Shushtar is a city and capital of Shushtar County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. Shushtar is an ancient fortress city 92 kilometres away from Ahvaz, the centre of the province. Much of its past agricultural productivity derives from the irrigation system which centered on the Band-e Kaisar, the first dam bridge in Iran; the Mayor of Shushtar is Ahmad Asefi. In the Elamite times Shushtar was known as Adamdun. In the Achaemenian times its name was Šurkutir; the modern name, Shushtar, is connected with the name of another ancient city and means "greater than Shush." During the Sassanian era, it was an island city on the Karun river and selected to become the summer capital. The river was channelled to form a moat around the city, while bridges and main gates into Shushtar were built to the east and south. Several rivers nearby are conducive to the extension of agriculture. A system of subterranean channels called Ghanats, which connected the river to the private reservoirs of houses and buildings, supplied water for domestic use and irrigation, as well as to store and supply water during times of war when the main gates were closed.
Traces of these ghanats can still be found in the crypts of some houses. Ibn Battuta visited, noting "On both banks of the river, there are orchards and water-wheels, the river itself is deep and over it, leading to the travelers' gate, there is a bridge upon boats."The ancient fortress walls were destroyed at the end of the Safavid era. The Band-e Kaisar is believed by some to be a Roman built arch bridge, the first in the country to combine it with a dam; when the Sassanian Shah Shapur I defeated the Roman emperor Valerian, he is said to have ordered the captive Roman soldiers to build a large bridge and dam stretching over 500 metres. Lying deep in Persian territory, the structure which exhibits typical Roman building techniques became the most eastern Roman bridge and Roman dam, its dual-purpose design exerted a profound influence on Iranian civil engineering and was instrumental in developing Sassanid water management techniques. The 500 m long overflow dam over the Karun, Iran's most effluent river, was the core structure of the Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System, a large irrigation complex from which Shushtar derived its agricultural productivity, and, designated World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2009.
The arched superstructure carried across the important road between Pasargadae and the Sassanid capital Ctesiphon. Many times repaired in the Islamic period, the dam bridge fell out of use in the late 19th century, leading to the degeneration of the complex system of irrigation; the people of Shushtar, called Shushtaris and arabian, maintain a unique cultural heritage stretching back to ancient times, a Persian dialect distinct to their group. The Shushtari dialect is a dialect of Persian. Shushtar has a hot semi-arid climate with hot summers and mild winters. Rainfall is higher than most of southern Iran, but is exclusively confined to the period from November to April, though on occasions it can exceed 250 millimetres per month or 600 millimetres per year. Sahl al-Tustari, a medieval Islamic scholar and early Sufi mystic born in Shushtar Sheikh Jafar Shooshtari, a prominent Shia scholar Hartung, Fritz. Pre-Islamic Bridges", in Yarshater, Encyclopædia Iranica Online Kleiss, Wolfram, "Brückenkonstruktionen in Iran", Architectura, 13: 105–112 Kramers, J. H. "Shushtar", in Bearman, P. Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brill Online O'Connor, Roman Bridges, Cambridge University Press, p. 130, ISBN 0-521-39326-4 Schnitter, Niklaus, "Römische Talsperren", Antike Welt, 8: 25–32 Smith, Norman, A History of Dams, London: Peter Davies, pp. 56–61, ISBN 0-432-15090-0 Vogel, Alexius, "Die historische Entwicklung der Gewichtsmauer", in Garbrecht, Günther, Historische Talsperren, 1, Stuttgart: Verlag Konrad Wittwer, pp. 47–56, ISBN 3-87919-145-X Visiting Shushtar Photo Essay Hamid-Reza Hosseini, Shush at the foot of Louvre, in Persian, Jadid Online, 10 March 2009.
