Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments. The term is historically used to refer to excommunications from the Catholic Church, but it is used more to refer to similar types of institutional religious exclusionary practices and shunning among other religious groups. For instance, many Protestant denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, have similar practices of excusing congregants from church communities, while Jehovah's Witnesses, as well as the Churches of Christ, use the term "disfellowship" to refer to their form of excommunication; the Amish have been known to excommunicate members that were either seen or known for breaking rules, or questioning the church. The word excommunication means putting a specific group out of communion. In some denominations, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the group.
Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the group, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. The grave act is revoked in response to sincere penance, which may be manifested through public recantation, sometimes through the Sacrament of Confession, piety or through mortification of the flesh. Within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches. In Latin Catholic canon law, excommunication is a applied censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behaviour or attitude and return to full communion, it is not an "expiatory penalty" designed to make satisfaction for the wrong done, much less a "vindictive penalty" designed to punish: "excommunication, the gravest penalty of all and the most frequent, is always medicinal", is "not at all vindictive". Excommunication can be either latae ferendae sententiae.
According to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, "excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities..." These activities are listed in Canon 1331 §1, prohibit the individual from any ministerial participation in celebrating the sacrifice of the Eucharist or any other ceremonies of worship. Under current Catholic canon law, excommunicates remain bound by ecclesiastical obligations such as attending Mass though they are barred from receiving the Eucharist and from taking an active part in the liturgy. "Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law. They are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life; these are the only effects for those. For instance, a priest may not refuse Communion publicly to those who are under an automatic excommunication, as long as it has not been declared to have been incurred by them if the priest knows that they have incurred it.
On the other hand, if the priest knows that excommunication has been imposed on someone or that an automatic excommunication has been declared, he is forbidden to administer Holy Communion to that person.. In the Catholic Church, excommunication is resolved by a declaration of repentance, profession of the Creed and an Act of Faith, or renewal of obedience by the excommunicated person and the lifting of the censure by a priest or bishop empowered to do this. "The absolution can be in the internal forum only, or in the external forum, depending on whether scandal would be given if a person were absolved and yet publicly considered unrepentant." Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure. In many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary, or the Pope.
These can delegate a priest to act on their behalf. Interdict is a censure similar to excommunication, it too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, but not from the exercise of governance. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between major excommunication; those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there; the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. Those under major excommunication
The Bahá'í administration or Bahá'í administrative order is the administrative system of the Bahá'í Faith. It is split into the elected and the appointed; the supreme governing institution of the Bahá'í Faith is the Universal House of Justice, situated in Haifa, Israel. Some features set apart the Bahá'í administration from similar systems of human government: elected representatives should follow their conscience, rather than being responsible to the views of electors; the Bahá'í administration has four charter documents, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, the Tablets of the Divine Plan, the Tablet of Carmel and the Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Shoghi Effendi wrote that the Bahá'í Administrative Order incorporates within its structure certain elements which are to be found in each of the three recognized forms of secular government: autocracy and democracy, his objective in designing the Bahá'í Administrative Order was to embody and assimilate within it "such wholesome elements as are to be found in each one of them..." while excluding the "admitted evils inherent in each of these systems..." such that it "cannot degenerate into any form of despotism, of oligarchy, or of demagogy which must sooner or corrupt the machinery of all man-made and defective political institutions."Bahá'u'lláh commended the British system of government that enhanced kingship through consultation with the people, but did not endorse parliamentary democracy.
These statements praise the principles of kingship and consultation with the people as principles for civil government. The Bahá'í Administrative Order concerns the system of administration within the Bahá'í Faith rather than civil government; this difference is highlighted in a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi concerning the future world government foretold by Bahá'u'lláh and outlined by Shoghi Effendi, stating "As regards the International Executive referred to by the Guardian in his "Goal of a New World Order", it should be noted that this statement refers by no means to the Bahá'í Commonwealth of the future, but to that world government which will herald the advent and lead to the final establishment of the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. The formation of this International Executive, which corresponds to the executive head or board in present-day national governments, is but a step leading to the Bahá'í world government of the future, hence should not be identified with either the institution of the Guardianship or that of the International House of Justice."
