A morsing is an instrument similar to the Jew's harp used in Rajasthan, in the Carnatic music of South India, in Sindh, Pakistan. It can be categorized under lamellophones, in the category of plucked idiophones, it consists of a metal ring in the shape of a horseshoe with two parallel forks which form the frame, a metal tongue in the middle, between the forks, fixed to the ring at one end and free to vibrate at the other. The metal tongue is bent at the free end in a plane perpendicular to the circular ring so that it can be struck and is made to vibrate; this bent part is called the trigger. An instrument with a history of 1500 years, its exact origin in India is not well documented. In the tradition of the Indian gurukul system of teaching, thus folk tales are a secondary source of its history. In India it is found in South India, Rajasthan and in some parts of Assam, it is sometimes used while playing Rabindrasangeet in Bengal and in Assamese folk songs. In South India, it features in Carnatic concerts and percussion ensembles.
It is said to be the percursor to subsequent instruments such as the harmonium. In Rajasthan it is used as a percussion instrument in lok geet, it was used in Hindi cinema by music directors like R. D. Burman and S. D. Burman, has resurfaced in the twentieth century, with street performers like Varun Zinje playing it in a renewed style; the morsing is placed on the front teeth, with pouted lips and held in the hand. It is struck using the index finger of the other hand to produce sound. Movement of the player's tongue while making nasal sounds is used to change the pitch; this can be achieved when the syllable'Nga' or a variant thereof, is sounded through the nose while air is pushed out or pulled in through the mouth. This aids the meditation process and thus some players use it as a form of practising pranayama. Others speak into the instruments; the morsing is held in the hand, the frame or the ring between the palm and the fingers in the left hand. Care should be taken to see that the middle part or the metal tongue is not being touched when held idle.
The upper of the two parallel forks is pressed against the front upper teeth. The trigger is plucked with the tip of the index finger. Sound is produced due to the vibration of the metal tongue, transferred through the teeth and sounds in mouth and nasal cavity. Movement of the player's tongue with constant plucking can produce fast patterns of sound. By constricting the space in the mouth the nostrils can produce sounds in different phases, similar to phasers in electronic music. While traditionally made of iron, variants can be made from brass, wood and plastic and credit cards; the basic pitch of the instrument can be varied little. The pitch of the instrument can only be reduced and not increased. To reduce the pitch a little, beeswax can be applied on the plucking end. To increase the pitch, it can be filed; as the morsing is played most of the time along with the mridangam or dhol, it is necessary to know the syllables or aural interpretation of what is played on mridangam. It is important to know the aural representation of the ferns played on mridangam as it is being silently recited while playing the morsing.
This vocal art of reciting the syllables played on the mridangam is called konnakol. But while playing on morsing you don't make sound of reciting the syllable but just move your tongue that way so that the air passages gets blocked and cleared in a pattern so as to produce the sound of the ferns, it is essential to follow the mridangam and play the same ferns as far as possible, though it is difficult owing to the limitations of the instrument. Glimpses of uniqueness and versatility of the morsing can be shown when accompanying singly for the song or during neraval or swara prastara; the morsing is played as a shadow of the mridangam throughout the concert and the instrument's capabilities should be exhibited when playing or accompanying alone or during Thani or talavadyas. Though working on different principles, the music of the Morchang sounds similar to that emanating from the Australian didgeridoo; the Morchang exists, in nearly the same form and design all over the world, is called by different names in different languages.
