SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sialadenitis

Sialadenitis is inflammation of salivary glands the major ones, the most common being the parotid gland, followed by submandibular and sublingual glands. It should not be confused with sialadenosis, a non-inflammatory enlargement of the major salivary glands. Sialadenitis can be further classed as chronic. Acute sialadenitis is an acute inflammation of a salivary gland which may present itself as a red, painful swelling, tender to touch. Chronic sialadenitis is less painful but presents as recurrent swellings after meals, without redness. Causes of sialadenitis are varied, including bacterial and autoimmune conditions. Predisposing factorssialolithiasis decreased flow poor oral hygiene exacerbation of low grade chronic sialoadenitisClinical featuresPainful swelling Reddened skin Edema of the cheek, Periorbital region and neck low grade fever malaise raised ESR, CRP, leucocytosis purulent exudate from duct punctum Clinical Featuresunilateral mild pain / swelling common after meals duct orifice is reddened and flow decreases may or may not have visible/palpable stone.

Parotid gland Recurrent painful swellings Submandibular gland Usually secondary to sialolithiasis or stricture Sialadenitis is swelling and inflammation of the parotid, submandibular, or sublingual major salivary glands. It may be infective or autoimmune. Acute Sialadenitis secondary to obstruction is characterised by painful swelling of 24–72 hours, purulent discharge and systemic manifestations. Chronic sialadenitis causes recurrent periods of tender swellings. Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis is unilateral and can mimic a tumour. Autoimmune sialadenitis causes unilateral or bilateral painless swellings unless there is a secondary infection; the most common salivary gland infection is mumps. It is characterised by bilateral swelling of the parotid glands, however other major salivary glands may be affected in around 10% of cases; the swelling persists for about a week, along with general malaise. Recurrent parotitis of childhood is characterised by periods of pain and swelling in the parotid gland accompanied by a fever Sialadenitis can be caused by cancer, autoimmune conditions and bacterial infections, idiopathic causes or stones formed from calculus.

It was thought that morphological characteristics of the salivary ducts could be a contributing factor, as stagnation of saliva due to these could cause an increased incidence of sialadenitis. However, one study found no statistically significant difference between the length of ducts or the angles they incorporate within them and the likelihood of developing sialadenitis, although this study only had a small sample size of 106; the study confirmed that age, side of face and degree of sialadenitis had no impact on the length of the ducts or the angles formed within the ducts. Viral pathogens more cause sialadenitis in comparison to bacterial pathogens. Mumps is the most common virus that affects the parotid and submandibular glands, with the parotid gland affected most out of these two. Other viruses that have been shown to cause sialadenitis in both these glands include HIV, parainfluenza. Classically, HIV parotitis is either asymptomatic or a non-painful swelling, not characteristic of sialadenitis.

Some common bacterial causes are S. pyogenes, viridans streptococci and H. influenzae. Autoimmune conditions that can cause sialadenitis include Sjögren’s syndrome and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Sjögren’s syndrome and Sarcoidosis are the most common causes of chronic sialadenitis and are closely associated with it, in many cases are believed to be the primary cause, although with other contributing factors present also. One well known form of sarcoidosis is known as Heerfordt’s syndrome, characterized by facial nerve palsy, enlargement of the parotid and anterior uveitis. One study came to the conclusion that the presence of salivary calculi is the main indicator for the removal of the submandibular gland, in patients where neoplasia is absent; this was because 82% of glands removed in an ENT department in Stockholm were found to have salivary calculi within them and all of these cases but one had chronic sialadenitis. A mucous retention cyst was found in one patient, but this was not considered to have contributed to the sialadenitis in this case.

The duration of the sialadenitis was found to be linked to atrophy and the degree of the inflammation in another study, which looked at microliths found in the ducts and glands. Liths were found to be related to the duration that the individual had symptoms of sialadenitis, whereas microliths were found in normal glands and varied with age. Microliths could form reservoirs, thus allowing infection to ascend further towards the glands but this could not be confirmed due to the liths and microliths being distinct in this study. However, many glands did show only minimal variations, which could allow the opportunity for more conservative treatment instead of the surgical removal of the affected gland in the future. Initial stage of acute bacterial sialadenitis involves the accumulation of bacteria and inspissated fluid in lumen of ductal structures. Damage to ductal epithelium results in sialodochitis, accumulation of neutrophils in glandular stroma, followed by acini necrosis with microabscesses formation.

Recurrent episodes results in chronic stage, which involves the establishment of periductal lymph follicles and further destruction of salivar

Camila Rolón

Camila Rolón - in religious Camila of Saint Joseph - was an Argentine Roman Catholic professed religious and the founder of the Poor Sisters of Saint Joseph. Rolón survived a cholera outbreak in Buenos Aires in the 1870s that claimed her mother and brother and after this made two failed attempts to enter the Capuchin Poor Clares and the Carmelites. In 1880 she moved to Mercedes where she founded an orphanage that would evolve into a religious congregation, her order spread to the point that the motherhouse relocated to Rome as did she and it was there that she died. Her beatification process opened in 1950 despite the fact that the cause was not introduced on a formal level until 1975. In 1993 she became titled as Venerable after Pope John Paul II confirmed that Rolón had practiced heroic virtue during her life. Camila Rolón was born in San Isidro on 18 July 1842 to María Gutíerrez, her parents named her in honor of Saint Camilo de Lelis. Rolón received her Confirmation when she was seven from Bishop Mariano Escalada and made her First Communion in 1854.

