SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Shu (state)

Shu was an ancient state in what is now Sichuan Province. It was based on the Chengdu Plain, in the western Sichuan basin with some extension northeast to the upper Han River valley. To the east was the Ba tribal confederation. Further east down the Han and Yangtze rivers was the State of Chu. To the north over the Qinling Mountains was the State of Qin. To the west and south were tribal peoples of little military power; this independent Shu state was conquered by the state of Qin in 316 BC. Recent archaeological discoveries at Sanxingdui and Jinsha thought to be sites of Shu culture indicate the presence of a unique civilization in this region before the Qin conquest. In subsequent periods of Chinese history the Sichuan area continued to be referred to as Shu after this ancient state, states founded in the same region were called Shu. Before 316 BC the Sichuan Basin was isolated from what was China, centered in the Yellow River basin to the northeast; the discovery of Sanxingdui in 1987 was a major surprise since it indicated a major semi-Chinese culture, unknown.

Circa 2050-1250 BC the site of Sanxingdui 40 km north of Chengdu appears to have been the center of a extensive kingdom. Objects found in two treasure pits are in a style distinct from objects found from further north; this culture is suggested by many archaeologists to be that of the Shu kingdom. There are few mentions of Shu in the early Chinese historical records until the 4th century BC. Although there are possible references to a "Shu" in Shang Dynasty oracle bones inscriptions that indicate contact between Shu and Shang, it is not clear if the Shu mentioned refer to the kingdom in Sichuan or other different polities elsewhere. Shu was first mentioned in Shujing as one of the allies of King Wu of Zhou who helped defeated the Shang in 1046 BC at the Battle of Muye. However, shortly after Zhou's conquest, it was mentioned in Yizhoushu that a subordinate of King Wu led an expedition against Shu. After the battle of Muye, northern influences on Shu seem to have increased and decreased while the Shu remained culturally distinct.

The expulsion of the Zhou from the Wei River valley in 771 BC increased Shu's isolation. Written accounts of Shu are a mixture of mythological stories and historical legends found in local annals and miscellaneous notes, which include the Han dynasty compilation Shuwang benji and the Jin dynasty Chronicles of Huayang. There are a few names of semi-legendary kings, such as Cancong, Boguan and Duyu. According to Chronicles of Huayang, Cancong was the first of the legendary kings and had protruding eyes, while Duyu taught the people agriculture and transformed into a cuckoo after his death. In 666 BC a man from Chu called Bieling founded the Kaiming dynasty which lasted twelve generations until the Qin conquest. Legend has it that Bieling had died in Chu and his body floated upriver to Shu, whereupon he came back to life. While at Shu, he was successful in managing a flood and Duyu abdicated in his favor. A account states that the Kaiming kings occupied the far south of Shu before travelling up the Min River and taking over from Duyu.

As the state of Chu expanded westward up the Han and Yangtze valleys it pushed the Ba peoples west toward Shu. For the 5th and 4th centuries BC in Sichuan archaeologists speak of a mixed Ba-Shu culture, although the two peoples remained distinct. There was some Chu influence on the Shu court. In 474 BC Shu emissaries presented gifts to the Qin court, the first recorded contact between these two states. Shu troops crossed the Qinling Mountains and approached the Qin capital of Yong, in 387 Shu and Qin troops clashed near Hanzhong on the upper Han river. About 356-338 BC Shang Yang strengthened the Qin state by centralizing it. In 337 BC Shu emissaries congratulated King Huiwen of Qin on his accession. At about this time the Stone Cattle Road was built over the mountains to connect Shu. About 316 BC the Marquis of Zu, who held part of the Stone Cattle Road, became involved with Ba and quarreled with his brother, the twelfth Kaiming King; the Marquis was defeated and fled to Ba and to Qin. Zhang Yi proposed that Qin should ignore these barbarians and continue its eastward expansion onto the central plain.

Sima Cuo proposed that Qin should use its superior army to annex Shu, develop its resources and use the added strength for a attack eastward. Sima Cuo's proposal was accepted and both advisors were sent south as generals; the two armies met near Jaimeng on the Jialing River in Ba territory. The Kaiming king lost several battles and withdrew southward to Wuyang where he was captured and killed. Qin turned on its allies and annexed Ba. In 314 BC the late Kaiming king's son was appointed Marquis Yaotong of Shu to rule in conjunction with a Qin governor. In 311 BC an official named Chen Zhuang killed Yaotong. Sima Cuo and Zhang Yi again killed Chen Zhuang. Another Kaiming called. In 301 BC he chose suicide when confronted with Sima Cuo's army, his son, the last Kaiming marquis, reigned from 300 until 285 BC when he was put to death. The conquest had more than doubled Qin's territory and gave it an area safe from the other states except Chu, but the land had to be dev

Daniel Smith (rugby league)

Daniel Smith is a professional rugby league footballer who plays as a prop for Castleford Tigers in the Betfred Super League. He played for Oldham, the Wakefield Trinity Wildcats in the Super League, on loan from the Wakefield Trinity Wildcats at Featherstone Rovers in the Championship, he played for Hull Kingston Rovers, playing on loan from Hull KR at Oldham and Featherstone Rovers, before moving to Castleford Tigers during the 2019 Super League season. Smith was born in West Yorkshire, England, he is the brother of fellow rugby league footballer Cameron Smith. Smith played at junior level for amateur side Castleford Lock Lane. At the age of 15, he joined the academy at the Leeds Rhinos. In 2012, Smith was on loan at Oldham, he moved to Australia in 2013. He returned to England at the end of the year, signed a two-year contract with Wakefield Trinity Wildcats. In 2014, he appeared for Wakefield Trinity Wildcats as a prop, he scored two tries in 12 appearances, he played one game for Featherstone Rovers on dual registration, scoring a try in his only appearance.

In July 2015, Smith was signed by Huddersfield Giants on a four-and-a-half year deal. Castleford Tigers profile Huddersfield Giants profile SL profile

Shimofunato Station

Shimofunato Station was a JR East railway station located in Ōfunato, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The station was closed after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and has now been replaced by a provisional Bus Rapid Transit line. Shimofunato Station was served by the Ōfunato Line, was located 100.2 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Ichinoseki Station. Shimofunato Station had a single side platform serving traffic in both directions; the station was unattended. Shimofunato Station opened on 3 September 1934; the station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japan National Railways on April 1, 1987. The station was closed after tsunami. National Route 45 Shimofunato Shell Mound JR East Station information