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Sic

The Latin adverb sic inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous, archaic, or otherwise nonstandard spelling. It applies to any surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might be interpreted as an error of transcription; the typical usage is to inform the reader that any errors or apparent errors in quoted material do not arise from errors in the course of the transcription, but are intentionally reproduced as they appear in the source text. It is placed inside square brackets to indicate that it is not part of the quoted matter. Sic may be inserted derisively, to call attention to the original writer's spelling mistakes or erroneous logic, or to show general disapproval or dislike of the material. Though misidentified as an abbreviated word, sic is a Latin adverb used in English as an adverb, derivatively, as a noun and a verb; the adverb sic, meaning "intentionally so written", first appeared in English circa 1856.

It is derived from the Latin adverb sīc, which means "so, thus, in this manner". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the verbal form of sic, meaning "to mark with a sic", emerged in 1889, E. Belfort Bax's work in The Ethics of Socialism being an early example. On occasion, sic has been misidentified as an acronym: "s.i.c." is said to stand for "spelled in context", "said in copy", "spelling is correct", "spelled incorrectly", other such folk etymology phrases. These are all incorrect and are backronyms from sic. Use of sic increased in the mid-twentieth century. For example, in United States state-court opinions before 1944, sic appeared 1,239 times in the Westlaw database; the "benighted use" as a form of ridicule, deserved or otherwise, has been cited as a major factor in this increase. The "immoderate" use of sic has created some controversy, leading some editors, including bibliographical scholar Simon Nowell-Smith and literary critic Leon Edel, to speak out against it. Sic, in its bracketed form, is most inserted into quoted or reprinted material to indicate meticulous accuracy in reproducing the preceding text, despite appearances to the reader of an incorrect or unusual orthography.

Several usage guides recommend that a bracketed sic be used as an aid to the reader, not as an indicator of disagreement with the source. A sic may show that an uncommon or archaic expression is reported faithfully, such as when quoting the U. S. Constitution: "The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker..." Several writing guidebooks discourage its use with regard to dialect, such as in cases of American and British English spelling differences. The appearance of a bracketed sic after the word analyse in a book review led Bryan A. Garner to comment, "all the quoter demonstrated was ignorance of British usage"; the use of sic can be seen as an appeal to ridicule, whether intentional or not, because it highlights perceived irregularities. The application of sic with intent to disparage has been called the "benighted use" because it reflects a "false sense of superiority" in its users; the following example from The Times of London demonstrates how the interpolation of sic can discredit a quoted statement.

Warehouse has 263 stores, suggesting a large fan base. The chain sums up its appeal thus: "styley, sexy, edgy and individual, with it's finger on the fashion pulse." A writer places after their own words, to indicate that the language has been chosen deliberately for special effect where the writer's ironic meaning may otherwise be unclear. Bryan A. Garner dubbed this use of sic "ironic", providing the following example from Fred Rodell's 1955 book Nine Men: n 1951, it was the blessing bestowed on Judge Harold Medina's prosecution of the eleven so-called'top native Communists,' which blessing meant giving the Smith Act the judicial nod of constitutionality. Where sic follows the quotation, it takes brackets:; the word sic is treated as a loanword that does not require italics, the style manuals of New Zealand and British media outlets do not require italicisation. However, italicization is common in the United States, where authorities including APA Style insist upon it; because sic is not an abbreviation, placing a full stop/period inside the brackets after the word sic is erroneous, although one style guide suggests styling it as a parenthetical sentence only when used after a complete sentence, like so:.

Use of sic has been noted for its potential to bring about linguistic discrimination. A letter written to the American Journal of Roentgenology has been cited in the journal's French counterpart, the Journal de Radiologie, highlighting how apparent prejudices among English-language journals may be causing a higher rejection rate of scholarly papers from francophone authors – a concern because English is the lingua franca for medicine. In the letter, the AJR was criticized for its frequent insertion of sic when publishing letters written by French and Japanese authors though its correspondence acceptance policy reserved the right of copy-editing, which could therefore have been used beneficially to correct minor English language errors made by non English-speakers. In response, the editor in chief of AJR, Lee F. Rogers, apologized for the possible discriminatory interpretation and offered the following expl

Henry Kuttner

Henry Kuttner was an American author of science fiction and horror. Henry Kuttner was born in Los Angeles, California in 1915. Naphtaly Kuttner and Amelia Bush; the parents of his father, the bookseller Henry Kuttner, had come from Leszno in Prussia and lived in San Francisco since 1859. Henry Kuttner's great-grandfather was the scholar Josua Heschel Kuttner. Kuttner grew up in relative poverty following the death of his father; as a young man he worked in his spare time for the literary agency of his uncle, Laurence D'Orsay, in Los Angeles before selling his first story, "The Graveyard Rats", to Weird Tales in early 1936. It was while working for the d'Orsay agency that Kuttner picked Leigh Brackett's early manuscripts off the slush pile. Kuttner was known for his literary prose and worked in close collaboration with his wife, C. L. Moore, they met through their association with the "Lovecraft Circle", a group of writers and fans who corresponded with H. P. Lovecraft, their work together spanned the 1940s and 1950s and most of the work was credited to pseudonyms Lewis Padgett and Lawrence O'Donnell.

