In physical geography, a steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa, they are referred to as veld; the prairie of North America is an example of a steppe, though it is not called such. A steppe may be semi-arid or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude; the term is used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is of chernozem type. Steppes are characterized by a semi-arid or continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C and in winter, −55 °C. Besides this huge difference between summer and winter, the differences between day and night are very great. In both the highlands of Mongolia and northern Nevada, 30 °C can be reached during the day with sub-zero °C readings at night; the mid-latitude steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters, averaging 250–510 mm of precipitation per year.
Precipitation level alone is not. Two types of steppe can be recorded: Temperate steppe: the "true" steppe, found in continental areas of the world; the Eurasian Grass-Steppe of the temperate grasslands and shrublands had a role in the spread of the horse, the wheel, the Indo-European languages. The Indo-European expansion and diverse invasions of horse archer civilizations of the steppe led to, e.g. the rise of Mycenaean Greece by amalgamation of Indo-Europeans with the autochthonous pre-Greek population and its destruction during the Dorian invasion in the Late Bronze Age collapse, followed by the demise of the Achaeans, the spread of the Sea Peoples, the rise of Archaic and Classical Greece. The world's largest steppe region referred to as "the Great Steppe", is found in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, neighbouring countries stretching from Ukraine in the west through Russia, China and Uzbekistan to the Altai, Koppet Dag and Tian Shan ranges; the inner parts of Anatolia in Turkey, Central Anatolia and East Anatolia in particular and some parts of Southeast Anatolia, as well as much of Armenia and Iran are dominated by cold steppe.
The Pannonian Plain is another steppe region in eastern Europe Hungary. Another large steppe area is located in the central United States, western Canada and northern part of Mexico; the shortgrass prairie steppe is the westernmost part of the Great Plains region. The Channeled Scablands in Southern British Columbia and Washington State is an example of a steppe region in North America outside of the Great Plains. In South America, cold steppe can be found in Patagonia and much of the high elevation regions east of the southern Andes. Small steppe areas can be found in the interior of the South Island of New Zealand. In Europe, some Mediterranean areas have a steppe-like vegetation, such as central Sicily in Italy, southern Portugal, parts of Greece in the southern Athens area, central-eastern Spain the southeastern coast, places cut off from adequate moisture due to rain shadow effects such as Zaragoza. In Asia, a subtropical steppe can be found in semi-arid lands that fringe the Thar Desert of the Indian subcontinent and the Badia of the Arabian peninsula.
In Australia, "subtropical steppe" can be found in a belt surrounding the most severe deserts of the continent and around the Musgrave Ranges. In North America this environment is typical of transition areas between zones with a Mediterranean climate and true deserts, such as Reno, the inner part of California, much of western Texas and adjacent areas in Mexico. Ecology and Conservation of Steppe-land Birds by Manuel B. Morales, Santi Mañosa, Jordi Camprodón, Gerard Bota. International Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of steppe-land birds. Lleida, Spain. December 2004. ISBN 84-87334-99-7 "The Steppes". Barramedasoft.com.ar. 1998–2008. Retrieved 2008-04-04
The Amur leopard is a leopard subspecies native to the Primorye region of southeastern Russia and northern China. It is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List. In 2007, only 19–26 wild leopards were estimated to survive in southeastern Russia and northeastern China, it was considered as one of the rarest cats on Earth. As of 2015, fewer than 60 individuals were estimated to survive in China. Camera-trapping surveys conducted between 2014 and 2015 revealed 92 individuals in a 8,398 km2 large transboundary area along the Russian-Chinese border. Results of genetic research indicate that the Amur leopard is genetically close to leopards in northern China and Korea, suggesting that the leopard population in this region became fragmented in the early 20th century; the North Chinese leopard was recognised as a distinct subspecies P. p. japonensis, but was subsumed under the Amur leopard in 2017. In 1857, Hermann Schlegel described a leopard skin from Korea under the scientific name Felis orientalis.
