Khajjak is a village at a 8 kilometers distance from Sibi city of Balochistan, Pakistan. The whole of the Khajjak town is rich in wheat; the Khajjak tribe hold the means of irrigation by the Nari in their hands and their crops extent of cultivation were unequaled in any part of Kachhi District. The Khajjak Town is situated 8 Kilometers distance from Sibi city Balochistan province of Pakistan; this tract is uncultivated till within about 4 miles South of Kurak, thence as far North as the hills the area is productive. The whole of the Khajjak circle of which the Fort of that name is the capital is rich in wheat; the Khajjak Tribe as before stated held the means of irrigation by the Nari in their hands and crops extent of cultivation were unequaled in any part of Kachhi District. In January 1841 Brigadier Valiant's brigade consisting of two troops Horse Artillery, a nine pounder Field Battery two wings of Cavalry the 40th Regiment, a wing of the 41st Regiment, two battalions of Bombay native Infantry, the 20th and 21st and a mass of irregular horse, marched from Sakkar and proceeded to mengal-ka-Shahir near Bhag.
Where it remained for some time in camp. Whilst there a small force with guns was sent to Khajjaks in the Sibi country about 30 miles North-east of Dhadar, under Colonel Wilson of the Bombay Cavalry to coerce the Khajjaks of that place; the Khajjak Fort is described as strong and surrounded by a deep dry ditch through which the troops advanced to a gateway, within, the gate attacked. This was was therefore a strong position, it was opposite this gate that captain Leslie opened fire to cover the advance of the infantry and it was endeavoring to force this that Lieutenant Falconer at the head of the grenadiers was killed with five or six of his men. Lieutenant Shaw again attempting it was wounded but met with a disaster, two officers being killed and Colonel Wilson himself mortally wounded; the cause of this disaster was that the detachment was marched into the body of the town without taking possession of the houses right and left. The Khajjaks waited till they had come in and poured in a fire from under cover.
A second attempt by dismounted Artillerymen under Lieutenant Creed was defeated owing to the want of support and Lieutenant Creed himself was among the slain. The place was subsequently occupied and destroyed by the Brigadier; the British Troops lost 4 officers including 55 men of the army and 90 people of Khajjak Tribes are martyred. The Khajjaks are the descendants of a kakar tribe; the Khajjak who resided with nine other Kakar chiefs in a village Mekhtar Loralai District in consequence of a feud in which Khajjaks with their family and dependents migrated to Sibi. The names of the Khajjak chiefs, the descendants of sons of khajjak are, 1-Ismail Khan son of Panjo Khan 2- Issa Khan son of Ali Khan 3-Syud Khan son of Dur Khan 4-Karim Khan son of Taj Muhammad 5-Hassan khan son of Mir Khan 6- Meeran Khan son of Jan Muhammad 7- Dur Khan son of Naseer Khan 8- Kamal Khan son of Akbar Khan The Khajjak Tribe is said to have numbered from seven hundred to one thousand fighting men this year. Sibi District Mehergarh Sevi Bibi Nani Dehpal Marghazani Kurak Sibi Mela
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Ziarat is a city and the capital of Ziarat District, Balochistan Province, Pakistan. It is about 130 km from the capital city of Balochistan province Quetta; the famous Quaid-e-Azam Residency is there in the valley, where Quaid spent a few of his most memorable days. Tourists from all over Balochistan and from Sindh province visit the valley in the harsh summers, its overall cold weather, fascinating sceneries, lush green forests and mighty mountains attracts tourists of all kinds. May to September are months of peak tourist visits. Specially in the days of Eid festive and other national or religious the valley is full packed; the 2016's Eid experienced about 0.4 million people visiting. The hill station is accessible from Quetta through a Highway. While accessing it from Loralai is little difficult due to bad road conditions; the third way of accessing the valley is through Harnai District although it is pretty dangerous near Dumiara waterfall, due to the steep and unpaved road. The main road of the station is Jinnah road which called the red zone of the valley due to a large numbers of government and askari resorts and buildings there, a few of which are: Frontier Corps Resthouse Governor House IG Police House Panther Lodge Juniper Lodge Quaid-e-Azam Residency Commissioner House CM Balochistan House Near Ziarat is a juniper forest called sanober, which features the species Juniperus macropoda Juniperus excelsa polycarpos.
