King Cheng of Zhou
King Cheng of Zhou or King Ch'eng of Chou was the second king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty. The dates of his reign are 1042-1021 BCE or 1042/35-1006 BCE, his parents were King Wu of Queen Yi Jiang. King Cheng was young, his uncle, Duke of Zhou, fearing that Shang forces might rise again under the possible weak rule of a young ruler, became the regent and supervised government affairs for several years. Duke of Zhou established the eastern capital at Luoyang, defeated a rebellion by Cheng’s uncles Cai Shu, Guan Shu and Huo Shu. King Cheng stabilized Zhou Dynasty’s border by defeating several barbarian tribes along with the Duke of Zhou. Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors
Duke Wen of Jin
Duke Wen of Jin, born Chong'er, was a scion of the royal house of Jin during the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. He famously endured a long period of exile from his realm before being restored to power and leading Jin to hegemony over the other Chinese states of his time, he is a figure in numerous Chinese legends, including those about his loyal courtier Jie Zhitui, whose death is said to have inspired China's Cold Food and Qingming Festivals. "Duke Wen of Jin" is a posthumous name bestowed on him as part of his family's ancestral veneration. It means the "Cultured Duke of Jin". Duke Wen's given name was Chong'er, his clan name was Ji. Prince Chong'er was born to Duke Xian of Jin in 697 BC; the Zuo Zhuan notes that "his ribs were all grown together," a sign of leadership. Chong'er's half-brothers included Shensheng and Xiqi. While Shensheng was the original crown prince, in his years Duke Xian favoured the concubine Li Ji, who desired her son Xiqi to be heir instead; as such, she plotted to discredit Shensheng before his father leading to Shensheng's suicide in 656 BC.
This event led to a civil war in Jin, known as the Li Ji Unrest, where Duke Xian led several campaigns against his own sons, forcing them to flee Jin. With a retinue of capable men, including Zhao Cui, Hu Yan, Wei Chou, Jia Tuo, Xian Zhen, Jie Zhitui, Chong'er fled to the north. In 651 BC, after the death of Duke Xian led to a succession crisis, Chong'er was invited to return to Jin and assume the duchy, but declined. In 644 BC, after failed assassination attempts by Duke Hui, Chong'er moved to the State of Qi, his mother's homeland, he remained there until yet another succession crisis in Qi in 639 BC, whereupon he fled first to the State of Cao the states of Song, Zheng and the State of Qin. Over this 19-year period of exile, Chong ` er gained both talented followers. In 636 BC, after the death of Duke Hui, Duke Mu of Qin escorted Chong'er back to Jin with an army, Chong'er was installed as the Duke of Jin. Duke Wen undertook several major reforms of the state's military and civil institutions in order to fill the gaps, caused by the slaughter of the ducal house previously.
These included the formation of a three-army system, with an upper and lower army each commanded by a General and a Lieutenant-General. The state was further invigorated by the many capable leaders Duke Wen had gathered from his wanderings, who were given senior military and governmental posts. With this army, as well as his considerable prestige, Duke Wen was able to absorb many of the states around Jin increasing its extent, while subjecting others as vassals. At the same time, he took the political stance of supporting the Eastern Zhou court and King Xiang of Zhou; when in 635 BC King Xiang was deposed and driven out by his brother, Duke Wen led a coalition of states which re-installed him as King. At the same time, the northward expansion of the State of Chu was resisted by Duke Wen. In 633 BC, Chu invaded the State of Song, an ally of Jin; this battle checked Chu's northern expansion for decades, while cementing Duke Wen's position. Duke Jin died in 628 BC, was succeeded by his son Duke Xiang of Jin.
When Chong'er stayed at the court of Chu, its king set banquets for him and afforded him good treatment. At one meal, he asked. Chong'er replied that, should Jin and Chu meet on the battlefield in the future, he would order his own troops to retreat three she or about 30 km. After Chong'er was restored to his throne by the duke of Qin, he did meet Chu in battle. Remembering his promise, he ordered his men to retreat three she, he used the occasion, however, to lure the Chu commander Ziyu into an ambush at Chengpu and won the battle there. Accounts of Chong'er and his retainer and musician Jie Zhitui or Zitui circulated by at least the 4th century BC. Sima Qian relates that Jie was among those who followed the prince through all his years of exile but, crediting Heaven with Qin's willingness to install Chong'er in place of Duke Yu, he declined to present himself at court for reward and insulted those who did so, he and his mother were never seen again. Chong'er was distracted during this time by the chaos of his installation, as Yu's partisans started riots and burnt down the ducal palace.
