Supernatural (season 1)
The first season of Supernatural, an American dark fantasy television series created by Eric Kripke, premiered on September 13, 2005, concluded on May 4, 2006 after 22 episodes. It focuses on brothers Sam and Dean Winchester as they track down their father, on the trail of the demon who killed their mother and Sam's girlfriend. During their travels, they use their father's journal to help them carry on the family business—saving people and hunting supernatural creatures. Jared Padalecki and Jensen Ackles star as Sam and Dean, with Jeffrey Dean Morgan recurring as their father and Nicki Aycox as the demonic Meg Masters; this is the only season to air on The WB, with all subsequent seasons airing on The CW, a joint venture of The WB and UPN. As of 2019, Supernatural is the only continuing series that originated on The WB, by far the longest running show to have aired on that network with over 300 episodes produced; the first sixteen episodes of the season aired on Tuesdays at 9:00 pm ET in the United States, after which the series was rescheduled to Thursdays.
Overall, the season averaged about 3.81 million American viewers. The season gained many award nominations, among them two Primetime Emmy Awards for work done on the pilot episode. While some critics did not like the anthology-like format, others praised the show for the emotional moments and noted the brotherly chemistry between the lead actors; the season was internationally syndicated, airing in the United Kingdom on ITV, in Canada on Citytv, in Australia on Network Ten. The first season was released on DVD as a six-disc box set on September 5, 2006, by Warner Home Video in Region 1. Although the season was split into two separate releases in Region 2, the complete set was released on October 2, 2006, in Region 4 on October 2, 2007; the episodes are available through digital retailers such as Apple's iTunes Store, Microsoft's Xbox Live Marketplace, Amazon.com's on-demand TV service. Jared Padalecki as Sam Winchester Jensen Ackles as Dean Winchester In this table, the number in the first column refers to the episode's number within the entire series, whereas the number in the second column indicates the episode's number within this particular season.
"U. S. viewers in millions" refers to how many Americans watched the episode live or on the day of broadcast. The first season's mythology follows Sam and Dean's search for their missing father. Series creator Eric Kripke summarized this storyline as "find Dad", which he deemed "simple", "emotional", "clean". However, he found the self-enclosed episodes—independent stories which attain closure at the end of each episode and add little to the overarching storylines—to be "hit and miss"; because the first ten episodes consist of self-enclosed stories, the series mythology does not begin until the eleventh episode, "Scarecrow". This episode introduces the demon Meg Masters, which executive producer Kim Manners felt was "desperately needed". Though uncertain at what direction to take the character, the writers intended Meg to be an antagonist for the Winchesters throughout her story arc; the series mythology further expands with the addition of the demon-killing Colt handgun near the season's end, lending to the "modern American Western" theme the producers were going for.
Although the weekly adversaries for the Winchesters were based on urban legends, the writers tried to put their own spin on the stories for each of the episodes. For example, Kripke combined the well-known urban legend of the vanishing hitchhiker with the Mexican legend of La Llorona to give the spirit more motivation and characterization in the pilot; the episode "Hook Man", borrowed three or four elements from the numerous variations of the Hook Man legend. The figure is an escaped mental patient in the traditional myth, but the writers decided for the purposes of the show to make him the ghost of a hook-handed killer, they added a poltergeist element by having him attached to the conflicting emotions of the guest star—she wears a cross made from his melted hook. Rather than focus on modern interpretations, Kripke and co-executive producer John Shiban decided that Supernatural's vampires would stem more from the original legends; the vampires were given retractable fangs—these were inspired by the rowed teeth of sharks—as well as no aversion to sunlight or the crucifix.
