sentenced to life imprisonment and forfeiture of her property. She remained in prison until 1668, during which time she wrote religious epistles, her most famous work is "Women's Speaking Justified", a scripture-based argument for women's ministry, one of the major texts on women's religious leadership in the 17th century. In this short pamphlet, Fell bases her argument for equality of the sexes on one of the basic premises of Quakerism, namely spiritual equality, her belief was that God created all human beings, therefore both men and women were capable of not only possessing the Inner Light but the ability to be a prophet. Having been released by order of the King and council, she married George Fox in 1669.

On returning to Lancashire after her marriage, she was again imprisoned for about a year in Lancaster for breaking the Conventicle Act. Shortly after her release, George Fox departed on a religious mission to America, he too was imprisoned again on his return in 1673. Margaret again travelled to London to intercede on his behalf, he was freed in 1675. After this, they spent about a year together at Swarthmoor, collaborating on defending the created organisational structure of separate women's meetings for discipline against their anti-Fox opponents. George Fox spent most of the rest of his life thereafter abroad or in London until his death in 1691, while Margaret Fell spent most of the rest of her life at Swarthmoor. Surviving both husbands by a number of years, she continued to take an active part in the affairs of the Society including the changes in the 1690s following partial legal tolerance of Quakers, when she was well into her eighties. In the last decade of her life, she opposed the effort of her fellow believers in Lancashire to maintain certain traditional Quaker standards of conduct.

She died aged 87. Margaret Fell's meeting with George Fox and her subsequent conversion are the subject of the first part of the novel The Peaceable Kingdom by Jan de Hartog. Claus Bernet. "Margaret Fell". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 20. Nordhausen: Bautz. Cols. 481–494. ISBN 3-88309-091-3. Gill, Women in the Seventeenth-Century Quaker Community: A Literary Study of Political Identities, 1650–1700, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005. Ross, Isabel. Margaret Fell Mother of Quakerism. Swarthmoor Hall Website An abstract of the life of Margaret Fell

Nagaram (2008 film)

Nagaram is a 2008 Indian Telugu-language action film produced by M. Anjibabu, P. Kishore Babu on Mac Media-Blue Sky Entertainment banner and directed by C. C. Srinivas; the film stars Srikanth, Jagapati Babu, Kaveri Jha in the lead roles and music composed by Chakri.. The film is loosely based on Tamil film Thalai Nagaram. Right is more known for his good deeds, he runs a separate gang and works as a sidekick and right-hand man to big don Kaasim Bhai, Kaasim uses Right and his gang as professional killers whenever required. ACP Chowdhary believes in his own type of law by eliminating criminals instead of wasting time by the court and other procedures. Navya a Ph. D. student who wants to do research on the lives of rowdies enters into Right’s life and takes shelter in his house. However, things change after she enters their lives, both of them fall in love. At a situation, there arises a clash between Kaasim. Right kills Kaasim’s son Nazaar Bhai, but Right’s henchmen Balu dies in the gang war. After seeing Balu's death, Right decides to change to good-natured people, so they surrender themselves to Chowdary, who gives them a chance to lead a normal life.

After some time, Chowdhary is transferred, enters to a corrupt ACP by Kaasim. The ACP and Kaasim kill every person from Right's team, including his sister Lavanya. While they are trying to encounter Right, Chowdary comes back for his protection, both of them join together and remove all the baddies in the climax; the music was released on MADHURA Audio Company. Krishna Vamsi choreographed one song in the film. Nagaram on IMDb

Goldstar Sogi FC

Goldstar Sogi is a Samoan football club, based in Sogi. It plays in Samoa National League; the first record of Goldstar playing in the Samoan National League was in 1999, where, as runners up in the southern qualifying group they entered the Champion of Champions final tournament behind Moata'a. They finished in second place, they finished runners up the following season as well, beating the Samoa Under 20 team who finished second, but losing out to Titavi, an elite side close to the national team. Goldstar went one better in the 2001 season, winning what to date is their only national title, going undefeated throughout the whole season to win the league by two points from Strickland Brothers Lepea, they were unable to defend their title the next season, missing out by two points and losing their only game to the eventual winners, Strickland Brothers Lepea. The 2003 season was a repeat of the 2002 season for Goldstar, with them again finishing runners up to Strickland Brothers and again losing only to them.

In 2004, Goldstar finished third, where for a third season in a row they were beaten to the championship by Strickland Brothers and this time to second place by Lupe ole Soaga. Their final position in 2005 is not known, although it is known that they topped the league after three rounds of matches, only to fall away to fourth after nine rounds. Final positions are not known for the next three seasons. In the 2009–10 season, they finished fourth ahead of Apia Youth but behind Kiwi on 38 points, winning 11 and drawing 5 of their 20 games, their performance dipped the following season where they finished sixth, ahead of Moata'a, but behind Central United on 22 points, winning six and drawing four of their 18 games. There is no information on their performance the next season, but in 2012–13 they finished second to bottom, due in part to a 27–3 loss to Moaula when they fielded a depleted 7-man team. Samoa National League: Winners: 1 – 2001 Runners Up: 4 – 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003 As of 2012–13 season:Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

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