Rufus Pollock is an economist and founder of Open Knowledge International. He is a Shuttleworth Foundation alumnus, an Ashoka Fellow, an Associate of the Centre for Intellectual Property and Information Law at the University of Cambridge and President of Open Knowledge International which he founded in 2004 and served as a board director until 2013, he continues to act as Board Secretary. In addition to his academic work, whilst at Open Knowledge International he initiated a wide variety of projects, many of which continue to be active today. For example, in 2005 he created The Open Definition which provided the first formal definition of open content and open data, which has remained the standard reference definition. In 2005–2006 he created the first version of CKAN, open source software for finding and sharing datasets open datasets. CKAN has continued to evolve and today is the leading open data platform software in the world used by governments including the US and UK to publish millions of public datasets.
On 24 May 2004 Pollock founded in Cambridge, UK the Open Knowledge Foundation as a global non-profit network that promotes and shares open knowledge including open data and open content - information, available. In 2007 and 2009, Pollock published two important papers regarding the optimal copyright term, where he proposed based on an economical model with empirically-estimable parameters an optimal duration of only 15 years shorter than any existing copyright term, he has held the Mead Research Fellowship in economics at Cambridge. In 2009, he was credited by web inventor Tim Berners-Lee for starting the Raw Data Now meme. In 2010 he was appointed as one of the four founding members of the UK Government's Public Sector Transparency Board; the Open Revolution: Rewriting the rules of the information age Personal website and autobiography Interview with Guardian.co.uk Give Us the Data Raw, Give it to Us Now ─ the blog post from Rufus Pollock that inspired Tim Berners-Lee Open Knowledge International Shuttleworth Fellowship Ashoka Fellowship CKAN Project Digital Revolution Talk at re:publica Building a Sustainable Digital Age Talk in Geneva Access of Knowledge Video by WeShift A Better World Video Frictionless Data Video and blogpost Thoughts on Blockchain Video and article
Open content is a neologism coined by David Wiley in 1998 which describes a creative work that others can copy or modify without asking for permission. The term evokes the related concept of open-source software; such content is said to be under an open licence. The concept of applying free software licenses to content was introduced by Michael Stutz, who in 1994 wrote the paper "Applying Copyleft to Non-Software Information" for the GNU Project; the term "open content" was coined by David A. Wiley in 1998 and evangelized via the Open Content Project, describing works licensed under the Open Content License and other works licensed under similar terms, it has since come to describe a broader class of content without conventional copyright restrictions. The openness of content can be assessed under the'5Rs Framework' based on the extent to which it can be reused, revised and redistributed by members of the public without violating copyright law. Unlike free content and content under open-source licenses, there is no clear threshold that a work must reach to qualify as'open content'.
Although open content has been described as a counterbalance to copyright, open content licenses rely on a copyright holder's power to license their work as copyleft which utilizes copyright for such a purpose. In 2003 Wiley announced that the Open Content Project has been succeeded by Creative Commons and their licenses, where he joined as "Director of Educational Licenses". In 2006 the Creative Commons' successor project was the Definition of Free Cultural Works for free content, put forth by Erik Möller, Richard Stallman, Lawrence Lessig, Benjamin Mako Hill, Angela Beesley, others; the Definition of Free Cultural Works is used by the Wikimedia Foundation. In 2008, the Attribution and Attribution-ShareAlike Creative Commons licenses were marked as "Approved for Free Cultural Works" among other licenses. Another successor project is the Open Knowledge Foundation, founded by Rufus Pollock in Cambridge, UK in 2004 as a global non-profit network to promote and share open content and data. In 2007 the Open Knowledge Foundation gave an Open Knowledge Definition for "Content such as music, books.
In October 2014 with version 2.0 Open Works and Open Licenses were defined and "open" is described as synonymous to the definitions of open/free in the Open Source Definition, the Free Software Definition and the Definition of Free Cultural Works. A distinct difference is the focus given to the public domain and that it focuses on the accessibility and the readability. Among several conformant licenses, six are recommended, three own and the CC BY, CC BY-SA, CC0 creative commons licenses; the OpenContent website once defined OpenContent as'freely available for modification and redistribution under a license similar to those used by the open-source / free software community'. However, such a definition would exclude the Open Content License because that license forbade charging'a fee for the itself', a right required by free and open-source software licenses; the term since shifted in meaning. OpenContent "is licensed in a manner that provides users with free and perpetual permission to engage in the 5R activities."The 5Rs are put forward on the OpenContent website as a framework for assessing the extent to which content is open: Retain – the right to make and control copies of the content Reuse – the right to use the content in a wide range of ways Revise – the right to adapt, modify, or alter the content itself Remix – the right to combine the original or revised content with other open content to create something new Redistribute – the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others This broader definition distinguishes open content from open-source software, since the latter must be available for commercial use by the public.