Kripke added the fact that vampires would become weak if given the blood of a dead man. Other aspects grew out of basic ideas. For the episode "Skin", writer Shiban felt that the shapeshifting villain had to change into one of the lead characters; the character chosen was Dean, the writers decided not to clear his name of attempted murder at the end of the episode. Though they at first feared that having one of the main characters be a wanted man would ruin the show, the writers felt it was "a great layer to add", opening up new potential storylines and characters. Dean's reputation is addressed again in "The Benders", catches up to him in the second and third seasons. Another element that would influence future episodes came about in "Hook Man" when writers Milbauer and Burton realized that shotguns shoot salt, a weakness for spirits. Kripke deemed it the "perfect combination of occult element", as it brought together a "folkloric repellent of evil" with the "blue-collar aspect of shotguns".
The episode "Asylum" established iron as another weapon against ghosts. "Faith", on the other hand, stemmed from the question of whether it was wrong to heal good people of their illnesses at the cost of the lives of strangers. Kripke noted, " a great girl and she deserves to live, some stranger you don't know will die... and maybe that's worth it." Reapers were not in the orig
A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force of the living. In European folklore, vampires were undead beings that visited loved ones and caused mischief or deaths in the neighborhoods they inhabited while they were alive, they wore shrouds and were described as bloated and of ruddy or dark countenance, markedly different from today's gaunt, pale vampire which dates from the early 19th century. Vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures. Local variants in Eastern Europe were known by different names, such as shtriga in Albania, vrykolakas in Greece and strigoi in Romania. In modern times, the vampire is held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folk belief in vampires has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire to explain the mysteries of death.
Porphyria was linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been discredited. The charismatic and sophisticated vampire of modern fiction was born in 1819 with the publication of "The Vampyre" by John Polidori. Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula is remembered as the quintessential vampire novel and provided the basis of the modern vampire legend though it was published after Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's 1872 novel Carmilla; the success of this book spawned a distinctive vampire genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, television shows, video games. The vampire has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre; the Oxford English Dictionary dates the first appearance of the English word vampire in English from 1734, in a travelogue titled Travels of Three English Gentlemen published in The Harleian Miscellany in 1745. Vampires had been discussed in French and German literature. After Austria gained control of northern Serbia and Oltenia with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, officials noted the local practice of exhuming bodies and "killing vampires".
These reports, prepared between 1725 and 1732, received widespread publicity. The English term was derived from the German Vampir, in turn derived in the early 18th century from the Serbian vampir; the Serbian form has parallels in all Slavic languages: Bulgarian and Macedonian вампир, Bosnian: vampir / вампир, Croatian vampir and Slovak upír, Polish wąpierz, upiór, Ukrainian упир, Russian упырь, Belarusian упыр, from Old East Slavic упирь. The exact etymology is unclear. Among the proposed proto-Slavic forms are *ǫpyrь and *ǫpirь. Another less widespread theory is that the Slavic languages have borrowed the word from a Turkic term for "witch". Czech linguist Václav Machek proposes Slovak verb "vrepiť sa", or its hypothetical anagram "vperiť sa" as an etymological background, thus translates "upír" as "someone who thrusts, bites". An early use of the Old Russian word is in the anti-pagan treatise "Word of Saint Grigoriy", dated variously to the 11th–13th centuries, where pagan worship of upyri is reported.
The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Ancient Greeks, Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. Despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity known today as the vampire originates exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and public executions of people believed to be vampires, it is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric vampire, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Vampires were reported as bloated in appearance, ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour.
Blood was seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was open. It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, its teeth and nails may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature. Although vampires were described as undead, some folk tales spoke of them as living beings; the causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse, jumped over by an animal a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead. A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was at risk. In Russian
Albania the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediterranean Sea. It shares land borders with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, Greece to the south and a maritime border with Italy to the west. Geographically, the country displays varied climatic, geological and morphological conditions, defined in an area of 28,748 km2, it possesses remarkable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the Albanian Alps as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg and Ceraunian Mountains to the hot and sunny coasts of the Albanian Adriatic and Ionian Sea along the Mediterranean Sea. The area of Albania was populated by various Illyrian and Ancient Greek tribes as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast; the area was annexed in the 3rd century by Romans and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Illyricum. The autonomous Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire.
In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, which at its maximal extension was extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans; the modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour; the country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.