For example: Morchang / morsing, Kou-Xian, Munnharpe, Maultrommel, Marranzano and Dambrelis. It may have spread and been shared between countries through the ancient trade routes between Asia and Europe, including the Silk route, its popular name Jew's harp is a corruption of the name jaw harp. It is said that this instrument is prevalent since Ramayana Period where this instrument is referred as "Dhantha Vadhyam" Players of the Morchang / Jaw harp are sometimes called Morsingists. Current day players include Varun Zinje, Sundar N, Ortal Pelleg, Viaceslavas, the Barmer Boys and a number of Rajasthani folk music players from the traditional e
Kirtan or Kirtana is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, telling, describing" of an idea or story. It refers to a genre of religious performance arts, connoting a musical form of narration or shared recitation of spiritual or religious ideas. With roots in the Vedic anukirtana tradition, a kirtan is a call-and-response style song or chant, set to music, wherein multiple singers recite or describe a legend, or express loving devotion to a deity, or discuss spiritual ideas, it may include dancing or direct expression of bhavas by the singer. Many kirtan performances are structured to engage the audience where they either repeat the chant, or reply to the call of the singer. A person performing kirtan is known as a kirtankara. A Kirtan performance includes an accompaniment of regionally popular musical instruments, such as the harmonium, the veena or ektara, the tabla, the mrdanga or pakhawaj and karatalas or talas, it is a major practice in Hinduism, Vaisnava devotionalism, the Sant traditions and some forms of Buddhism, as well as other religious groups.
Kirtan is sometimes accompanied by acting. Texts cover religious, mythological or social subjects. Kirtan has Vedic roots and it means "telling, describing, reporting"; the term is found as Anukirtan in the context of Yajna, wherein team recitations of dialogue-style and question-answer riddle hymns were part of the ritual or celebratory dramatic performance. The Sanskrit verses in chapter 13.2 of Shatapatha Brahmana, for example, are written in the form of a riddle play between two actors. The Vedic sacrifice is presented as a kind of drama, with its actors, its dialogues, its portion to be set to music, its interludes, its climaxes; the root of kirtan is kirt. The root is found in the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and other Vedic literature, as well as the Vedanga and Sutras literature. Kirt, according to Monier-Williams contextually means, "to mention, make mention of, name, recite, relate, communicate, celebrate, glorify".kirtan, sometimes referred to as sankirtana, is a call-and-response chanting or musical conversation, a genre of religious performance arts that developed during India's bhakti devotional traditions.
However, it is a heterogeneous practice that varies regionally according to Christian Novetzke, includes varying mixture of different musical instruments, oration, audience participation and moral narration. In Maharashtra for example, states Novetzke, a kirtan is a call-and-response style performance, ranging from devotional dancing and singing by a lead singer and audience, to an "intricate scholarly treatise, a social commentary or a philosophical/linguistic exposition", that includes narration, humor and entertainment – all an aesthetic part of ranga of the kirtana. Kirtan is locally known as Abhang, Samaj Gayan, Haveli Sangeet, Harikatha; the Vaishnava temples and monasteries of Hinduism in Assam and northeastern, called Satra, have a large worship hall named Kirtan ghar – a name derived from their being used for congregational singing and performance arts. In regional languages, Kirtana is scripted as Bengali: কীর্তন. Musical recitation of hymns and the praise of deities has ancient roots in Hinduism, as evidenced by the Samaveda and other Vedic literature.
Kirtan were popularized by the Bhakti movement of medieval era Hinduism, starting with the South Indian Alvars and Nayanars around the 6th century, which spread in central, northern and eastern India after the 12th century, as a social and congregational response to Hindu-Muslim conflicts. The foundations of the Kirtan traditions are found in other Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad-gita where Krishna describes multiple paths to spiritual freedom, including karma marga, jnana marga and bhakti marga. Kirtan relates to the bhakti marga tradition of Hinduism. References to Kirtan as a musical recitation are found in the Bhagavata Purana, an important Vaishnava text. Kirtan is practiced as a kind of theatrical folk song with call-and-response chanting or antiphon; the ancient sage Narada revered as a musical genius, is called a kirtankar in the Padma Purana. The famous story of Prahlada in the Avatara Katha mentions kirtan as one of nine forms of worship, called the nava vidha bhakti along with shravanam, pada sevanam, vandanam, dasyam and atmanivedanam.