He was reminded of Jie by a poem about a dragon and some snakes, posted on his new palace's main gate. This developed into a temple, Jie became regarded as a Taoist immortal with power over the weather by the early Han. Legends embellished this story: after the retinue of exiles were robbed by bandits while traveling through the Chine
Duke of Zhou
Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou known as the Duke of Zhou, was a member of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu. He was renowned for acting as a capable and loyal regent for his young nephew King Cheng, for suppressing the Rebellion of the Three Guards and establishing firm rule of the Zhou dynasty over eastern China, he is a Chinese culture hero credited with writing the I Ching and the Book of Poetry, establishing the Rites of Zhou, creating the yayue of Chinese classical music. His personal name was Dan, he was the fourth son of King Wen of Queen Tai Si. His eldest brother Bo Yikao predeceased their father. King Wu distributed many fiefs to his relatives and followers and Dan received the ancestral territory of Zhou near present-day Luoyang. Only two years after assuming power, King Wu left the kingdom to his young son King Cheng; the Duke of Zhou attained the regency and administered the kingdom himself, leading to revolts not only from disgruntled Shang partisans but from his own relatives his older brother Guan Shu.
Within five years, the Duke of Zhou had managed to defeat the Three Guards and other rebellions and his armies pushed east, bringing more land under Zhou control. The Duke of Zhou was credited with elaborating the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven, which countered Shang propaganda that as descendants of the god Shangdi they should be restored to power. According to this doctrine, Shang injustice and decadence had so grossly offended Heaven that Heaven had removed their authority and commanded the reluctant Zhou to replace the Shang and restore order. On a more practical level, the Duke of Zhou expanded and codified his brother's feudal system, granting titles to loyal Shang clansmen and establishing a new "holy" city at Chengzhou around 1038 BC. Laid out according to exact geomantic principles, Chengzhou was the home of King Cheng, the Shang nobility, the nine tripod cauldrons symbolic of imperial rule, while the Duke continued to administer the kingdom from the former capital of Haojing. Once Cheng came of age, the Duke of Zhou dutifully gave up the throne without trouble.
The duke's eight sons all received land from the king. The eldest son received Lu. In centuries, subsequent emperors considered the Duke of Zhou a paragon of virtue and honored him with posthumous names; the empress Wu Zetian named her short-lived 8th-century Second Zhou Dynasty after him and called him the Honorable and Virtuous King. In 1008, the Zhenzong Emperor gave the Duke the posthumous title King of Exemplary Culture, he was known as the First Sage. In 2004, Chinese archaeologists reported that they may have found his tomb complex in Qishan County, Shaanxi. Duke of Zhou is known as the "God of Dreams"; the Analects record Confucius saying, "How I have gone downhill! It has been such a long time since I dreamt of the Duke of Zhou." This was meant as a lamentation of how the governmental ideals of the Duke of Zhou had faded, but was taken literally. In Chinese legends, if an important thing is going to happen to someone, the Duke of Zhou will let the person know through dreams: hence the Chinese expression "Dreaming of Zhou Gong".
東野家族大宗世系 Family Tree of the descendants of the Duke of Zhou in Chinese The main line of the Duke of Zhou's descendants came from his firstborn son, the State of Lu ruler Bo Qin's third son Yu whose descendants adopted the surname Dongye. The Duke of Zhou's offspring held the title of Wujing Boshi. One of the Duke of Zhou's 72 generation descendants family tree was examined and commented on by Song Lian. Duke Huan of Lu's son through Qingfu was the ancestor of Mencius, he was descended from Duke Yang of the State of Lu 魯煬公 Duke Yang was the son of Bo Qin, the son of the Duke of Zhou. The genealogy is found in the Mencius family tree; the Zhikou Chiangs such as Chiang Kai-shek were descended from Chiang Shih-chieh who during the 1600s moved there from Fenghua district, whose ancestors in turn came to southeastern China's Zhejiang province after moving out of Northern China in the 13th century AD. The 12th-century BC Duke of Zhou's third son was the ancestor of the Chiangs. Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors Edward.
