Avala is a mountain in Serbia, overlooking Belgrade. It is situated in the corner of the city and provides a great panoramic view of Belgrade, Vojvodina and Šumadija. It stands at 511 metres above sea level, which means that it enters the mountain category just by 11 meters, Avala is located 16 kilometers south-east of downtown Belgrade. It is possible that in the future the entire area of Avala will create a separate municipality of Belgrade. Avala is a low type of the Pannonian island mountain, though it is actually the northernmost mountain in Šumadija. Until 600,000 years ago, when the low areas were flooded by the inner Pannonian Sea, Avala was an island, just as the neighboring mountains. However, the Avala remains a mountain as the area around it, Pinosava plateau of the northern Low Šumadija, is low. In the north it extends into the woods of Stepin Lug, the mountain is built of serpentinite and magmatic rocks, which are injected in the shape of cone. Other peaks include Ladne vode, Zvečara, the Avala had deposits of ores, most notably lead and mercurys ore of cinnabarite but mining activities which can be traced to the pre-Antiquity times, ceased in the 1960s.
Avala is a location where the mineral avalite, named after the mountain, was found, AA greenish mineral, magnesian or potassic alumosilicate, it was discovered by Serbian chemist Simo Lozanić who established its formula. Optically examined by the Israeli mineralogist Tamir Grodek who classified it as a member of the mineral group. Despite being only mountain in the area, the Avala is not a source of many rivers, the Topčiderka river, originating in the woods of Lipovička šuma on the south-west, flows on the western slopes of Avala, while river Bolečica flows on the eastern slopes. Other minor flows include the Vranovac, a tributary to the Bolečica, small artificial lake near the village of Pinosava is created on the western slope of the mountain. The settlements in the area are notorious for problems with shortages of drinking water during summer, in the Middle Ages, the town of Žrnov or Avalski Grad was located on top of Avala. The mountain has been protected since 1859 as a monument of nature, or, by the modern standards and that year, Prince Miloš Obrenović of Serbia issued an order for the Avala to get fenced and protected that way.
Remains of the medieval Žrnov were removed in 1934 to make way for the Monument to the Unknown Hero, in the period of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the mountain was declared a national park, in 1936. In 1965, a 202 m high Avala TV Tower was constructed, one of the tallest structures in the Balkans, by the architects Uglješa Bogunović, Slobodan Janjić and it had a restaurant-look out on 120 meters. The tower was destroyed during the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999 and its total reconstruction began in 2006 and was officially opened at a ceremony on 21 April 2010
Bela Palanka is a town and municipality located in the Pirot District of the eastern Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the population of the town is 8,143, in ancient times, the town was known as Remesiana. The name Bela Palanka means white town, Bela Palanka is a small town in the southeast of the country and is surrounded by countryside and mountains. The town is accessible from the city of Niš by the Niš Express buses that run from Niš to Pirot, Babušnica, Dimitrovgrad. According to the 2011 census results, the municipality has 12,126 inhabitants, ethnic composition of the municipality, The town was originally settled by the Dacians and was known under the ancient name of Aiadava or Aeadaba. Thracians inhabited the area until their assimilation into contemporary ethnic groups in the area, after the Romans conquered Moesia in 75 BC, the new castrum and municipium was known initially as Ulpianorum and Remesiana and stood along the Via Militaris between Naissus and Serdica. Emperor Justinian had following strongholds in the district of Remesiana, The patron saint of Romania, Peter the Hermit was defeated by the Byzantines in the north and regrouped at an evacuated Bela Palanka, gathering the harvest before heading to Constantinople.