The so-called Naradiya Kirtan divides kirtan into five parts: naman, chanting, katha or akhyan and a final prayer for universal welfare. Kirtan as a genre of religious music has been a major part of the Vaishnavism tradition starting with the Alvars of Sri Vaishnavism sub-tradition between the 7th to 10th century CE. After the 13th-century, two subgenres of kirtan emerged in Vaishnavism, namely the Nama-kirtana wherein the different names or aspects of god are extolled, the Lila- kirtana wherein the deity's life and legends are narrated; the Marathi Varkari saint Namdev used the kirtan
The nadaswaram, nagaswaram, or nathaswaram is a double reed wind instrument from Tamilnadu. It is used as a traditional classical instrument in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala; this instrument is "among the world's loudest non-brass acoustic instruments". It is a wind instrument similar to the North Indian shehnai but much longer, with a hardwood body and a large flaring bell made of wood or metal. In Tamil culture, the nadaswaram is considered to be auspicious, it is a key musical instrument played in all Hindu weddings and temples of the South Indian tradition, it is part of the family of instruments known as mangala vadyam. The instrument is played in pairs, accompanied by a pair of drums called thavil. Nadaswaram is referred in many ancient Tamil texts. Silappatikaram refers to an instrument called "vangiyam"; the structure of this instrument matches that of Nadaswaram. Since there are seven holes played with seven fingers this was called as "Ezhil"; this instrument, too, is played in Tamil Nadu and popular among the Tamil Diaspora.
The nadaswaram contains three parts namely, kuzhal and anasu. It is a double reed instrument with a conical bore which enlarges toward the lower end; the top portion has a metal staple into, inserted a small metallic cylinder which carries the mouthpiece made of reed. Besides spare reeds, a small ivory or horn needle is attached to the instrument, used to clear the reed of saliva and other debris and allows free passage of air. A metallic bell forms the bottom end of the instrument. Traditionally the body of the nadaswaram is made out of a tree called aacha, although nowadays bamboo, copper, brass and ivory are used. For wooden instruments, old wood is considered the best, sometimes wood salvaged from demolished old houses is used; the nadaswaram has seven finger-holes, five additional holes drilled at the bottom which can be stopped with wax to modify the tone. The nadaswaram has a range of two and a half octaves, similar to the Indian bansuri flute, which has a similar fingering. Unlike the flute where semi and quarter tones are produced by the partial opening and closing of the finger holes, in the nadaswaram they are produced by adjusting the pressure and strength of the air-flow into the pipe.
Due to its intense volume and strength it is an outdoor instrument and much more suited for open spaces than for indoor concerts. Some of the greatest early nadaswaramists include Thirumarukal Nadesa Pillai Thiruvavaduthurai Rajarathnam Pillai Thiruvengadu Subramania Pillai, Vedaranyam Vedamoorthy Karukurichi Arunachalam Pillai Thirucherai Sivasubramanian Pillai Thiruvarur S Latchappa Pillai Kulikkarai Pichaiyappa Andankoil A V Selvarathnam Pillai Thiruvizha Jayashankar Brother teams of Keeranur and Thiruveezhimizhalai, Semponnarkoil Brothers S R G Sambandam and Rajanna. Dharumapuram S. Abiramisundaram Pillai and his son Dharumapuram A Govindarajan Sheik Chinna Moulana Namagiripettai Krishnan Madurai M. P. N. Sethuraman - Ponnusamy brothers Alaveddy N. K. Pathmanathan Dr. MSK Shankaranarayanan Injikudi E. M. Subramaniam Thirumalam T. S. Pandian Bangalore Ramadasappa Tiruvalaputtur T K Venupilla Kulikkarai Brothers K. M DaksahaMoorthi Pillai & K. M Ganeshan PillaiAmerican composers such as Lewis Spratlan have expressed admiration for the nadaswaram, a few jazz musicians have taken up the instrument: Charlie Mariano is one of the few non-Indians able to play the instrument, having studied it while living in India.