"Western Zhou History". In Loewe, Michael; the Cambridge History of Ancient China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 292–351. ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8. Tomb of Zhou Gong
The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history; the military control of China by the royal house, surnamed Ji, lasted from 1046 until 771 BC for a period known as the Western Zhou and the political sphere of influence it created continued well into Eastern Zhou for another 500 years. During the Zhou Dynasty, centralized power decreased throughout the Spring and Autumn period until the Warring States period in the last two centuries of the Zhou Dynasty. In this period, the Zhou court had little control over its constituent states that were at war with each other until the Qin state consolidated power and formed the Qin dynasty in 221 BC; the Zhou Dynasty had formally collapsed only 35 years earlier, although the dynasty had only nominal power at that point. This period of Chinese history produced; the Zhou dynasty spans the period in which the written script evolved into its almost-modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period.
According to Chinese mythology, the Zhou lineage began when Jiang Yuan, a consort of the legendary Emperor Ku, miraculously conceived a child, Qi "the Abandoned One", after stepping into the divine footprint of Shangdi. Qi was a culture hero credited with surviving three abandonments by his mother and with improving Xia agriculture, to the point where he was granted lordship over Tai and the surname Ji by his own Xia king and a posthumous name, Houji "Lord of Millet", by the Tang of Shang, he received sacrifice as a harvest god. The term Hòujì was a hereditary title attached to a lineage. Qi's son, or rather that of the Hòujì, Buzhu is said to have abandoned his position as Agrarian Master in old age and either he or his son Ju abandoned agriculture living a nomadic life in the manner of the Xirong and Rongdi. Ju's son Liu, led his people to prosperity by restoring agriculture and settling them at a place called Bin, which his descendants ruled for generations. Tai led the clan from Bin to Zhou, an area in the Wei River valley of modern-day Qishan County.
The duke passed over his two elder sons Taibo and Zhongyong to favor Jili, a warrior who conquered several Xirong tribes as a vassal of the Shang kings Wu Yi and Wen Ding before being treacherously killed. Taibo and Zhongyong had already fled to the Yangtze delta, where they established the state of Wu among the tribes there. Jili's son Wen moved the Zhou capital to Feng. Around 1046 BC, Wen's son Wu and his ally Jiang Ziya led an army of 45,000 men and 300 chariots across the Yellow River and defeated King Zhou of Shang at the Battle of Muye, marking the beginning of the Zhou dynasty; the Zhou enfeoffed a member of the defeated Shang royal family as the Duke of Song, held by descendants of the Shang royal family until its end. This practice was referred to Three Reverences. According to Nicholas Bodman, the Zhou appear to have spoken a language not different in vocabulary and syntax from that of the Shang. A recent study by David McCraw, using lexical statistics, reached the same conclusion.
The Zhou emulated extensively Shang cultural practices to legitimize their own rule, became the successors to Shang culture. At the same time, the Zhou may have been connected to the Xirong, a broadly defined cultural group to the west of the Shang, which the Shang regarded as tributaries. According to the historian Li Feng, the term "Rong" during the Western Zhou period was used to designate political and military adversaries rather than cultural and ethnic'others.' King Wu maintained the old capital for ceremonial purposes but constructed a new one for his palace and administration nearby at Hao. Although Wu's early death left a young and inexperienced heir, the Duke of Zhou assisted his nephew King Cheng in consolidating royal power. Wary of the Duke of Zhou's increasing power, the "Three Guards", Zhou princes stationed on the eastern plain, rose in rebellion against his regency. Though they garnered the support of independent-minded nobles, Shang partisans and several Dongyi tribes, the Duke of Zhou quelled the rebellion, further expanded the Zhou Kingdom into the east.