Excavations include well-preserved castrum dating to 4th century and a hoard of 260 coins minted during the rule of Constantine I, Theodosius I, Tiberius Claudius Nero. During the 1096 Peoples Crusade the town, left abandoned by its inhabitants, was occupied by the pilgrims led by Peter the Hermit, Walter of Breteuil. From 1929 to 1941, Bela Palanka was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, subdivisions of Serbia Archaeological Sites of Great Importance Bela Palanka Bela Palanka - tourist portal
Members of the human clade, that is, the Hominina, including Homo and those species of the australopithecines that arose after the split from the chimpanzees, are called homininans. Not all homininans are directly related to the emergence of early Homo and this is a modern cladogram, For each clade, the cladogram above shows approximately when newer extant clades emerged. Some texts refer to Homonini as the Hominina branch, the subtribe Hominina is the human branch, that is, it contains only the genus Homo. Researchers proposed the taxon Hominini on the basis that the least similar species of a trichotomy should be separated from the other two. The common chimpanzee and the bonobo of the genus Pan are the closest living relatives to humans. All the extinct genera listed to the right are ancestral to, or offshoots of, both Orrorin and Sahelanthropus existed around the time of the split, and so may be ancestral to both Pan and Homo. In the proposal of Mann and Weiss, the tribe Hominini includes Pan as well as Homo and all bipedal apes are referred to the subtribe Hominina, while Pan is assigned to the subtribe Panina.
Wood discusses the different views of this taxonomy, the assumption of late hybridization was in particular based on the similarity of the X chromosome in humans and chimpanzees, suggesting a divergence as late as some 4 million years ago. Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct species that lived seven million years ago. Human Timeline – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History
Tara is a mountain located in western Serbia. It is part of Dinaric Alps and stands at 1, 000-1,500 metres above sea level. The mountains slopes are clad in dense forests with numerous high-altitude clearings and meadows, steep cliffs, deep ravines carved by the nearby Drina River and many karst, the mountain is a popular tourist centre. Taras national park encompasses a part of the mountain. The highest peak is Zborište, at 1,544 m, taras national park was established in 1981 and it encompasses Tara and Zvijezda mountains, in a large bend of the Drina River. The size of the park is about 220 square km with altitudes varying from 250 to 1,500 metres above sea level, the parks management office is located in nearby Bajina Bašta. The national park consists of a group of peaks with deep picturesque gorges between them. The most striking of these gorges is the Drina Gorge, with its sheer drops from 1000–250 metres and extensive views of western Serbia, the area is characterised by karst caves, pits and breathtaking vista points.
Forests account for three quarters of this national parks area, some of them being the best preserved and well-kept in Europe, Tara boasts a rare endemic Tertiary species, the Picea omorika, or Serbian Spruce, which is now protected in a small area of the park. Because of its rarity and scientific importance, it has placed under national protection. Locally, Tara is home to different species of wildlife, including brown bears, roe deer, otters, wolves. The main tourist points are Kaluđerske Bare on the north, close to Bajina Bašta, hotels Beli Bor and Omorika, as well as several smaller ones, are located on Kaluđerske Bare, while Mitrovac hosts eponymous childrens recreation hotel. The National Park can be reached from Bajina Bašta directly, from Perućac via Bajina Bašta, the Drina gorge, which is an integral part of the park, can be toured by boat. Interesting locally made items are woolen handcrafts, various products and plum spirits and honey
The Balkan mountain range is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The Balkan range runs 560 km from the Vrashka Chuka Peak on the border between Bulgaria and Serbia eastward through central Bulgaria to Cape Emine on the Black Sea, the highest peaks of the Balkan Mountains are in central Bulgaria. The highest peak is Botev at 2,376 m, which makes the range the third highest in the country, after Rila. The mountains are the source of the name of the Balkan Peninsula, the mountain range forms the watershed between the Black Sea and Aegean Sea catchment areas, with the exception of an area in west, where it is crossed by the spectacular Iskar Gorge. The karst relief determines the number of caves, including Magura, featuring the most important and extended European post-Palaeolithic cave painting, Saeva dupka, Bacho Kiro. The most notable formation are the Belogradchik Rocks in the west. There are several important protected areas, Central Balkan National Park, Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park, Bulgarka Nature Park and Sinite Kamani Nature Park, the Balkan Mountains are remarkable for their flora and fauna.
Edelweiss grows there in the region of Kozyata stena, some of the most striking landscapes are included in the Central Balkan National Park with steep cliffs, the highest waterfalls in the Balkan Peninsula and lush vegetation. There are a number of important nature reserves such as Chuprene, Kozyata stena, most of Europes large mammals inhabit the area including the brown bear, boar and deer. The Balkan Mountains played a role in the history of Bulgaria since its foundation in 681 AD. It is believed the name was brought to the region in the 7th century by Bulgars who applied it to the area, in Bulgarian, the word balkan means mountain. It may have derived from the Persian bālkāneh or bālākhāna, meaning high, the name is still preserved in Central Asia with the Balkan Daglary and the Balkan Province of Turkmenistan. In Turkish balkan means a chain of wooded mountains In the Antiquity and the Middle Ages the mountains were known by their Thracian name, scholars consider that Haemus is believed that the name is derived from a Thracian word *saimon, mountain ridge.