However, it is similar to several definitions for open educational resources, which include resources under noncommercial and verbatim licenses. The Open Definition by the Open Knowledge Foundation define open knowledge with open content and open data as sub-elements and draws on the Open Source Definition. "Open access" refers to toll-free or gratis access to content published peer-reviewed scholarly journals. Some open access works are licensed for reuse and redistribution, which would qualify them as open content. Over the past decade, open content has been used to develop alternative routes towards higher education. Traditional universities are expensive, their tuition rates are increasing. Open content allows a free way of obtaining higher education, "focused on collective knowledge and the sharing and reuse of learning and scholarly content." There are multiple projects and organizations that promote learning through open content, including OpenCourseWare Initiative, The Saylor Foundation and Khan Academy.
Some universities, like MIT, Tufts are making their courses available on the internet. The textbook industry is one of the educational in
Mark Surman is the executive director of the Mozilla Foundation. He supports the notions of Open Philanthropy. Surman is an advisor to Peer to Peer University. Surman received his bachelor's degree in the history of community media from the University of Toronto in 1994. In 1998, Surman co-founded and became president of the Commons Group, providing advice on networks and social change. From 2005 to 2008, Surman was the managing director of telecentre.org. Created by Canada's International Development Research Centre, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Microsoft, telecentre.org worked to network the global telecentre community, improve their sustainability. The Shuttleworth Foundation, which provides funding for people engaged in social change, awarded Surman one of its inaugural fellowship in 2007. There he helped advance thinking about. In August 2008, Surman became the executive director of the Mozilla Foundation, an independent non-profit, launched on July 15, 2003 as America Online shut down the Netscape browser division and drastically scaled back its involvement with the Mozilla project.
As executive director, Surman oversaw the launch of Drumbeat, a "global community of people who steward the open web and protecting the internet as a critical public resource," by supporting projects and local events that gathers creative people "around big ideas, solving problems and building the open web." In 2012 Surman launched Mozilla’s Maker Party. In those events, volunteers associated with the Mozilla Foundation teach web-literacy classes, focusing on tools and community. In 2013, foundation volunteers conducted 1,700 teaching events in 331 cities. At the White House's first-ever Maker's Faire in 2014, hosted by President Barack Obama and Mozilla announced that Institute of Museum and Library Services, the National 4-H Council, the Association of Science and Technology Centers would partner with Mozilla for the 2014 Maker Parties. In 2015 the Mozilla Foundation and Surman started expanding this work by launching Mozilla Learning Networks in 500 cities; these networks design and spread web literacy curriculum and teaching tools.
In 2005, Prentice Hall published his book "Commonspace: Beyond Virtual Community." And "From the Ground Up: The Evolution of the Telecentre Movement" was published by Telecentre.org in 2006. Surman has written opinion editorials for the Washington Post, CNN.com, The Globe and Mail, Chronicle of Philanthropy, MIT's Innovations, Fast Company. Surman has been interviewed by NPR Morning Edition, The Irish Times, CBC, other outlets. Surman was born in Ontario, he resides in Toronto with his two sons and Tristan Surman
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
Open Knowledge International
Open Knowledge International, known as the Open Knowledge Foundation until April 2014 and Open Knowledge until May 2016, is a global, non-profit network that promotes and shares information at no charge, including both content and data. It was founded by Rufus Pollock on 24 May 2004 in Cambridge, UK, its slogan is, "Sonnets to statistics, genes to geodata..." The aims of Open Knowledge International are: Promoting the idea of open knowledge, both what it is, why is it a good idea. Running open knowledge events, such as OKCon. Working on open knowledge projects, such as Open Economics or Open Shakespeare. Providing infrastructure, a home, for open knowledge projects and resources. For example, the KnowledgeForge service and CKAN. Acting at UK, European and international levels on open knowledge issues. In November 2018 Catherine Stihler was appointed as the new Chief Executive Officer of Open Knowledge International, she joined the organisation in February 2019.. Between 2015-2017 Pavel Richter took on the role of CEO of Open Knowledge International.