Since Schlegel's description, several naturalists and curators of natural history museums described zoological specimens of leopards from the Russian Far East and China: Leopardus japonensis described and proposed in 1862 by John Edward Gray was a tanned leopard skin received by the British Museum. Leopardus chinensis proposed by Gray in 1867 was a leopard skull from the mountains northwest of Peking. Felis fontanierii proposed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in 1867 was a leopard skin from the environs of Peking. Felis ingrami was a leopard skin from Kweichow in central China, Felis villosa a leopard skin from the Amur Bay, both proposed by J. Lewis Bonhote in 1903. Felis grayi proposed in 1904 by Édouard Louis Trouessart was a leopard fossil. Panthera hanensis proposed in 1908 by Paul Matschie was a leopard skin from Shaanxi province. Felis pardus sinensis proposed in 1911 by a German fur trader was a leopard skin from southern China. Panthera pardus bedfordi proposed in 1930 by Reginald Innes Pocock was a leopard skin from Shaanxi.
In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group subsumed P. p. japonensis to P. p. orientalis. The remaining are not considered valid subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis of leopard samples from Primorsky Krai and North Korea revealed that they cannot be distinguished, it is considered probable. The complete mitochondrial genome of a wild male leopard specimen from Shaanxi Province in central China has been amplified and is 16,966 base pairs long; the Amur leopard differs from other leopard subspecies by its thick fur, pale cream-colored in winter. Rosettes on the flanks are 5 cm × 5 cm and spaced, up to 2.5 cm, with thick, unbroken rings and darkened centers. Its fur is soft with long and dense hair; the length of hair on the back is up to 70 mm in winter. The winter coat varies from light yellow to dense yellowish-red with a golden tinge or rusty-reddish-yellow. In summer, the fur is brighter with more vivid coloration pattern, it is rather small in body size, with males larger than females.
Males measure from 107–136 cm with a 82–90 cm long tail, a shoulder height of 64–78 cm, a weight of 32.2–48 kg. Females weigh from 25–42.5 kg. The North Chinese leopard was first described on the basis of a single tanned skin, fulvous above and pale beneath with large roundish, oblong black spots on the back and limbs, small black spots on the head; the spots on the back and sides formed a ring around a central fulvous spot. The black spots on the nape were elongated, large ones on the chest formed a necklace; the tail had four black rings at the tip. In the Russian Far East, the Amur leopard inhabits an area of about 7,000 km2 today, it is well adapted to snow. Leopards cross between Russia and North Korea across the Tumen River despite a high and long wire fence marking the boundary; the first camera trap image of an Amur leopard in northeastern China was taken in 2010 in Hunchun National Nature Reserve located in the Changbai Mountains in Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces. This habitat consists of broadleaved conifer and Korean pine forests at altitudes of 600–1,200 m, where annual average temperature is about 1.5 °C.
In this area, leopards were photographed by camera traps set up between January 2013 and July 2014 covering up to 4,858 km2. Elsewhere in China, leopard range is fragmented with small populations occurring foremost in isolated reserves. In Shanxi Province, leopards were recorded in 16 protected areas during camera trapping surveys between 2007 and 2014. In Shaanxi Province, leopards were recorded in six nature reserves, including Foping National Nature Reserve. Leopard fossils from the Pleistocene have been excavated in Japan, but the species has not been identified with certainty. Historic records from before 1930 indicate that the Amur leopard occurred in Eastern Siberia, in Northern China near Beijing and in the mountains to the northwest, in Korea, its range once extended throughout Manchuria in northeastern China, including Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces, throughout the Korean Peninsula. In Russia, its range was reduced during the 1970s to about 20% of its former range; the northern boundary of its occurrence commenced on the coast of the Sea of Japan at 44°N and ran south at a distance of 15–30 km from the coast to 43°10'N.
There its range turned steeply westward, north of the Suchan River basin north to encompass the source of the Ussuri River and
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state, it is sandwiched between China to Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people, it is the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow and Nur-Sultan. 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The majority of its population are Buddhists.
The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs; the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups; the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history, his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
By the early 1900s one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990; this led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, transition to a market economy. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic; the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia.
Neolithic agricultural settlements, such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture; the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the Okunev culture, Andronovo culture and Karasuk culture, culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, rock paintings. Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture arose independently in the region; the population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europoid in the west.