The name of the place where the range meets the Black Sea, other names used to refer to the mountains in different time periods include Aemon, Hem, the Slavonic Matorni gori and the Turkish Kodzhabalkan. Geologically, the Balkan Mountains are a part of the Alp-Himalayan chain that stretches across most of Europe. It can be divided into two parts, the main Balkan Chain and the Pre-Balkans to the north, which intrude slightly into the Danubian Plain, the range consists of around 30 portions called mountains. The Eastern Balkan Mountains from the Vratnik Pass to Cape Emine with a length of 160 kilometres, the eastern Balkan Mountains forms the lowest part of the range. The Balkan Mountains form a divide between the rivers flowing to the Danube in the north and those flowing to the Aegean Sea in the south
The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe. Once, it was called the most Hungarian river because it flowed entirely within the Kingdom of Hungary, today, it crosses several national borders. The Tisza begins near Rakhiv in Ukraine, at the confluence of the White Tisa, from there, the Tisza flows west, roughly following Ukraines borders with Romania and finally Serbia. It traverses Hungary from north to south, a few kilometers south of the Hungarian city of Szeged, it enters Serbia. Finally, it joins the Danube near the village of Novi Slankamen in Vojvodina, the Tisza drains an area of about 156,087 km2 and has a length of 965 km —the largest catchment and greatest length of any of the Danubes tributaries. Its mean annual discharge is 792 m3/s and it contributes about 13% of the Danubes total runoff. Attila the Hun is said to have been buried under a section of the river Tisza. The river was known as the Tisia in antiquity, other ancient names for it included Tissus and Pathissus and it may be referred to as the Theiss in older English references, after the German name for the river, Theiß.
It is known as the Tibisco in Italian, and in older French references it is referred to as the Tibisque. Modern names for the Tisza in the languages of the countries it flows through include, Tisa, Ukrainian, Тиса, Tisa, Tisza, Serbian, Тиса, the length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1419 km. It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain, which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with curves and turns. After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi organised the regulation of the Tisza which started on August 27,1846, and substantially ended in 1880. The new length of the river in Hungary was 966 km, in the 1970s, the building of the Tisza Dam at Kisköre started with the purpose of helping to control floods as well as storing water for drought seasons. However, the resulting Lake Tisza became one of the most popular tourist destinations in Hungary since it had similar features to Lake Balaton at drastically cheaper prices and was not crowded, the Tisza is navigable over much of its course.
The river opened up for international navigation only recently, Hungary distinguished national rivers and international rivers, after Hungary joined the European Union, this distinction was lifted and vessels were allowed on the Tisza. Conditions of navigation differ with the circumstances, when the river is in flood, it is often unnavigable, the Tisza has a rich and varied wildlife. Over 200 species of birds reside in the reserve of Tiszafűred
Zlatibor is a mountainous region situated in the western part of Serbia. Zlatibor is an important tourist area of Serbia, with resources for health tourism, the main city of the region is Užice, located at the foothills of the mountain, and most of the area belongs to the municipality of Čajetina. Town of Zlatibor emerged from a group of homes into a full-fledged urban location. Zlatibor is administratively divided into two municipalities within Serbia, Čajetina and Užice, in the Zlatibor District, the railroad Belgrade-Bar passes through Zlatibor. In the Middle Ages, Zlatibor was known as Rujno, a župa that was part of Raška, the name Zlatibor started to be used in the 18th century, but its etymology is uncertain. It probably stems from the Serbian words zlatni and bor, pinus sylvestris var. zlatiborica is a subspecies of pine originating from the mountain, and is endangered today. The hill called Cigla near the village of Jablanica still has some borderline markings of the Kingdom of Serbia, Austria-Hungary, Zlatibor is located in the northern part of the Stari Vlah region, a historical border region between Raška, Herzegovina and Bosnia.