In keeping with the Bahá'í principle of obedience to government, Bahá'í Administration is seen as subordinate to civil government. A key point of the process of administration is the practice of consultation.'Abdu'l-Bahá states "The prime requisites for them that take counsel together are purity of motive, radiance of spirit, detachment from all else save God, attraction to His Divine Fragrances and lowliness amongst His loved ones and long-suffering in difficulties and servitude... The members thereof must take counsel together in such wise that no occasion for ill-feeling or discord may arise; this can be attained when every member expresseth with absolute freedom his own opinion and setteth forth his argument. Should any one oppose, he must on no account feel hurt for not until matters are discussed can the right way be revealed; the shining spark of truth cometh forth only after the clash of differing opinions. If after discussion, a decision be carried unanimously and good; the Bahá' í administration has two distinct elements: the appointed.
The highest elected body is the Universal House of Justice, which possesses the authority to supplement and apply the laws of Bahá'u'lláh. The highest appointed authority is the Institution of the Guardianship, a hereditary authority and has the exclusive "right of the interpretation of the Holy Writ conferred upon him." These two institutions are described in `Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament as having divine authority: "... The Guardian of the Cause of God, as well as the Universal House of Justice to be universally elected and established, are both under the care and protection of the Abhá Beauty... Whatsoever they decide is of God. Whoso obeyeth him not, neither obeyeth them, hath not obeyed God" The same Will appoints Shoghi Effendi as the Guardian, gives further details about the structure of the administration, including election and appointment processes. Shoghi Effendi worked throughout his life to establish the necessary secondary institutions that were required for the election of the Universal House of Justice, first elected in 1963.
Having no ordained, professional priesthood, Bahá'ís operate through a type of non-partisan democratic self-government. The traditional functions of community leadership and moral leadership are not vested in individuals, but in an institutional framework with two main branches. Sometimes referred to by Bahá'u'lláh as "the Rulers", Bahá'ís elect members to councils which are vested with the authority of the community; the members of these councils, have no individual authority. When duly constituted and when deciding matters as a body, these councils act as the heads of the community. Bahá'u'lláh envisioned a Supreme House of Justice, with local Houses of Justice in every community where nine or more adult Bahá'ís reside. ` Abdu ` l-Bahá unveiled National House of Justice in his will. Seen as embryonic institutions and local Hous
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
In the social sciences, unintended consequences are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action. The term was popularised in the twentieth century by American sociologist Robert K. Merton. Unintended consequences can be grouped into three types: Unexpected benefit: A positive unexpected benefit. Unexpected drawback: An unexpected detriment occurring in addition to the desired effect of the policy. Perverse result: A perverse effect contrary to what was intended; this is sometimes referred to as'backfire'. The idea of unintended consequences dates back at least to John Locke who discussed the unintended consequences of interest rate regulation in his letter to Sir John Somers, Member of Parliament; the idea was discussed by Adam Smith, the Scottish Enlightenment, consequentialism. Sociologist Robert K. Merton popularised this concept in the twentieth century. In "The Unanticipated Consequences of Purposive Social Action", Merton tried to apply a systematic analysis to the problem of unintended consequences of deliberate acts intended to cause social change.
He emphasized that his term purposive action, " concerned with'conduct' as distinct from'behavior.' That is, with action that involves motives and a choice between various alternatives". Merton's usage included deviations from what Max Weber defined as rational social action: instrumentally rational and value rational. Merton stated that "no blanket statement categorically affirming or denying the practical feasibility of all social planning is warranted." More the law of unintended consequences has come to be used as an adage or idiomatic warning that an intervention in a complex system tends to create unanticipated and undesirable outcomes. Akin to Murphy's law, it is used as a wry or humorous warning against the hubristic belief that humans can control the world around them. Possible causes of unintended consequences include the world's inherent complexity, perverse incentives, human stupidity, self-deception, failure to account for human nature, or other cognitive or emotional biases; as a sub-component of complexity, the chaotic nature of the universe—and its quality of having small insignificant changes with far-reaching effects —applies.
Robert K. Merton listed five possible causes of unanticipated consequences in 1936: Ignorance, making it impossible to anticipate everything, thereby leading to incomplete analysis. Errors in analysis of the problem or following habits that worked in the past but may not apply to the current situation. Immediate interests overriding long-term interests. Basic values which may require or prohibit certain actions if the long-term result might be unfavourable. Self-defeating prophecy, or, the fear of some consequence which drives people to find solutions before the problem occurs, thus the non-occurrence of the problem is not anticipated. In addition to Merton's causes, psychologist Stuart Vyse has noted that groupthink, described by Irving Janis, has been blamed for some decisions that result in unintended consequences; the creation of "no-man's lands" during the Cold War, in places such as the border between Eastern and Western Europe, the Korean Demilitarized Zone, has led to large natural habitats.