Tocharians and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; as equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into China during the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty presaged the age of nomadic empires; the concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC: Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai and right wings, imperial army and the decimal military system; the first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Inner Asia. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Qiang and Lhoba peoples and is now inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 5,000 metres; the highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m above sea level. The Tibetan Empire emerged in the 7th century, but with the fall of the empire the region soon divided into a variety of territories; the bulk of western and central Tibet was at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa, Shigatse, or nearby locations. Thus Tibet remained a suzerainty of the Mongol and Chinese rulers in Nanjing and Beijing, with reasonable autonomy given to the Tibetan leaders; the eastern regions of Kham and Amdo maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while often falling more directly under Chinese rule after the Battle of Chamdo.
The current borders of Tibet were established in the 18th century. Following the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet Area; the region subsequently declared its independence in 1913 without recognition by the subsequent Chinese Republican government. Lhasa took control of the western part of Xikang, China; the region maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following the Battle of Chamdo, Tibet became incorporated into the People's Republic of China, the previous Tibetan government was abolished in 1959 after a failed uprising. Today, China governs western and central Tibet as the Tibet Autonomous Region while the eastern areas are now ethnic autonomous prefectures within Sichuan and other neighbouring provinces. There are tensions regarding dissident groups that are active in exile. Tibetan activists in Tibet have been arrested or tortured; the economy of Tibet is dominated by subsistence agriculture, though tourism has become a growing industry in recent decades.
The dominant religion in Tibet is Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism is a primary influence on the art and festivals of the region. Tibetan architecture reflects Indian influences. Staple foods in Tibet are roasted barley, yak meat, butter tea; the Tibetan name for their land, Bod བོད་, means "Tibet" or "Tibetan Plateau", although it meant the central region around Lhasa, now known in Tibetan as Ü. The Standard Tibetan pronunciation of Bod, is transcribed Bhö in Tournadre Phonetic Transcription, Bö in the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription and Poi in Tibetan pinyin; some scholars believe the first written reference to Bod "Tibet" was the ancient Bautai people recorded in the Egyptian Greek works Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and Geographia, itself from the Sanskrit form Bhauṭṭa of the Indian geographical tradition. The modern Standard Chinese exonym for the ethnic Tibetan region is Zangqu, which derives by metonymy from the Tsang region around Shigatse plus the addition of a Chinese suffix, 区 qū, which means "area, region, ward".
Tibetan people and culture, regardless of where they are from, are referred to as Zang although the geographical term Xīzàng is limited to the Tibet Autonomous Region. The term Xīzàng was coined during the Qing dynasty in the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor through the addition of a prefix meaning "west" to Zang; the best-known medieval Chinese name for Tibet is Tubo. This name first appears in Chinese characters as 土番 in the 7th century and as 吐蕃 in the 10th-century. In the Middle Chinese spoken during that period, as reconstructed by William H. Baxter, 土番 was pronounced thux-phjon and 吐蕃 was pronounced thux-pjon. Other pre-modern Chinese names for Tibet include Wusiguo, Wusizang and Tanggute. American Tibetologist Elliot Sperling has argued in favor of a recent tendency by some authors writing in Chinese to revive the term Tubote for modern use in place of Xizang, on the grounds that Tubote more includes the entire Tibetan plateau rather than the Tibet Autonomous Region; the English word Tibet or Thibet dates back to the 18th century.
Historical linguists agree that "Tibet" names in European languages are loanwords from Semitic Ṭībat orTūbātt, itself deriving from Turkic Töbäd, literally: "The Heights". Linguists classify the Tibetan language as a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sino-Tibetan language family although the boundaries between'Tibetan' and certain other Himalayan languages can be unclear. According to
Peter Simon Pallas
Peter Simon Pallas FRS FRSE was a Prussian zoologist and botanist who worked in Russia. Pallas was born in the son of Professor of Surgery Simon Pallas, he studied with private tutors and took an interest in natural history attending the University of Halle and the University of Göttingen. In 1760, he moved to the University of Leiden and passed his doctor's degree at the age of 19. Pallas travelled throughout the Netherlands and to London, improving his medical and surgical knowledge, he settled at The Hague, his new system of animal classification was praised by Georges Cuvier. Pallas wrote Miscellanea Zoologica, which included descriptions of several vertebrates new to science which he had discovered in the Dutch museum collections. A planned voyage to southern Africa and the East Indies fell through when his father recalled him to Berlin. There, he began work on his Spicilegia Zoologica. In 1767, Pallas was invited by Catherine II of Russia to become a professor at the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences and, between 1768 and 1774, he led an expedition to central Russian provinces, Urals, West Siberia and Transbaikal, collecting natural history specimens for the academy.