It spreads over an area of 300 square kilometres,43 km in length, southeast to northwest and its highest peak Tornik has an elevation of 1,496 m. Zlatibor is situated between 43°31 N, and 43°51 N, and between 19°28 E and 19°56 E, the southern and the eastern border of Zlatibor are natural – the rivers Uvac and Veliki Rzav. Villages of Mokra Gora and Jablanica mark its western border towards the Tara Mountain, southern part of Zlatibor, extending towards the Zlatar mountain, is referred to as Murtenica. Tourist facilities include hotels, holiday centers and cottages, sports grounds. Tourist era on Zlatibor officially began on 20 August 1893, when the King of Serbia Aleksandar Obrenović decided to establish a resort on an initiative from the local hosts. To his honor, a fountain was erected on the place where he had lunch, it was accompanied by a small lake. In 1945, it was renamed to Partizanske Vode after Yugoslav Partisans, the area is a location of numerous hotels, restaurants, open swimming pools and other sports facilities.
Eventually, residents of surrounding villages of Sirogojno, Jablanica, Rožanstvo, Ljubiš, Tornik is the highest peak of Zlatibor, at an altitude 1,496 m. Tornik ski resort is located at elevations between 1,110 and 1,490 m and it has several tracks, four being covered by artificial snowing systems, with the total capacity of the about 5,400 skiers per hour. It is equipped with a chairlift, carrying 3,000 skiers per hour. Along with Kopaonik and Stara Planina, it is one of the most popular resorts in Serbia, ponikve Airport Zlatibor in words and pictures Zlatibor. com Live cam Tornik ski resort
Homo heidelbergensis – Homo rhodesiensis – is an extinct species of the genus Homo that lived in Africa and western Asia between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago. The skulls of this species share features with both Homo erectus and anatomically modern Homo sapiens, its brain was nearly as large as that of Homo sapiens. The Sima de los Huesos cave at Atapuerca in northern Spain holds particularly rich layers of deposits that represent an exceptional reserve of data where excavations are still in progress. Neanderthals and modern humans are all considered to have descended from Homo heidelbergensis that appeared around 700,000 years ago in Africa, fossils have been recovered in Ethiopia and South Africa. Between 300,000 and 400,000 years ago a group of Homo heidelbergensis migrated into Europe and West Asia via yet unknown routes, archaeological sites exist in Spain, France, Germany and Greece. Another Homo heidelbergensis group ventured eastwards into continental Asia, eventually developing into Denisovans, some researchers suggest that the finds associated to Homo heidelbergensis are mere variants of Homo erectus.
Both Homo antecessor and Homo heidelbergensis are likely to have descended from the very similar Homo ergaster from Africa. The anatomy is more primitive than that of Neanderthal, but the harmoniously rounded dental arch. Heidelbergensis from other known human species, the species name heidelbergensis only experienced a renaissance with the many discoveries of the past 30 years and appears now to be recognized by an increasing number of researchers. Any form of segregation is considered arbitrary, which is why these researchers forgo the name H. heidelbergensis altogether. Paleoanthropologists often refer to the surrounding the specimens, their dating and morphology, as “the muddle in the middle. ”The fact that there seem to be no clear transitions makes it difficult to draw up a list of unique characteristics of H. heidelbergensis that distinguishes it from H. erectus. In general, the show a continuation of evolutionary trends that are emerging from around the Lower into Middle Pleistocene.
Along with changes in the robustness of cranial and dental features, male H. heidelbergensis averaged about 1.75 m tall and 62 kg. Females averaged 1.57 m and 51 kg, the available space would allow for a far greater flexibility of development and It shows a combination of features, which has been previously found neither on a recent nor a fossil human mandible. The actual proof that we are dealing with human parts here only lies within the nature of the dentition, the completely preserved teeth bear the stamp human as evidence, The canines show no trace of a stronger expression in relation to the other groups of teeth. They suggest a moderate and harmonious co-evolution, as it is the case in recent humans, recent findings in a pit in Atapuerca of 28 human skeletons suggest that H. heidelbergensis might have been the first species of the Homo genus to bury its dead. Steven Mithen believes that H. heidelbergensis, like its descendant H. neanderthalensis, acquired a pre-linguistic system of communication.
No forms of art have been uncovered, although red ochre, the morphology of the outer and middle ear suggests they had an auditory sensitivity similar to modern humans and very different from chimpanzees