Politically, the country is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the tertiary sector followed by the secondary and primary sector. It went through a process of transition, following the end of communism in 1990, from a centralized to a market-based economy, it provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC, it is an official candidate for membership in the European Union. In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean; the term Albania is the medieval Latin name of the country. It may be derived from the Illyrian tribe of Albani recorded by Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria, who drafted a map in 150 AD, which shows the city of Albanopolis located northeast of the city of Durrës.
The term may have a continuation in the name of a medieval settlement called Albanon or Arbanon, although it is not certain that this was the same place. In his history written in the 10th century, the Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates was the first to refer to Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni and referred to themselves as Arbëreshë or Arbëneshë. Nowadays, Albanians call their country Shqipëria; as early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë replaced Arbëria and Arbëresh. The two terms are popularly interpreted as "Land of the Eagles" and "Children of the Eagles"; the first traces of human presence in Albania, dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic eras, were found in the village of Xarrë close to Sarandë and Dajti near Tiranë. The objects found in a cave near Xarrë include flint and jasper objects and fossilized animal bones, while those found at Mount Dajt comprise bone and stone tools similar to those of the Aurignacian culture.
The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro and north-western Greece. Several Bronze Age artefacts from tumulus burials have been unearthed in central and southern Albania that show close connection with sites in south-western Macedonia and Lefkada, Greece. Archaeologists have come to the conclusion that these regions were inhabited from the middle of the third millennium BC by Indo-European people who spoke a Proto-Greek language. A part of this population moved to Mycenae around 1600 BC and founded the Mycenaean civilisation there. In ancient times, the territory of modern Albania was inhabited by a number of Illyrian tribes; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. The name Illyrians seems to be the name applied to a specific Illyrian tribe, the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, causing the name Illyrians to be applied pars pro toto to all people of similar language and customs.
The territory known as Illyria corresponded to the area east of the Adriatic sea, extending in the south to the mouth of the Vjosë river. The first accou
The Witcher, by Polish writer Andrzej Sapkowski, is a fantasy series of short stories and novels about the witcher Geralt of Rivia. In Sapkowski's books, "witchers" are monster hunters who develop supernatural abilities at a young age to battle deadly beasts; the books have been adapted into a film, a television series, video games, a graphic novel series. The series of novels is known as the Witcher Saga; the short stories and novels have been translated including English. The books have been described as having a cult following in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Serbia and other Central and Eastern European countries; the video games have been successful, as of March 2018, they have sold over 33 million copies worldwide. The Witcher short stories were first published in Fantastyka, a Polish science fiction and fantasy magazine, beginning in the mid-1980s; the first short story, "Wiedźmin", was written for a contest held by the magazine and won third place. The first four stories dealing with the witcher Geralt were featured in a 1990 short story collection titled Wiedźmin — now out of print — with "Droga, z której się nie wraca", set in the world before the Witcher stories and features Geralt's mother to be.
The second published short story collection was Miecz przeznaczenia. Although Ostatnie życzenie was published after Sword of Destiny, it replaced The Witcher as the first book since it included all the stories in The Witcher, except "The Road with No Return". Although new short stories were added to The Last Wish, they took place before those in Sword of Destiny. Although "The Road with No Return" and "Coś się kończy, coś się zaczyna" were published in 2000 in Something Ends, Something Begins and in 2012 in Maladie and Other Stories collections, the other stories in those books are unconnected to the Witcher series. In some Polish editions, "The Road with No Return" and "Something Ends, Something Begins" are added to The Last Wish or Sword of Destiny. Ostatnie życzenie – Note that while The Last Wish was published after Sword of Destiny, the stories contained in The Last Wish take place first chronologically, many of the individual stories were published before Sword of Destiny. Miecz Przeznaczenia The saga focuses on a child of destiny.