L. Sprague de Camp, who knew Kuttner and Moore well, has stated that their collaboration was so seamless that, after a story was completed, it was impossible for either Kuttner or Moore to recall who had written what. According to de Camp, it was typical for either partner to break off from a story in mid-paragraph or mid-sentence, with the latest page of the manuscript still in the typewriter; the other spouse would continue the story where the first had left off. They alternated in this manner as many times as necessary. Among Kuttner's most popular work were the Gallegher stories, published under the Padgett name, about a man who invented high-tech solutions to client problems when he was stinking drunk, only to be unable to remember what he had built or why after sobering up; these stories were collected in Robots Have No Tails. In her introduction to the 1973 Lancer Books edition, Moore stated that Kuttner wrote all the Gallegher stories himself. Marion Zimmer Bradley is among many authors.

Her novel The Bloody Sun is dedicated to him. Roger Zelazny has talked about the influence of The Dark World on his Amber series. Kuttner's friend Richard Matheson dedicated his 1954 novel I Am Legend to Kuttner, with thanks for his help and encouragement. Ray Bradbury has said that Kuttner wrote the last 300 words of Bradbury's first horror story, "The Candle". Bradbury has referred to Kuttner as a neglected master and a "pomegranate writer: popping with seeds—full of ideas". William S. Burroughs's novel The Ticket That Exploded contains direct quotes from Kuttner regarding the "Happy Cloak" parasitic pleasure monster from the Venusian seas. Mary Elizabeth Counselman believed that Kuttner's habit of writing under varied pseudonyms deprived him of the fame that should have been his. "I have wondered why Kuttner chose to hide his talents behind so many false faces for no editorial reason... Admittedly, the fun is in pretending to be someone else, but Kuttner cheated himself of much fame that he richly deserved by hiding his light under a bushel of pen names that many fans did not know were his.

Seabury Quinn and I both chided him about this."According to J. Vernon Shea, August Derleth "kept promising to publish Hank's and Catherine's books under the Arkham House imprint, but kept postponing them." A friend of Lovecraft's as well as of Clark Ashton Smith, Kuttner contributed several stories to the Cthulhu Mythos genre invented by those authors. Among these were "The Secret of Kralitz", "The Eater of Souls", "The Salem Horror", "The Invaders" and "The Hunt". Kuttner added a few lesser-known deities to the Mythos, including Iod and Nyogtha. Critic Shawn Ramsey suggests that Abigail Prinn, the villain of "The Salem Horror", might have been intended by Kuttner to be a descendant of Ludvig Prinn, author of De Vermis Mysteriis—a book that appears in Kuttner's "The Invaders". Etchings and Odysseys No 4, edited by Eric A. Carlson, John J. Koblas and R. Alain Everts, was a special Kuttner tribute issue featuring three reprinted tales by Kuttner - "It Walks By Night", "The Frog" and "The Invaders," together with various essays on Kuttner, an interview with his wife and fellow writer C.

L. Moore. Crypt of Cthulhu 5, No 7, edited by Robert M. Price, was a special Henry Kuttner issue collecting eight Cthulhu Mythos stories by Kuttner.. The Book of Iod: Ten Tales of the Mythos is a collection of Kuttner's Cthulhu Mythos stories edited by Robert M. Price.. The Kuttner stories included are: "The Secret of Kralitz", "The Eater of Souls", "The Salem Horror", "The Jest of Droom-Avesta", "Spawn of Dagon", "The Invaders", "The Frog", "Hydra", "Bells of Horror" and "The Hunt" - thus, all the Mythos stories which had appeared in the special Kuttner issue of Crypt of Cthulhu, plus "Spawn of Dagon" and "The Invaders"; the story "The Black Kiss" (printed

Grand Theatre, PoznaƄ

Grand Theatre, Poznań is a neoclassical opera house located in Poznań, Poland. It is named after famous Polish composer Stanisław Moniuszko. Designed by German architect Max Littmann, inaugurated in 1910 with The Magic Flute, the Grand Theatre in Poznań is a main opera stage in Greater Poland Voivodeship directed by Michał Znaniecki, its season runs from mid-September to mid-June and the company mounts an annual "Festival Verdi" in October and "E. T. A. Hoffmann Festival" in April with special guests; the façade of the building is a huge portico, built according to the rules of classical architecture of ancient Rome. Dozens of monumental steps are bordered by two sculptures: on the left, a woman riding a lion. At the top of the staircase stand six massive Ionic columns with a triangular tympanum surmounted by a Pegasus statue, a symbol of the building. To the east is the former restaurant pavilion and to the west is a separate entrance for the emperor; the interior consists of beautifully decorated halls and other rooms, crystal chandeliers, rich wall decorations.

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