Vinny Golia, J. D. Parran, William Parker have performed and recorded with the instrument; the German saxophonist Roland Schaeffer plays it, having studied from 1981 to 1985 with Karupaia Pillai. Among the Tamil movies, two released in 1960s,namely Konjum Salangai starring Gemini Ganesan and Thillana Mohanambal starring Sivaji Ganesan, featured nadaswaram playing characters. For the Konjum Salankai movie, Karukurichi Arunasalam Pillai provided the nadaswaram music. Madurai Sethuraman and Ponnusamy brothers were employed for the nadaswaram playing duo characters Sivaji Ganesan and A. V. M. Rajan for the Thillana Mohanambal movie. Tavil Images from The Beede Gallery Shawms, Southern India, ca. 1900-1940. National Music Museum, University of South Dakota
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
A Tala, sometimes spelled Taal or Tal means a "clap, tapping one's hand on one's arm, a musical measure". It is the term used in Indian classical music to refer to musical meter, any rhythmic beat or strike that measures musical time; the measure is established by hand clapping, touching fingers on thigh or the other hand, striking of small cymbals, or a percussion instrument in the Indian subcontinental traditions. Along with raga which forms the fabric of a melodic structure, the tala forms the life cycle and thereby constitutes one of the two foundational elements of Indian music. Tala is an ancient music concept traceable to Vedic era texts of Hinduism, such as the Samaveda and methods for singing the Vedic hymns; the music traditions of the North and South India the raga and tala systems, were not considered as distinct till about the 16th century. There on, during the tumultuous period of Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent, the traditions separated and evolved into distinct forms.
The tala system of the north is called Hindustani. However, the tala system between them continues to have more common features than differences. Tala in the Indian tradition embraces the time dimension of music, the means by which musical rhythm and form were guided and expressed. While a tala carries the musical meter, it does not imply a recurring pattern. In the major classical Indian music traditions, the beats are hierarchically arranged based on how the music piece is to be performed; the most used tala in the South Indian system is adi tala. In the North Indian system, the most common tala is teental. Tala has other contextual meanings in ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. For example, it means trochee in Sanskrit prosody. Tāla is a Sanskrit word, it is derived from the root Tal which means "being established". According to David Nelson – an Ethnomusicology scholar specializing in Carnatic music, a tala in Indian music covers "the whole subject of musical meter". Indian music is composed and performed in a metrical framework, a structure of beats, a tala.
The tala forms the metrical structure that repeats, in a cyclical harmony, from the start to end of any particular song or dance segment, making it conceptually analogous to meters in Western music. However, talas have certain qualitative features. For example, some talas are much longer than any classical Western meter, such as a framework based on 29 beats whose cycle takes about 45 seconds to complete when performed. Another sophistication in talas is the lack of "strong, weak" beat composition typical of the traditional European meter. In classical Indian traditions, the tala is not restricted to permutations of strong and weak beats, but its flexibility permits the accent of a beat to be decided by the shape of musical phrase. A tala measures musical time in Indian music. However, it does not imply a regular repeating accent pattern, instead its hierarchical arrangement depends on how the musical piece is supposed to be performed. A metric cycle of a tala contains a specific number of beats, which can be as short as 3 beats or as long as 128 beats.
The pattern repeats, but the play of accent and empty beats are an integral part of Indian music architecture. Each tala has subunits. In other words, the larger cyclic tala pattern has embedded smaller cyclic patterns, both of these rhythmic patterns provide the musician and the audience to experience the play of harmonious and discordant patterns at two planes. A musician can choose to intentionally challenge a pattern at the subunit level by contradicting the tala, explore the pattern in exciting ways bring the music and audience experience back to the fundamental pattern of cyclical beats; the tala as the time cycle, the raga as the melodic framework, are the two foundational elements of classical Indian music. The raga gives an artist the ingredients palette to build the melody from sounds, while the tala provides her with a creative framework for rhythmic improvisation using time; the basic rhythmic phrase of a tala when rendered on a percussive instrument such as tabla is called a theka.
The beats within each rhythmic cycle are called matras, the first beat of any rhythmic cycle is called the sam. An empty beat is called khali; the subdivisions of a tala are called khands. In the two major systems of classical Indian music, the first count of any tala is called sam; the cyclic nature of a tala is a major feature of the Indian tradition, this is termed as avartan. Both raga and tala are open frameworks for creativity and allow theoretically infinite number of possibilities, the tradition considers 108 talas as basic; the roots of tala and music in ancient India are found in the Vedic literature of Hinduism. The earliest Indian thought combined instrumental music, vocal music and dance; as these fields developed, sangita became a distinct genre of art, in a form equivalent to contemporary music. This occurred before the time of Yāska, since he includes these terms in his nirukta studies, one of the six Vedanga of ancient Indian tradition; some of the ancient texts of Hinduism such as the Samaveda are structured to melodic themes, it is sections of Rigveda set to music.