Ciri, princess of a conquered country and a pawn of international politics, becomes a witcher-in-training. Geralt is drawn into a whirlwind of events in his attempts to protect her. Krew elfów Czas pogardy Chrzest ognia Wieża Jaskółki Pani Jeziora Sezon burz – Set between short stories in The Last Wish, but containing a few hints on events which follow the original pentalogy. In Polish: Coś się kończy, coś się zaczyna – Stories by Sapkowski, including two Witcher stories: "The Road with No Return" and "Something Ends, Something Begins". Maladie i inne opowiadania – Stories by Sapkowski including "The Road with No Return" and "Something Ends, Something Begins". In English: Chosen by Fate: Zajdel Award Winner Anthology - English anthology, by SuperNOVA in cooperation with the Silesian Club of Fantasy Literature, included a translation by Agnieszka Fulińska of "The Witcher" short story entitled "The Hexer"; the story appears, with a different translation, in The Last Wish as well as in A Polish Book of Monsters.
A Polish Book of Monsters – English anthology edited and translated by Michael Kandel, with a translation of "The Witcher" short story entitled "Spellmaker". In 2013, the Polish publishing house Solaris published a collection of eight short stories, Opowieści ze świata Wiedźmina, written by eight Russian and Ukrainian fantasy writers set in the world of The Witcher and/or featuring characters from the saga. In 2017, a similar collection of eleven short stories by eleven authors, chosen through a competition organized in 2016 by the Polish magazine Nowa Fantastyka, was published by SuperNowa; the stories are set on the Continent, settled several thousand years earlier by elves from overseas. When they arrived, the elves encountered dwarves. After a period of war between the elves and dwarves, the dwarves retreated into the mountains and the elves settled in the plains and forests. Human colonists arrived about five hundred years before the events in the stories, igniting a series of wars; the humans were victorious, became dominant.
Those not confined to the ghettos live in wilderness regions not yet claimed by humans. Other races on the Continent are dryads. During the centuries preceding the stories, most of the Continent's southern regions have been taken over by the Nilfgaard Empire.
Strigoi in Romanian mythology are troubled spirits that are said to have risen from the grave. They are attributed with the abilities to transform into an animal, become invisible, to gain vitality from the blood of their victims. Bram Stoker's Dracula has become the modern interpretation of the Strigoi through their historic links with vampirism. Strigoi originated from the Latin terms strix and striga, the root of which relates to owls and appears in related taxonomic terms for them as well as for blood parasites such as the Strigeidida. Cognates are found throughout the Romance languages, such as the Italian word strega or the Venetian word strìga which mean "witch". In French, stryge means a bird-woman. Jules Verne used the term "stryges" in Chapter II of his novel The Castle of the Carpathians, published in 1892; the Greek word Strix and the Albanian word shtriga are cognate. In the late Roman period the word became associated with witches or a type of ill-omened nocturnal flying creature.
A strix, referred to night-time entities that craved human flesh and blood infants. The name strigoi is related to the Romanian verb a striga, which in Romanian means "to scream". One of the earliest mentions of a historical strigoi was Jure Grando Alilović from the region of Istria; the villager is believed to have been the first real person described as a vampire because he was referred to as a strigoi, štrigon or štrigun in contemporary local records. Grando is supposed to have terrorised his former village sixteen years after his death, he was decapitated by the local priest and villagers. The Carniolan scientist Janez Vajkard Valvasor wrote about Jure Grando Alilović's life and afterlife in his extensive work The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola when he visited Kringa during his travels; this was the first written document on vampires. Grando was mentioned in writings by Erasmus Francisci and Johann Joseph von Goerres, whose story was much more elaborate, full of fantastic details to make the story more interesting and sensational.
In modern times, Croatian writer Boris Perić has researched the legend and written a book on the story. Striga are mentioned by the Moldavian statesman and soldier, Dimitrie Cantemir, in his work the Descriptio Moldaviae, he thought that the striga were Moldavian and Transylvanian beliefs. However, he associated them with warlocks rather than blood-drinking undead vampires; the book ascribes dunking - a traditional test for witchcraft - as a method of identifying Striga. An 1865 article on Transylvanian folklore by Wilhelm Schmidt describes the strigoi as nocturnal creatures that preyed on infants, he reports a tradition in which, upon the birth of a child, one tosses a stone behind oneself and exclaims "this into the mouth of the strigoi!"In 1909, Franz Hartmann mentions in his book An Authenticated Vampire Story that peasant children from a village in the Carpathian Mountains started to die mysteriously. The villagers began to suspect a deceased count was a vampire, dwelling in his old fortress.