The sinking of ships in shallow waters during wartime has created many artificial coral reefs, which can be scientifically valuable and have become an attraction for recreational divers. Retired ships have been purposely sunk in recent years, in an effort to replace coral reefs lost to global warming and other factors. In medicine, most drugs have unintended consequences associated with their use. However, some are beneficial. For instance, aspirin, a pain reliever, is an anticoagulant that can help prevent heart attacks and reduce the severity and damage from thrombotic strokes; the existence of beneficial side effects leads to off-label use—prescription or use of a drug for an unlicensed purpose. Famously, the drug Viagra was developed to lower blood pressure, with its use for treating erectile dysfunction being discovered as a side effect in clinical trials; the implementation of a profanity filter by AOL in 1996 had the unintended consequence of blocking residents of Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, England from creating accounts due to a false positive.
The accidental censorship of innocent language, known as the Scunthorpe problem, has been repeated and documented. The objective of microfinance initiatives is to foster micro-entrepreneurs but an unintended consequence can be informal intermediation: That is, some entrepreneurial borrowers become informal intermediaries between microfinance initiatives and poorer micro-entrepreneurs; those who more qualify for microfinance split loans into smaller credit to poorer borrowers. Informal intermediation ranges from casual intermediaries at the good or benign end of the spectrum to'loan sharks' at the professional and sometimes criminal end of the spectrum. In 1990, the Australian state of Victoria made. While there was a reduction in the number of head injuries, there was an unintended reduction in the number of juvenile cyclists—fewer cyclists lead
Jehovah's Witnesses practices
Jehovah's Witnesses base their practices on the biblical interpretations of Charles Taze Russell, founder of the Bible Student movement, of successive presidents of the Watch Tower Society, Joseph Franklin Rutherford and Nathan Homer Knorr. Since 1976 practices have been based on decisions made at closed meetings of the group's Governing Body; the group disseminates instructions regarding activities and acceptable behavior through The Watchtower magazine and through other official publications, at conventions and congregation meetings. Jehovah's Witnesses endeavor to remain "separate from the world", which they regard as a place of moral contamination and under the control of Satan. Witnesses refuse to participate in any political and military activity and limit social contact with non-Witnesses. Members practice a strict moral code, which forbids premarital and homosexual sex, smoking and drug abuse, blood transfusions. A system of judicial committees maintains discipline within congregations, exercising the power to expel members who breach organizational rules and to demand their shunning by other Witnesses.
The threat of shunning serves to deter members from dissident behavior. Members are expected to participate in evangelizing work and to attend all congregation meetings, as well as regular large-scale conventions – structured events based on material from Watch Tower Society publications. Meetings for worship and study are held at Kingdom Halls, are open to the public. Witnesses are assigned to a congregation in which "territory" they reside and are expected to attend weekly meetings as scheduled by the Watch Tower Society and congregation elders; the meetings are devoted to study of the Bible and Witness doctrines. During meetings and in other formal circumstances, Witnesses refer to one another as "Brother" and "Sister". Sociologist Andrew Holden claims meetings create an atmosphere of uniformity for Witnesses, intensify their sense of belonging to a religious community, reinforce the plausibility of the organization's belief system, he says they are important in helping new converts adopt a different way of life.
According to The Watchtower, one role of the frequency and length of meetings is to protect Witnesses from becoming "involved in the affairs of the world."The form and content of the meetings is established by the denomination's Brooklyn headquarters involving a consideration of the same subject matter worldwide each week. Two meetings each week are divided into five distinct sections. Meetings are closed with hymns and brief prayers delivered from the platform. Witnesses are urged to prepare for all meetings by studying Watch Tower literature from which the content is drawn and looking up the scriptures cited in the articles. Kingdom Halls are functional in character, contain no religious symbols; each year, Witnesses from several congregations, which form a "circuit", gather for two one-day assemblies. These larger gatherings are held at rented stadiums or auditoriums, their most important and solemn event is the celebration of the "Lord's Evening Meal", or "Memorial of Christ's Death". The weekend meeting held on Sunday, comprises a 30-minute public talk by a congregation elder or ministerial servant and a one-hour question-and-answer study of a Bible-based article from The Watchtower magazine, with questions prepared by the Watch Tower Society and the answers provided in the magazine.