He explored the Caspian Sea, the Ural and Altai Mountains and the upper Amur River, reaching as far eastward as Lake Baikal. The regular reports which Pallas sent to St Petersburg were collected and published as Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des Russischen Reichs, they covered a wide range of topics, including geology and mineralogy, reports on the native peoples and their religions, descriptions of new plants and animals. In 1776, Pallas was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Pallas settled in St Petersburg, becoming a favourite of Catherine II and teaching natural history to the Grand Dukes Alexander and Constantine, he was provided with the plants collected by other naturalists to compile the Flora Rossica, a Russian flora, started work on his Zoographica Rosso-Asiatica, a zoography of Russia and Asia. He published an account of Johann Anton Güldenstädt's travels in the Caucasus; the Empress bought Pallas's large natural history collection for 2,000 rubles, 500 more than his asking price, allowed him to keep them for life.
During this period, Pallas helped plan the Mulovsky expedition, cancelled in October 1787. Between 1793 and 1794, Pallas led a second expedition to southern Russia, visiting the Crimea and the Black Sea, he was accompanied by his daughter and his new wife, an artist, a military escort. In February 1793, they travelled to Saratov and downriver to Tsaritsyn, they explored the country to the east, in August travelled along the banks of the Caspian Sea and into the Caucasus Mountains. In September, they travelled to the Crimea. Pallas spent early 1794 exploring to the southeast, in July travelled up the valley of the Dnieper, arriving back in St Petersburg in September. Pallas gave his account of the journey in his P. S. Pallas Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die Südlichen Statthalterschaften des Russischen Reichs. Catherine II gave him a large estate at Simferopol, where Pallas lived until the death of his second wife in 1810, he was granted permission to leave Russia by Emperor Alexander, returned to Berlin, where he died in the following year.
His grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof I der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor. In 1809 he became associate member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands. In 1772, Pallas was shown a 680-kg lump of metal, found near Krasnoyarsk. Pallas arranged. Subsequent analysis of the metal showed it to be a new type of stony-iron meteorite; this new type of meteorite was called pallasite after him. Several animals were described by Pallas, his surname is included in their common names, including: Pallas' glass lizard, Pallas' viper, Pallas's cat, Pallas's long-tongued bat, Pallas's tube-nosed bat, Pallas's squirrel, Pallas's leaf warbler, Pallas's cormorant, Pallas's fish-eagle, Pallas's gull, Pallas's sandgrouse, Pallas's rosefinch, Pallas's grasshopper warbler, he is honoured in the scientific names of animals described by others, including: the Dagestani tortoise, Pallas's pika, Pallas's reed bunting, the Pacific herring. Streets in Berlin and Castrop-Rauxel are named Pallasstraße.
Pallasovka, a city in Volgograd Oblast, is named after him, his monument stands there. An asteroid is named after him: 21087 Petsimpallas. A Belgian astronomer, Eric Elst chose the name "Sarapul 26851" for an asteroid because in Pallas' writings, he mentioned his liking of the city of Sarapul, Russia. Dissertatio inauguralis. Elenchus zoophytorum, sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succinctas descriptiones, cum selectis auctorum synonymis. Miscellanea zoologica, quibus novæ imprimis atque obscuræ animalum species describuntur et observationibus iconibusque illustrantur. Spicilegia zoologica. Lyst der Plant-Dieren, bevattende de algemeene schetzen der geslachten en korte beschryvingen der bekende zoorten (Utrecht: van Paddenburg & van S