Audio slideshow:. Pictures of Shushtar on Fotopedia. Picture of Shushtar Farsi City of Shushtar, PressTV, 13 June 2010
Shush Metro Station
Shush Metro Station is a station in Tehran Metro Line 1. It is located in Shush Square, it is between Meydan-e Mohammadiyeh Metro Station. Route 5 of the Tehran trolleybus system served Meydan-e-Shush starting in the 1990s, thus connected with the metro system at this station after the station's opening in 2001. However, all trolleybus service in Tehran was discontinued around 2013; the station has a ticket office, elevators, cash machines, toilets, a taxi stand, public transportation, a pay phone, water fountains, a lost and found
Susa was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid and Sasanian empires of Iran, one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about 250 km east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers; the site now "consists of three gigantic mounds, occupying an area of about one square kilometer, known as the Apadana mound, the Acropolis mound, the Ville Royale mound."The modern Iranian town of Shush is located at the site of ancient Susa. Shush is the administrative capital of Shush County in Iran's Khuzestan province, it had a population of 64,960 in 2005. Shush is identified as Shushan, mentioned in the Book of other Biblical books. In Elamite, the name of the city was written Ŝuŝun, etc.. The origin of the word Susa is from the local city deity Inshushinak. Susa was one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East. In historic literature, Susa appears in the earliest Sumerian records: for example, it is described as one of the places obedient to Inanna, patron deity of Uruk, in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta.
Susa is mentioned in the Ketuvim of the Hebrew Bible by the name Shushan in Esther, but once each in Nehemiah and Daniel. According to these texts, Nehemiah lived in Susa during the Babylonian captivity of the 6th century BCE, while Esther became queen there, married to King Ahasueurus, saved the Jews from genocide. A tomb presumed to be that of Daniel is located in the area, known as Shush-Daniel. However, a large portion of the current structure is a much construction dated to the late nineteenth century, ca. 1871. Susa is further mentioned in the Book of Jubilees as one of the places within the inheritance of Shem and his eldest son Elam; the site was examined in 1836 by Henry Rawlinson and by A. H. Layard. In 1851, some modest excavation was done by William Loftus. In 1885 and 1886 Marcel-Auguste Dieulafoy and Jane Dieulafoy began the first French excavations. Jacques de Morgan conducted major excavations from 1897 until 1911; these efforts continued under Roland De Mecquenem until 1914, at the beginning of World War I.
French work at Susa resumed after the war, led by De Mecquenem, continuing until World War II in 1940. To supplement the original publications of De Mecquenem the archives of his excavation have now been put online thanks to a grant from the Shelby White Levy Program. Roman Ghirshman took over direction of the French efforts after the end of the war. Together with his wife Tania Ghirshman, he continued there until 1967; the Ghirshmans concentrated on excavating a single part of the site, the hectare sized Ville Royale, taking it all the way down to bare earth. The pottery found at the various levels enabled a stratigraphy to be developed for Susa. During the 1970s, excavations resumed under Jean Perrot. In urban history, Susa is one of the oldest-known settlements of the region. Based on C14 dating, the foundation of a settlement there occurred as early as 4395 BCE. At this stage it was very large for the time, about 15 hectares; the founding of Susa corresponded with the abandonment of nearby villages.
Potts suggests that the settlement may have been founded to try to reestablish the destroyed settlement at Chogha Mish. Chogha Mish was a large settlement, it featured a similar massive platform, built at Susa. Another important settlement in the area is Chogha Bonut, discovered in 1976. Shortly after Susa was first settled over 6000 years ago, its inhabitants erected a monumental platform that rose over the flat surrounding landscape; the exceptional nature of the site is still recognizable today in the artistry of the ceramic vessels that were placed as offerings in a thousand or more graves near the base of the temple platform. Susa's earliest settlement is known as Susa I period. Two settlements named by archeologists Acropolis and Apadana, would merge to form Susa proper; the Apadana was enclosed by 6m thick walls of rammed earth. Nearly two thousand pots of Susa I style were recovered from the cemetery, most of them now in the Louvre; the vessels found are eloquent testimony to the artistic and technical achievements of their makers, they hold clues about the organization of the society that commissioned them.
Painted ceramic vessels from Susa in the earliest first style are a late, regional version of the Mesopotamian Ubaid ceramic tradition that spread across the Near East during the fifth millennium BC. Susa I style was much a product of the past and of influences from contemporary ceramic industries in the mountains of western Iran; the recurrence in close association of vessels of three types—a drinking goblet or beaker, a serving dish, a small jar—implies the consumption of three types of food thought to be as necessary for life in the afterworld as it is in this one. Ceramics of these shapes, which were painted, constitute a large proportion of the vessels from the cemetery. Others are coarse cooking-type jars and bowls with simple bands painted on them and were the grave goods of the sites of humbler citizens as well as adolescents and children; the pottery is made by hand. Although a slow wheel may have bee