Members may use their own words to express the ideas in the printed material, though personal ideas derived from independent study are discouraged. The midweek meeting held in the evening, includes various question-and-answer sessions based on Watch Tower Society publications, Bible reading, sample presentations of how to use Watch Tower Society literature for Bible studies and public preaching. Jehovah's Witnesses commemorate Christ's death as a ransom or "propitiatory sacrifice" by observing the Lord's Evening Meal, or Memorial, they celebrate it once per year, noting that it was instituted on an annual festival. They observe it on Nisan 14 according to the ancient Jewish luni-solar calendar. Jehovah's Witnesses are taught that this is the only celebration the Bible commands Christians to observe. Of those who attend the Memorial, a small minority worldwide partake of the unleavened bread and wine; this is. Only those who believe they have a heavenly hope, the "remnant" of the 144,000 "anointed", partake of the bread and wine.
In 2018, more than 20 million people attended, more than 19,500 members partook. The Memorial, held after sunset, includes a talk on the meaning of the celebration and the circulation among the audience of unadulterated red wine and unleavened bread. Jehovah's Witnesses believe the bread symbolizes Jesus Christ's body which he gave on behalf of mankind, that the wine symbolizes his blood which redeems from sin, they do not believe in consubstantiation. Because many congregations have no members who claim to be anointed, it is common for no one to partake of the bread and wine; each year, Jehovah's Witnesses hold two one day "Circuit Assemblies", held in each circuit worldwide. Each circuit comprises several congregations in a geographical area; these are held either in Assembly Halls owned by Jehovah's Witnesses, or in rented facilities, such as public audito
Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law. All human beings are born equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights; the true forerunner of human-rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition that became prominent during the European Enlightenment. From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the 20th century.17th-century English philosopher John Locke discussed natural rights in his work, identifying them as being "life and estate", argued that such fundamental rights could not be surrendered in the social contract.
In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions. Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States and in France, leading to the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen both of which articulated certain human rights. Additionally, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness. Philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill and Hegel expanded on the theme of universality during the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison wrote in a newspaper called The Liberator that he was trying to enlist his readers in "the great cause of human rights" so the term human rights came into use sometime between Paine's The Rights of Man and Garrison's publication.
In 1849 a contemporary, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about human rights in his treatise On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, influential on human rights and civil rights thinkers. United States Supreme Court Justice David Davis, in his 1867 opinion for Ex Parte Milligan, wrote "By the protection of the law, human rights are secured. In Western Europe and North America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labour; the women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the civil rights movement, more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States.
The foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law, to be further developed following the two World Wars. The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I; the League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and improving global welfare. Enshrined in its Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the League of Nations had mandates to support many of the former colonies of the Western European colonial powers during their transition from colony to independent state. Established as an agency of the League of Nations, now part of United Nations, the International Labour Organization had a mandate to promote and safeguard certain of the rights included in the UDHR: the primary goal of the ILO today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and human dignity.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a non-binding declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 in response to the barbarism of World War II. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil and social rights, asserting these rights are part of the "foundation of freedom and peace in the world"; the declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality....recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom and peace in the world The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. The members of the Commission did not agree on the form of such a bill of rights, whe
The Bahá'í Faith has had challenges to its leadership at the death of the head of the religion. The vast majority of Bahá'ís have followed a line of authority from Bahá'u'lláh to `Abdu'l-Bahá to Shoghi Effendi to the Custodians to the Universal House of Justice. Sects diverging from this line of leadership have failed to attract a sizeable following. In this sense, there is only one major branch of the Bahá'í Faith, represented by at least 5 million adherents, whereas the groups that have broken away have either become extinct with time, or have remained small in number, representing far less than 0.1% of all Bahá'ís. Globally the Bahá'í community has maintained its unity. Bahá'í scriptures define a Lesser Covenant regarding succession, intended to keep the Bahá'ís unified. Claimants challenging the accepted successions of leadership are shunned by the majority group as Covenant-Breakers. A separate entry discusses the Bahá'í/Bábí split. Bahá'u'lláh remained in the Akka-Haifa area under house arrest until his death in 1892.