Frightened villagers burned the castle to stop the deaths. In his book In Search of Dracula, The History of Dracula and Vampires, Radu Florescu mentions an event in 1969 in the city of Căpăţâneni, where after the death of an old man, several family members began to die in suspicious circumstances. Unearthed, the corpse did not show signs of decomposition, his eyes were wide open, the face was red and twisted in the coffin; the corpse was burned to save his soul. In 1970, a series of hideous crimes shocked Bucharest; the attacks took place at midnight during rainstorms. The victims were waitresses returning home from work. In 1971, Ion Rîmaru was identified by teeth marks on the corpses. During the trial he was in a state of continual drowsiness, he was interrogated at night. During daylight hours, Rîmaru was intractably lethargic. Sentenced to death, Rîmaru became violently agitated. Several policemen were needed to restrain him. After the execution, Rîmaru's father died in a suspicious accident. During the investigation of the accident, it was discovered that the father's fingerprints matched those of a serial killer active in 1944 whose crimes looked remarkably similar to those of Ion Rîmaru.
The similarities included the weather conditions and similar or identical names of some of the victims. It was rumored that the accident was engineered by the Securitate, who decided to eliminate the dangerous individual. During the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the corpse of Nicolae Ceaușescu did not receive a proper burial; this made the ghost of the former dictator a threat in the minds of superstitious Romanians. Noted revolutionary Gelu Voican carpeted the apartment of the Conducător with braids of garlic; this is a traditional remedy against the strigoi. Before Christmas 2003, in the village of Marotinu de Sus, a 76-year-old Romanian man named Petre Toma died. In February 2004, a niece of the deceased revealed. Gheorghe Marinescu, a brother-in-law, became the leader of a vampire hunting group made up of several family members. After drinking some alcohol, they dug up the coffin of Petre Toma, made an incision in his chest, tore the heart out. After removal of the heart, the body was burned and the ashes mixed in water and drunk by the family, as is customary.
However, the Romanian government anxious to maintain a good image in preparation for the country's accession to the European Union had banned this practice, six family members were arrested by the police of C
Strzyga, Stryha is a female demon from Slavic mythology somewhat similar to vampire. According to Aleksander Brückner, the word is derived from Strix, Latin for owl and the origin of the term Strigoi, a troubled soul of the dead rising from the grave in Romanian mythology, it is unclear how the word strzyga was adapted by the Polish people, though it might have been through the Balkan peoples. The term strzyga could sometimes mean a vampire or upiór. After the 18th century, there was a distinction between upiór. A strzyga is a female demon somewhat similar to vampire in Slavic folklore. People who were born with two hearts and two souls, two sets of teeth were believed to be strzygi. Somnambulics or people without armpit hair could be seen as ones. Furthermore, a newborn child with developed teeth was believed to be one; when a person was identified as a strzyga they were chased away from human dwelling places. During epidemies, people were getting buried alive, those who managed to get out of their graves weak and with mutilated hands, were said to be strzygi by others.
It is said that strzygi died at a young age, according to belief, only one of their two souls would pass to the afterlife. These undead creatures were believed to fly at night in a form of an owl and attack night-time travelers and people who had wandered off into the woods at night, sucking out their blood and eating their insides. Strzyga were believed to be satisfied with animal blood, for a short period of time. According to the other sources, strzygi were believed not to harm people but to herald someone's imminent death. In this they resemble Banshees; when a person believed to be a strzyga died, decapitating the corpse and burying the head separate from the rest of the body was believed to prevent the strzyga from rising from the dead. Other methods of protection from the strzyga included: Burning the body Hammering nails, stakes etc. into various parts of the strzyga's body Putting a flint into its mouth after exhumation Pealing the church bells Slapping it across the face with one's left hand Burying it again, outside of the village, pinning it down with a big rock Scattering poppy seeds in the shape of the cross in every corner of the house Exhumation in the presence of a priest and burying the body again, after additional rituals Putting small objects in the strzyga's grave to make it count them.