The Samaveda is organized into two formats. One part is based on another by the aim of the rituals; the text is written with embedded coding, where svaras is either shown above or within the text, or the verse is written into parvans. These markings identify which units are to be sung in a single breath, each unit based on multiples of one eighth; the hymns of Samav
Durbar is an Indo-Aryan word common in many South Asian languages. It was the term used for the place where Indian Kings and other rulers had their formal and informal meetings, i.e. in European context, equivalent to a King's Court. Durbar is a Persian-derived term meaning the kings' or rulers noble court or a formal meeting where the king held all discussions regarding the state, it was used in India and Nepal for a ruler's court or feudal levy as the latter came to be ruled and administered by foreigners. A durbar may be either a feudal state council for administering the affairs of a princely state, or a purely ceremonial gathering, as in the time of the British Empire in India; the most famous Durbars belonged to great Kings. In the North, cities like Udaipur, Jodhpur and Agra have palaces that adorn such magnificent halls; the Mughal Emperor Akbar had two halls. Durbar halls are lavishly decorated with the best possible materials available at the time. In the south of India, the Mysore Palace had a number of such halls the Peacock Hall, having colour tinted glasses imported from Belgium, which were used for marriage ceremonies.
The Durbar Hall in the Khilawat Mubarak, in the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, was the durbar hall of the Nizams of Hyderabad. Beneath the main Dome of the Rastrapati Bhavan is present the grand Durbar Hall, where many state functions, presided by the President of India, are held. In the former sense, the native rulers of Mughal and colonial India and some neighbouring Hindu or Muslim monarchies, like the amir of Afghanistan, received visitors in audience, conferred honours and conducted business in durbar. A durbar could be the executive council of a native state, its membership was dual: the court's grandees, such as the wasir and major jagirdars, shone at the ceremonies but the real political and administrative affairs of state rather rested with an inner circle around the prince known as diwan. There was some overlap between the two groups; this was another word for audience room and council, but in India it applies to a privy council and chancery. The word Durbar has come to be applied to great ceremonial gatherings called the Delhi Durbar in Delhi and elsewhere during the period of the British Raj, held as demonstrations of the loyalty to the crown which proved vital in various wars in which Britain engaged.
The practice was started with Lord Lytton's Proclamation Durbar of 1877 celebrating the proclamation of Queen Victoria as the first Empress of India. Durbars continued to be held in years, with increased ceremony and grandeur than their predecessors. In 1903, for instance, the Coronation Durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate the accession of Edward VII to the British throne and title of Emperor of India; this ceremony was presided over by the Viceroy of Lord Curzon. The practice of the durbar culminated in the magnificent spectacle, the Delhi Durbar, held in December 1911 to crown the newly enthroned George V and his wife Queen Mary as Emperor and Empress of India; the King and Queen attended the Durbar in person and wore their Coronation robes, an unprecedented event in both Indian and Imperial history held with unprecedented pomp and glamour. They were the only British monarchs to visit India during the period of British rule. No durbar was held for British monarchs who were Emperors of India.