According to the terms of his will, his eldest son `Abdu'l-Bahá was named the centre of authority. Pursuant to his role as Centre of the Covenant, `Abdu'l-Bahá became the head of the Bahá'í community. Soon Muhammad `Ali complained that `Abdu'l-Bahá was not sharing authority and he started working against his elder brother. Most members of the families of Bahá'u'lláh's second and third wives supported Muhammad `Alí. Muhammad `Alí's machinations with the Ottoman authorities resulted in `Abdu'l-Bahá's re-arrest and confinement in Acre, they caused the appointment of two official commissions of inquiry, which led to further exile and incarceration of `Abdu'l-Baha to North Africa. In the aftermath of the Young Turk revolution, Ottoman prisoners were freed thus ending the danger to `Abdu'l-Baha. Meanwhile, Ibrahim George Kheiralla, a Syrian Christian, converted to the Bahá'í Faith, emigrated to the United States and founded the first American Bahá'í community, he was loyal to'Abdu'l-Bahá. With time Kheiralla began teaching that `Abdu'l-Baha was the return of Christ, this was becoming the widespread understanding among the Bahá'ís in the United States, despite `Abdu'l-Baha's efforts to correct the mistake.
On, Kheiralla switched sides in the conflict between Bahá'u'lláh's sons and supported Mirza Muhammad Ali. He formed the Society of Behaists, a religious denomination promoting Unitarian Bahaism in the U. S., led by Shua Ullah Behai, son of Mirza Muhammad Ali, after he emigrated to the United States in June 1904 at the behest of his father. Muhammad `Alí's supporters either called themselves Behaists or "Unitarian Bahá'ís". From 1934 to 1937, Behai published Behai Quarterly a Unitarian Bahai magazine written in English and featuring the writings of Muhammad Ali and various other Unitarian Bahais.`Abdu'l-Bahá's response to determined opposition during his tenure was patterned on Bahá'u'lláh's example and evolved across three stages. Like Bahá'u'lláh, he made no public statements but communicated with his brother Muhammad `Alí and his associates directly, or through intermediaries, in seeking reconciliation; when it became clear that reconciliation was not possible, fearing damage to the community,'Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to the Bahá'ís explaining the situation, identifying the individuals concerned and instructing the believers to sever all ties with those involved.
He sent representatives to those areas most affected by the problem. The function of these representatives was to explain matters to the Bahá'ís and to encourage them to persevere in cutting all contact; these chosen individuals would have `Abdu'l-Bahá's authority to open up communications with those involved to try to persuade them to return. In Iran, such envoys were principally the four Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh; when `Abdu'l-Bahá died, his Will and Testament explained in some detail how Muhammad `Alí had been unfaithful to the Covenant, identifying him as a Covenant-breaker and appointing Shoghi Effendi as leader of the Faith with the title of Guardian. Bahá'í authors such as Hasan Balyuzi and Adib Taherzadeh set about refuting the claims of Muhammad `Alí; this represented what is described as the most testing time for the Bahá'í Faith. The Behaists rejected the authority of the Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá, claiming loyalty to the leadership succession as they inferred it from Baha'u'llah's Kitab-i-Ahd.
This schism had little effect. In the `Akká area, the followers of Muhammad `Alí represented six families at most, they had no common religious activities, were wholly assimilated into Muslim society. A modern academic observer has reported an attempt to revive the claims of Muhammad Ali in order to lend legitimacy to a newly established sect avowing loyalty to Bahá'u'lláh but rejecting the authority that Bahá'u'lláh gave to'Abdu’l-Bahá and to the Universal House of Justice. In addition, Nigar Bahai Amsalem, the great-granddaughter of Bahá'u'lláh and granddaughter of both Mirza Muhammad Ali and Bahá'u'lláh's youngest son Badi'u'llah, was interviewed in the 2006 Israeli mockumentary film Baha'is In My Backyard, it mentions that she has built a shrine at the tomb of Mirza Muhammad Ali and opposes the Universal House of Justice. She withheld information on the extent of her opposition during her interview for the film. At 24, Shoghi Effendi was young when he assumed leadership of the religion in 1921, as provided for by `Abdu'l-Bahá in his Will and Testament.
He had received a Western education at the Syrian Protestant College and at Balliol College, Oxford. At this time Muhammad-