Pakistan’s largest juniper forest is located in this reserve. The ecosystem is of inestimable value for biodiversity conservation, it is of great ecological significance, providing local and global benefits. The biosphere reserve is home to the largest area of juniper forest in Pakistan, covering about 110,000 hectares, it is believed. The juniper species found there are of global significance because of their advanced age and slow growth rate. In fact, the junipers of Ziarat are among the oldest living trees in the world. Although no dendrological study has yet been conducted, according to one estimate, the age of a mature tree in Ziarat can exceed 5,000 years. Local people refer to the trees as "living fossils", their remarkable longevity allows research on past weather conditions in the region, making the species of particular significance for studies on climate change and ecology. The juniper forest ecosystem of Ziarat provides a habitat for endangered wildlife species and supports a rich variety of plant species.
Because of the ecosystem's biodiversity, various parts of it have been designated protected areas, including wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves. The mountain ranges, including the Khilafat Hills, consist of a core habitat that hosts several globally important wild species, among them markhors, black bears and wolves; the forest serves as a habitat for a number of other animals: Afghan pikas, foxes and several species of migratory birds. However, anthropological factors such as illegal hunting, human habitations and livestock grazing have encroached on the wildlife habitats, leading to their fragmentation; the human population, distributed across various sub-tribes and clans, is concentrated in valleys, although small settlements are visible on mountain slopes. There are over 100,000 people living within or in close proximity to the biosphere reserve, most of whom are agropastoralists. 40 percent of the population migrates for three to four months during the winter to abodes in Harnai. Livestock was the primary source of livelihood in the reserve.
Today, it has been displaced by the development of agriculture and, in particular, the promotion of horticultural crops such as apple and cherry orchards. Ziarat and the surrounding juniper valleys offer good opportunities for hiking and trekking, as well as various gorges; the city is becoming popular for a taste of snowfall during the winter. Ziarat is the location of the Ziarat residency; the residency, constructed in 1892, is a wooden structure with great architectural importance. It was meant to be a sanatorium, but was converted into the summer residence of the Agent of the Governor General, it is now a national monument. The residency catches tourists' attention because of its location and hilly surroundings. There is a small dam, the valley is full of fruits: cherry in summer and apple in winter. Between the hills and the deep ravine, there is a mile-long stretch of flat land ideal for walking; this is "chashma", that provides water for the town. The highest spot that cars can reach is Prospect Point, 2,713 metres above sea level and offers a view of the valley stretching out in undulating slopes, about 6 km from Ziarat.
From a nearby cliff, one can see the highest peak of the Khilifat Hills. There is a small rest house nearby. Bookings can be made through the office of the Deputy Commissioner of Ziarat. Sandman Tangi, 4 km from Ziarat, features a dramatic waterfall, about 13 km from the city is Dumiara, another waterfall; the Chutair Valley is about a 30-minute drive from Ziarat. Inhabitants of the valley live in huts made from juniper bark, distinct from the homes in other villages. Balochistan is an arid region and receives little annual rainfall, but innumerable streams and natural springs known as karez can be found in most parts of the province. There are more than a half dozen gorges around Ziarat formed by karez spring water falling through narrow openings in the mountain rocks, producing a dramatic effect; the gorges along the road to Ziarat are Chutair Tangi, Kahn Tangi, Kawas Tangi, Faran Tangi and Sandman Tangi. The residents of
Kurak is a village at a 4 kilometers distance from Sibi city of Balochistan, Pakistan. The Kurak Town is ancestral village of Nawab barozai. Sibi District Mehergarh Sevi Bibi Nani khajjak Dehpal Marghazani
Marghazani is a village at a 2 kilometers distance from Sibi city of Balochistan, Pakistan. Sibi District Mehergarh Sevi Bibi Nani khajjak Kurak Talli
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Multan is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. Located on the banks of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan's 7th largest city, is the major cultural and economic centre of southern Punjab. Multan's history stretches deep into antiquity; the ancient city was site of the renowned Multan Sun Temple, was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign. Multan was one of the most important trading centres of medieval Islamic India, attracted a multitude of Sufi mystics in the 11th and 12th centuries, earning the city the nickname City of Saints; the city, along with the nearby city of Uch, is renowned for its large collection of Sufi shrines dating from that era. The origin of Multan's name is unclear. Multan may derive its name from the Old Persian word mulastāna, meaning “frontier land,” or from the Sanskrit word mūlasthāna, which itself may be derived from the Hindu deity worshipped at the Multan Sun Temple. Hukm Chand in the 19th century suggested that the city was named after an ancient Hindu tribe, named Mul.