Edward VIII reigned only a brief time before abdicating. On the accession of his brother George VI, it was decided to hold no durbar in Delhi, due to several reasons: the cost would have been a burden to the government of India, rising Indian nationalism made the welcome that the royal couple would have received to be muted at best, a prolonged absence of the King from the UK would have been undesirable in the tense period before World War II. In Malaysian history, the Durbar was the council comprising the four rulers of the Federated Malay States under British protectorate. First held in 1897, it was a platform for the rulers to discuss issues pertaining state policies with British officials; when the Federation of Malaya was formed in 1948, the Durbar transformed into the Conference of Rulers with the inclusion of the other states of Malaya. The membership was further enlarged with the addition of new states in the formation of Malaysia in 1963. Since the independence of Malaya in 1957, the Malay rulers in the Conference of Rulers function as the electoral college for the election of the federal king, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
The Durbar Hall at the Fateh Prakash Palace in Udaipur, Rajasthan, is one of the most lavish Durbar Halls in India and one of the grandest chambers in Udaipur. It is decorated with paintings of Maharanas and various weapons adorn the walls; the hall has an exquisite ceiling and is surrounded by viewing galleries from where the ladies of the palace could view the proceedings while remaining veiled. Lord Minto, the Viceroy of India, laid the foundation stone for the Durbar hall in 1909. Located in the old city of Hyderabad in close proximity to the Charminar, the khliwat complex spread over 60 acres had numerous palaces and structures in its vast sprawl. One of the most important buildings to have survived the passage of time is the Durbar Hall; the symbolic seat of power, it housed the "Gaddi-e-Mubarak", the hereditary throne of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. First constructed in 1750 by the Nizam, Salabat Jung, the Khilwat complex has been added to by successive nizams. Sikandar Jah shifted his residence to the Khilwat complex from the Purani Haveli in 1803 and was responsible f
The goddess Kamakshee is the form of Parvati and Tripura Sundari. The main abode of Kamakshi is the Kamakshi Amman temple at Sri Kanchipuram, 90 kms from Chennai, India. Goddess Kamakshi is considered to be the representation of Shri Vidya - Shri Lalita Maha Tripurasundari - she reigns supreme in Kanchi; the image of the goddess has been carved out of a Salagrama shila and the Meru in the temple is made of Salagrama, believed to be consecrated by sage Durvasa, one of the renowned Shrividya upasakas. Kanchi is one of the most powerful pithas. Many literary and devotional musical compositions have been dedicated to Goddess Kamakshi; as per Sri Adi Shankarcharyya,for the Bhurivar Subsect of the dasnami sampradaya of the hindu monks having titles Bharati and Puri, the chosen deity is Kamakshi. So those who think that Kanchi math was not established by Sri Adi Shankaracharyya are mistaken. While to many westerners it might seem that Kamakshi must be different from Tripura Sundari as they appear to have different names.
However, in the Hindu pantheon, the "names" of the deities are more descriptions than names. Tripura Sundari, like many of the forms of the supreme, has 1000 names assigned to her and these can be found in the Lalita sahasranama text. One of the names in this text is "Kamakshi" which means "She whose eyes awaken desire, or She who has beautiful eyes"; the word Kamakshi could be split as'ka"ma' and'akshi'. Where'akshi' in Sanskrit means eyes, the letter ka denotes goddess Kali Parvati and'ma' denotes goddess Matangi, Parvati, thus Kamakshi is Parvati and it is enough if she glances at her devotees, not lifting her hand in benediction, the devotee is sure to receive all that he prays for. Shri Kamakshi temple located at Shiroda was built in the late 16th century built; the other shrines in the temple complex are that of Shree Shantadurga, Shree Laxmi Narayana and Shree Rayeshwar. Boarding and Lodging for the pilgrims are provided by the temple authorities; the temple has banned entry of foreigners into the temple citing objectionable dressing and conduct as the reason.
This temple was located at Raia in Salcette and was moved to its present location in 1564-1568,because as a part of Goa Inquisition the Portuguese demolished all the Hindu shrines.. The antiquity of the original temple is unknown; the new temple is located at Shiroda. There are other temples for Kamakshi in Goa. In November 2013, Temple began to offer Live darshan on its website, it is the only temple in Goa to offer Live Darshan in streaming format for hundreds of devotees at a time. END This temple is located on the banks of Pennar river at Jonnawada, Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India, it has a unique mythological background. The Goddess Kamakshi was incarnated from Goddess Parvati with Matangi in her eyes; this temple was built in 1150 AD. Brahmotsavam is celebrated every year around early June; the Sri-Kamadchi-Ampal-Temple in Hamm, opened in 2002, claims to be the second largest Hindu temple in Europe. Kamakshi Amman Temple Media related to Kamakshi at Wikimedia Commons