In 1867 a cholera epidemic broke out in Buenos Aires and after it disappeared the Yellow Fever spread throughout the region. This new outbreak claimed the life of her mother in 1870 while her brother Andrés died not long following this. From the age of eighteen she had felt a strong call to the religious life and so set herself on joining the Capuchin Poor Clares in Buenos Aires. Rolón failed; this came after a failed attempt to join the Carmelites at their convent. Rolón entered the order on 21 April 1875 and assumed the religious name "Dolores de San José" but ill health forced her to leave the order on 20 May to spend five months recuperating at her home, her father died not long after this in mid-1877. Rolón - on 28 January 1880 - moved out of her father's home alongside two friends and eleven orphaned girls to Mercedes in order to found an orphanage there and to pursue their religious dreams where the group settled in an old house; the rich benefactor Leon Gallardo heard about her venture and so promised that he would establish a building to serve as the fledgling order's motherhouse, established in 1889 in Muñiz.

Rolón founded the Poor Sisters of Saint Joseph in Mercedes and went on to establish 32 houses and two novitiate houses. On 19 March 1881 she and three others assumed the religious habit for the first time and she made her initial profession on 19 March 1882. Rolón arrived in Rome on 7 May 1891 alongside two companions on a mission to obtain papal approval for her institute, it was there she spoke with Cardinal Mariano Rampolla who approved of her idea and assured her that he would do whatever he could to get the pope to approve it. The cardinal managed to secure her and her companions a private audience with Pope Leo XIII. Rolón threw herself at the pope's feet which she kissed and the pope promised her that he would issue the papal decree of praise for the order, her return to Buenos Aires on 26 July 1891 saw her continue with her religious formation that culminated in her solemn profession as "Camila de San José" on 19 March 1892. Rolón served as the order's first Superior General and was re-elected as such on 19 March 1896.

Papal approval for her order was given before the pope's death on 3 May 1898. The nun returned to Rome on 30 November 1904 to meet with the new Pope Pius X in a private audience while on 19 March 1908 was re-elected once more as Superior General before making a return trip to Rome in late 1908; the nun arrived there in late October. The Constitutions for her order received approval from Pope Pius X on 15 December 1908 and so she travelled to Rome to have the pope approve her statutes. In 1910 the order's motherhouse was established in Rome. In late 1911 she became ill and so was confined to her bed but it was diagnosed as a carcinoma of the uterus that had first manifested in 1875 and was the reason for her departure from the Carmelites. Rolón rallied from this but her cancer returned sometime in 1912 forcing her to sign her spiritual testament on 27 September 1912 in preparation for her death, her condition worsened on 10 October 1912 and she remained in bed for treatment though would move to an armchair when she had enough strength to move about.

Rolón died in Rome at 12:20am holding a Crucifix in her hands. Her remains arrived in Buenos Aires on 22 March to the metropolitan cathedral and were taken to Muñiz for interment, her order now exists in countries such as Romania and Madagascar and in 2008 had 161 religious in 30 houses. The beatification process for the late nun opened in both Rome and the La Plata diocese in an informative process that opened on 2 August 1950 and concluded on 20 March 1952, her spiritual writings were collected as part of the investigation for theologians to examine. The formal introduction to the cause came under Pope Paul VI on 13 March 1975 while an apostolic process was held from 8 June 1977 until 31 July 1978; the Congregation for the Causes of Saints validated these processes in Rome on 13 November 1981 as having adhered to their regulations for causes. The postulation - officials in charge of the cause - submitted the official Positio dossier to the C. C. S. in 1990 for investigat

Ramy Romany

Ramy Romany is an Egyptologist, Documentarian, TV Host and DGA Director. He has filmed, produced and been featured in over a hundred documentaries, has worked with networks such as The Discovery Channel, The History Channel, National Geographic. Romany was born in Egypt, he moved to CA, in 2011 when he left the political situation in Egypt. Between 2013 and 2018 he won 7 EMMY ® Awards for his work on Esperanza, Return to Esperanza, A New Leash on Life: The K9s for Warriors Story, Rudy Ruettiger: The Walk On. Romany has directed multiple productions in different genres, including: The Contender, a boxing competition series for MGM on EPIX. S. special agent who goes undercover to rescue victims of sex trafficking. While working on The Contender, colorist Dean Perme, Jason Hafer created a custom 3D LUT to give the show a “period feel that felt like film,” which supported the cinematic approach that Romany took with his directing. In March 2019, it was announced that Romany would serve as executive producer and host of the new Discovery Channel series Mummies Unwrapped.

The series featured Romany traveling to ancient Egyptian tombs, Mayan mass graves, hidden crypts to uncover the legends, myths and cover-ups of the ancient past. He used cutting-edge technologies to introduce new theories about how ancient civilizations lived and died, to uncover the origin of each mummy. Destination Truth for the SyFy Network Conspired: The Evil One Shall Not Live Again Brew Masters for The Discovery Channel Ancient Aliens for The History Channel What Lies Beneath for BBC TV Long Way Down for National Geographic The Contender for MGM on EPIX Operation Toussaint for Amazon Prime Expedition Unknown: Egypt Live for The Discovery Channel Mummies Unwrapped for the Discovery Channel Unprotected Sets for MGM on EPIX Esperanza Visioneer Return to Esperanza A New Leash on Life: The K9s for Warriors Story Rudy Ruettiger: The Walk On Official Website