The Multan region has been continuously inhabited for at least 5,000 years. The region is home to numerous archaeological sites dating to the era of the Early Harappan period of the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating from 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. According to the Persian historian Firishta, the city was founded by a great grandson of Noah. According to Hindu religious texts, Multan was founded by the Hindu sage Kashyapaand asserts Multan as the capital of the Trigarta Kingdom ruled by the Katoch dynasty at the time of the Kurukshetra War, central the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharata. Ancient Multan was the centre of a solar-worshipping cult, based at the ancient Multan Sun Temple. While the cult was dedicated to the Hindu Sun God Surya, the cult was influenced by Persian Zoroastrianism; the Sun Temple was mentioned by Greek Admiral Skylax, who passed through the area in 515 BCE. The temple is mentioned in the 400s BCE by the Greek historian, Herodotus. Multan is believed to have been the Malli capital, conquered by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE as part of the Mallian Campaign.
During the siege of the city's citadel, Alexander leaped into the inner area of the citadel, where he killed the Mallians' leader. Alexander was wounded by an arrow that had penetrated his lung, leaving him injured. During Alexander's era, Multan was located on an island in the Ravi river, which has since shifted course numerous times throughout the centuries. In the mid-5th century CE, the city was attacked by a group of Hephthalite nomads led by Toramana. By the mid 600s CE, Multan had been conquered by the Chach of the Hindu Rai dynasty. After his conquest of Sindh, Muhammad bin Qasim in 712 CE captured Multan from the local ruler Chach of Alor following a two-month siege. Muhammad bin Qasim's army was running out of supplies, but Multan's defences were still holding strong, his army was considering a retreat when an unnamed Multani came to him and told him about and underground canal from which they derived their sustenance. He told them. Muhammad bin Qasim soon took control of Multan. Following bin Qasim's conquest, the city's subjects remained non-Muslim for the next few centuries.
By the mid-800s, the Banu Munabbih, who claimed descent from the Prophet Muhammad's Quraysh tribe came to rule Multan, established the Amirate of Banu Munabbih, which ruled for the next century. During this era, the Multan Sun Temple was noted by the 10th century Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi to have been located in a most populous part of the city; the Hindu temple was noted to have accrued the Muslim rulers large tax revenues, by some accounts up to 30% of the state's revenues. During this time, the city's Arabic nickname was Faraj Bayt al-Dhahab, reflecting the importance of the temple to the city's economy; the 10th century Arab historian Al-Masudi noted Multan as the city where Central Asian caravans from Islamic Khorasan would assemble. The 10th century Persian geographer Estakhri noted that the city of Multan was half the size of Sindh's Mansura, which along with Multan were the only two Arab principalities in South Asia. Arabic and Punjabi were spoken in both cities, though the inhabitants of Multan were reported by Estakhri to have been speakers of Persian, reflecting the importance of trade with Khorasan.
Polyglossia rendered Multani merchants culturally well-suited for trade with the Islamic world. The 10th century Hudud al-'Alam notes that Multan's rulers were in control of Lahore, though that city was lost to the Hindu Shahi Empire. During the 10th century, Multan's rulers resided at a camp outside of the city named Jandrawār, would enter Multan once a week on the back of an elephant for Friday prayers. By the mid 10th century, Multan had come under the influence of the Qarmatian Ismailis; the Qarmatians had been expelled from Egypt and Iraq following their defeat at the hands of the Abbasids there. Qarmatians zealots had famously sacked Mecca, outraged the Muslim world with their theft and ransom of the Kaaba's Black Stone, desecration of the Zamzam Well with corpses during the Hajj season of 930 CE, they wrested control of the city from the pro-Abbasid Amirate of Banu Munabbih, established the Amirate of Multan, while pledging allegiance to the Ismaili Fatimid Dynasty based in Cairo. The Qarmatian Ismailis opposed Hindu pilgrims worshipping the sun, destroyed the Sun Temple and smashed its revered Aditya idol in the late 10th century.
The Qarmatians built an Ismaili congregational mosque atop to the ruins to replace the city's Sunni congregational mosque th