Mare Dziwożona Vampire
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people. These include oral traditions such as tales and jokes, they include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites; each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next. Folklore is not something one can gain in a formal school curriculum or study in the fine arts. Instead, these traditions are passed along informally from one individual to another either through verbal instruction or demonstration; the academic study of folklore is called Folklore studies, it can be explored at undergraduate, graduate and Ph. D. levels. To understand folklore, it is helpful to clarify its component parts: the terms folk and lore.
It is well-documented. He fabricated it to replace the contemporary terminology of "popular antiquities" or "popular literature"; the second half of the compound word, proves easier to define as its meaning has stayed stable over the last two centuries. Coming from Old English lār'instruction,' and with German and Dutch cognates, it is the knowledge and traditions of a particular group passed along by word of mouth; the concept of folk proves somewhat more elusive. When Thoms first created this term, folk applied only to rural poor and illiterate peasants. A more modern definition of folk is a social group which includes two or more persons with common traits, who express their shared identity through distinctive traditions. "Folk is a flexible concept which can refer to a nation as in American folklore or to a single family." This expanded social definition of folk supports a broader view of the material, i.e. the lore, considered to be folklore artifacts. These now include all "things people make with words, things they make with their hands, things they make with their actions".
Folklore is no longer circumscribed as being chronologically obsolete. The folklorist studies the traditional artifacts of a social group. Transmission is a vital part of the folklore process. Without communicating these beliefs and customs within the group over space and time, they would become cultural shards relegated to cultural archaeologists. For folklore is a verb; these folk artifacts continue to be passed along informally, as a rule anonymously and always in multiple variants. The folk group is not individualistic, it nurtures its lore in community. "As new groups emerge, new folklore is created… surfers, computer programmers". In direct contrast to high culture, where any single work of a named artist is protected by copyright law, folklore is a function of shared identity within the social group. Having identified folk artifacts, the professional folklorist strives to understand the significance of these beliefs and objects for the group. For these cultural units would not be passed along unless they had some continued relevance within the group.
That meaning can however morph. So Halloween of the 21st century is not the All Hallows' Eve of the Middle Ages, gives rise to its own set of urban legends independent of the historical celebration; the cleansing rituals of Orthodox Judaism were good public health in a land with little water. Compare this to brushing your teeth transmitted within a group, which remains a practical hygiene and health issue and does not rise to the level of a group-defining tradition. For tradition is remembered behavior. Once it loses its practical purpose, there is no reason for further transmission unless it has been imbued with meaning beyond the initial practicality of the action; this meaning is at the core of the study of folklore. With an theoretical sophistication of the social sciences, it has become evident that folklore is a occurring and necessary component of any social group, it is indeed all around us, it does not have to be antiquated. It continues to be created, transmitted and in any group is used to differentiate between "us" and "them".
Folklore began to distinguish itself as an autonomous discipline during the period of romantic nationalism in Europe. A particular figure in this development was Johann Gottfried von Herder, whose writings in the 1770s presented oral traditions as organic processes grounded in locale. After the German states were invaded by Napoleonic France, Herder's approach was adopted by many of his fellow Germans who systematized the recorded folk traditions and used them in their process of nation building; this process was enthusiastically embraced by smaller nations like Finland and Hungary, which were seeking political independence from their dominant neighbours. Folklore as a field of study further developed among 19th century European scholars who were contrasting tradition with the newly developing modernity, its focus was the oral folklore of the rural peasant populations, which were considered as residue and survivals of the past that continued to exist within the lower strata of society. The "Kinder- und Hausmärchen" of the Brothers Grimm is the best known but by no means only collection of verbal folklore of the European peasantry of th