To maintain Zhou authority over its expanded territory and prevent other revolts, he set up the fengjian system. Furthermore, he countered Zhou's crisis of legitimacy by expounding the doctrine of the Mandate of Heaven while accommodating important Shang rituals at Wangcheng and Chengzhou. Over time, this decentralized system became strained as the familial relationships between the Zhou kings and the regional dynasties thinned over the generations. Peripheral territories developed local prestige on par with that of the Zhou; when King You demoted and exiled his Jiang queen in favor of the beautiful commoner Bao Si, the disgraced queen's father the Marquis of Shen joined with Zeng and the Quanrong barbarians to sack Hao in 771 BC. Some modern scholars have surmised that the sack of Haojing might have been connected to a Scythian raid from the Altai before their westward expansion. With King You dead, a conclave of nobles declared the Marquis's grandson King Ping; the capital was moved eastward to Wangcheng, marking the end of the "Western Zhou" and the beginning of the "Eastern Zhou" dynasty.
The Eastern Zhou was characterized by an accelerating collapse of royal authority, although the king's ritual importance allowed over five more cent
Firmiana simplex known as the Chinese parasol tree, Chinese parasoltree, or wutong, is an ornamental plant of tree size, assigned to the family Malvaceae and was the family Sterculiaceae in the order Malvales, is native to Asia. It grows up to 16 m tall, it has alternate, deciduous leaves up to 30 cm across and small fragrant, greenish-white flowers borne in large inflorescences. A flowering tree varies in fragrance with weather and time of the day, having a lemony odor with citronella and chocolate tones. A tall, stately specimen grows in the botanical garden in Italy. Bumble bees and Giant Mason Bees visit the flowers in Maryland, U. S. People grow this tree as an ornamental in warm regions of North America. Due to its superior sonic properties, the wood is used for the soundboards of several Chinese instruments, including the guqin and guzheng. According to an article in the journal Nature of 1884, the leaves of Sterculia platanifolia were dried for smoking; this species is an aggressive, invasive weed in the warmer parts of North America Some people promote its removal and give instructions for drastic measures, including destruction of nursery stock.
This plant is self-fertile, its seeds spread especially along watercourses, growing after germination in favorable sites. Offspring compete with many other species. Firmiana simplex - The University of Alabama in Huntsville Firmiana simplex - Louisiana State University
Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level
A Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level abbreviated as guobao, is one of 4,295 monuments listed as of significant historical, artistic or scientific value by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, the cultural relics administrative department of the State Council of China. Selected among Sites Protected at lower levels, Sites Protected at the National Level are lawfully the monuments with protection of the highest level in China, it is prohibited to demolish them. An approval by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage is required before a potential removal of such sites. In 1999 it was reported that there were some 350,000 immovable cultural properties in China, of which 70,000 were protected at one of the three main levels, in addition to some 10,000,000 movable cultural properties held by state institutions alone. Of these, as of October 2013, 4,295 Sites Protected at the National Level have been designated by the State Administration, they were announced in 7 batches and several supplemental batches: Sites Protected for Their Historical and Cultural Value or Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at various levels include: Major Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the National Level Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the Provincial Level Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the Level of a City Divided into Districts or at the Level of an Autonomous Prefecture Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the County Level Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China World Heritage Sites in China Tourist Attraction Rating Categories of China
The Jinci or Jin Temple is the most prominent temple complex in Shanxi, China. It is located 16 miles southwest of Taiyuan at the foot of Xuanweng Mountain at the Jin Springs, it was founded about 1,400 years ago and expanded during the following centuries, resulting in a diverse collection of more than 100 sculptures, buildings and bridges. The best known structure at Jinci is the Hall of the Holy Mother, constructed from 1023 to 1032 during the Song dynasty, it has carved wooden dragons coiled around the eight pillars that support its upward-curving double-eave roof. The complex includes a classical garden with a 3,000-year-old cypress dating from the Zhou Dynasty. To the west of Hall of the Holy Mother is a temple dedicated to the deity Shuimu. Next to Jinci is the Wang Family Hall, a private villa built in 1532 for Wang Qiong, a high-ranking official during the Ming Dynasty