Pavel was Executive Director of Wikimedia Deutschland. The Open Knowledge International Advisory Council includes people from the areas of open access, open data, open content, open science, data visualization and digital rights. In 2015, it consisted of: As of 2018, Open Knowledge International has 11 official chapters and 38 groups in different countries, it supports 19 working groups. Many of Open Knowledge International's projects are technical in nature, its most prominent project, CKAN, is used by many of the world's governments to host open catalogues of data that their countries possess. The organisation tends to support its aims by hosting infrastructure for semi-independent projects to develop; this approach to organising was hinted as one of its earliest projects was a project management service called KnowledgeForge, which runs on the KForge platform. KnowledgeForge allows sectoral working groups to have space to manage projects related to open knowledge. More the project infrastructure includes both technical and face-to-face aspects.
The organisation hosts several dozen mailing lists for virtual discussion, utilises IRC for real-time communications and hosts events. Open Knowledge International is an active partner with organisations working in similar areas, such as open educational resources. Open Knowledge International has produced the Open Knowledge Definition, an attempt to clarify some of the ambiguity surrounding the terminology of openness, as well as the Open Software Service Definition, it supported the development of the Open Database License. Outside of technology, Open Knowledge International plays a role in advocating for openness broadly; this includes facilitating consultation and producing guides. Rufus Pollock, one of Open Knowledge International's founders, current board secretary sits on the UK government's Public Sector Transparency Board; the foundation places a strong interest in the use of open source technologies. Its software projects are hosted on GitHub; some of the projects are listed below: a tool that provides store for metadata.
This enables governments to and cheaply provide a catalogue of their data. Datahub, a community-run catalogue of useful sets of data on the Internet. Depending on the type of data, Datahub may be able to store a copy of the data or host it in a database, provide some basic visualisation tools. Frictionless Data, a collection of standards and tools for publishing data. Open bibliography, broadly construed as efforts to catalogue and build tools for working with and publishing bibliographic resources, with particular emphasis on those works that are in the public domain and public domain calculators. Examples include the Bibliographica, Public Domain Works, Open Shakespeare, Open Text Book and The Public Domain Review projects. OpenGLAM, an initiative that promotes free and open access to digital cultural heritage, held by GLAMs: Galleries, Libraries and Museums. OpenGLAM is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the DM2E project. Open Economics Open Knowledge Forums Information Accessibility Initiative Open geodata Guide to open data licensing "Get the Data" — a web-site for questions and answer on how to get data sets.
POD - Product Open Data Much of the collaboration with other related organisations occurs via events that the foundation hosts. Its premier event is the Open Knowledge Conference, held since 2007. Other events have been organised within the areas of data visualisation and free information network infrastructure. Annually, Open Knowledge International supports International Open Data Day The Panton Principles in 2010 had large contributions from Open Knowledge people and in 2011 Jonathan Gray and Peter Murray-Rust obtained funding from OSF for two fellowships, held by Sophie Kershaw and Ross Mounce. In 2013 OKF obtained sponsorship from CCIA for 3 fellowships, which were awarded to Rosemarie Graves, Sam Moore and Peter Kraker. Open Knowledge International supports Apps for Europe, D-CENT, a European project created to share and organise data from seven countries, running from October 2013 to May 2016. Access to Knowledge movement Free Knowledge Foundation Open Data Institute Open education Tactical Technology Collective Media related to Open Knowledge at Wikimedia Commons Official website A self-published history of the Open Knowledge Foundation
The Serval Project is a project financed by the Shuttleworth Foundation, as well as various other organisations and accepting individual donations. It is headquartered at Flinders University in Australia; the project aims to develop technology that can be used to create direct connections between cellular phones through their Wi-Fi interfaces, without the need of a mobile phone operator. The technology allows for live voice calls whenever the mesh is able to find a route between the participants. Text messages and other data can be communicated using a store and forward system called Rhizome, allowing communication over unlimited distances and without a stable live mesh connection between all participants; the Serval Project includes a collaborate mapping application intended to support disaster relief and recovery efforts. A "mesh extender" is being developed, which establishes a short range Serval mesh over WiFi and joins it with other more distant meshes by linking to other mesh extenders over packet radio operating in the ISM 915 MHz band.
Serval Mesh is the Serval Project's flagship product. It is distributed through various application distribution platforms and repositories and can be downloaded directly from the project's website; the application may be shared directly from one device to others nearby over Bluetooth. The Serval Mesh application is built out of two components: a user interface called Batphone, a core networking and file sharing component called Serval DNA; the Batphone source code is licensed to the public under the terms of the GPLv3 license, whereas the Serval DNA source code is licensed under the terms of the GPLv2 license. Briar B. A. T. M. A. N. FireChat Official website
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site