Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
The Red Cossacks was a military formation of Bolsheviks and their puppet government of Ukraine. Red Cossacks was a collective for one of the biggest cavalry formations of the Workers-Peasant Red Army and was part of the Ukrainian and Southwestern fronts during the Russian Civil War and was stationed in the Ukrainian SSR; the Red Cossacks were the only military unit of Bolsheviks that contain some Ukrainian national characteristics. According to Vitaliy Primakov, the formation was created in protection of the Soviet government in Ukraine, liquidation of so-called "nationalistic and counter-revolutionary" Central Council of Ukraine and as an opposing force to the Central Council's armed forces, so called "Free Cossacks"; the creation of Red Cossacks was first declared on 10 January 1918 in Kharkiv by Vitaliy Primakov who participated in the Bolshevik coup-d'etat and was among those who "stormed" the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg. He participated against the Kerensky–Krasnov uprising; the formation of the military unit continued until 9 February 1918.
In the beginning after announcing the formation, the military unit was joined by soldiers of former 3rd battalion of 2nd Ukrainian Reserve Regiment who were disarmed by revolutionary detachments that arrived out of the Bolshevik Russia. The newly announced military unit included local Red guards of several Kharkiv factories such as Kharkiv Locomotive Factory, General Electric Company, Helfferich-Sade Association. With time the Red Cossacks detachments were established where was declared the Soviet power including Kharkiv Governorate, Poltava Governorate, Kiev Governorate; the formations were established voluntarily and composed out of workers and peasants predominantly Ukrainians, but contained other ethnic representatives. Sister of Yuriy Kotsiubynsky, Oksana was in charge of agitation and propaganda and chief editor of Red Cossack newspaper "To arms". On 2 February 1918 the People's Secretariat of Ukraine issued its decree about organization of People's Revolutionary and Socialist Army in Ukraine, the Red Cossacks.
At first in January 1918 the regiment as part of the Soviet 4th Revolutionary Army took part in advance against the troops loyal to Central Council of Ukraine and in fought against the advance of German and Ukrainian forces in March-April 1918. On 1 March 1918 soldiers of the 1st Horse Regiment of Red Cossacks attempted to rename their regiment to the 1st Workers-Peasants Socialist Regiment of the Red Army. After that the regiment was "cleansed" from non-Ukrainian element by Soviet government. During liberation of Ukraine from Bolsheviks, number of Red Cossacks sided with the Army of Ukrainian People's Republic after the 1918 Battle of Poltava. After being withdrawn out of Ukraine, in summer of 1918 it was reformed into the 1st Dnieper Partizan detachment that operated in so called "neutral zone", established along the Russia-Ukraine border. During the fall of 1918 it was reestablished as part of the 1st Ukrainian Soviet Division and the 2nd Ukrainian Soviet Division that fought against the Army of UNR.
As part of the Army Group of Kiev direction in May 1919 participated in suppression of Nikifor Grigoriev rebellion and in July–September 1919 fought against armies of Anton Denikin. In August 1919 the regiment was expanded into brigade, part of 12th and 14th armies of the Workers and Peasants Red Army. In October 1919 it expanded further into the 8th Cavalry Division of Red Cossacks which in November of same year conducted a raid across the Denikin's Army rears. In April 1920 battled in the Northern Taurida Governorate against the Pyotr Wrangel's troops. Soon after the Polish-Ukrainian union treaty of Warsaw in 1920, the division participated in the Polish-Soviet War. During that campaign it reached the city of Stryi, but during a retreat of the Red Army, it was encircled and destroyed at Zbruch River. Syla Mishchenko Bublyk brothers Vitaliy Primakov Rudolf Sivers Red Army Ukrainian–Soviet War 1st Cavalry Division Dubinskiy, I. Shevchuk, G. Chervonnoye kazachestvo. Kiev, 1977 Red avatars of Ukraine: military uniforms of the Primakov's eagles based on the book of Yaroslav Tynchenko "Red Cossacks.
1917–1925. Organization and uniform".. Red avatars of Ukraine: Forgotten stepson of the Revolution. Zdorov, A; the 1918 Red Cossacks appeared before the Red Army. Ukrayinska Pravda. 23 February 2011
Andriy Atanasovych Melnyk
Andriy Melnyk was a Ukrainian military and political leader. Melnyk was born near Drohobych, into a peasant family. Between 1912 and 1914 he studied at the Higher School of Agriculture in Vienna. With the outbreak of the First World War, Melnyk served as an officer in the Austro-Hungarian army as a volunteer commanding a company of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen. Due to his kind demeanor, he was referred to affectionately as "Lord Melnyk" by fellow Ukrainian and Austrian officers, who felt that he embodied the English concept of a gentleman, which at that time had been an ideal in Central Europe. Melnyk was taken prisoner by the Russians in 1916. In captivity, Melnyk became a close associate of Yevhen Konovalets and joined the Ukrainian independence movement. During the Soviet-Ukrainian War Melnyk supported Symon Petliura and was promoted to the rank of colonel in the Ukrainian People's Republic army. Together with Yevhen Konovalets Melnyk and several others founded the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists in 1929.
Between 1924 and 1928 Melnyk was imprisoned for terrorist activities by the Polish government. During the 1930s, his career was much quieter than that of his colleagues, he retired from politics, refrained from terrorist activities and worked as an engineer and as the director of forests on the huge estates of the Metropolitan of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, Andrey Sheptytsky. More friendly to the Church than any of his associates, Melnyk became the chairman of Orlo, the Galician Catholic youth organization, regarded as anti-Nationalist by many OUN members. After the assassination of OUN leader Konovalets in 1938, the principal OUN leadership abroad could not choose a leader from amongst themselves and therefore asked Melnyk to become leader of OUN in 1939, he was chosen by the leadership in part because of the hope for more moderate and pragmatic leadership and by the desire to repair strained ties with the Catholic Church. The group that had chosen Melnyk as their leader admired aspects of Benito Mussolini's fascism but condemned Nazism.
In 1940 a more radical faction of the OUN led by Stepan Bandera and based in Ukraine broke away from the OUN led by Melnyk in exile. The two rival organizations became known as Banderites. After 1938 Melnyk and Bandera were recruited into the Nazi Germany military intelligence Abwehr for espionage, counter-espionage and sabotage, their goal was to run diversion activities after Germany's attack on the Soviet Union. Melnik was given code name'Consul I'; this information is part of the testimony that Abwehr Colonel Erwin Stolze gave on 25 December 1945 and submitted to the Nuremberg trials, with a request to be admitted as evidence. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union he declared his own independent Ukrainian government in Rivne, competing with Bandera supporters for influence in western Ukraine. Melnyk's more conservative and moderate supporters enjoyed support against Bandera's radicals from both the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and German military authorities. However, his position was contradictory.
A conservative Catholic who maintained the officer's personal code of honor, Melnyk was at odds with aspects of the ideology of his own organization. His reluctance to assert dominance and engage in a ruthless pursuit of power disadvantaged him versus his younger and more violent rivals in the Bandera camp. Many of Melnyk's close associates were killed by Bandera's Ukrainian Insurgent Army between 1941 and 1944 and Bandera's movement came to dominate the Ukrainian nationalist political milieu in most of western Ukraine. In 1944 Melnyk was imprisoned by the Gestapo during a crackdown against the Ukrainian independence movement. After the war, Melnyk escaped to the West and lived in Luxembourg, West Germany, Canada, he headed a number of Ukrainian émigré organizations. He died in Clervaux, Luxembourg, at the age of 73. Buried at Bonnevoie cemetery, Luxembourg. In late 2006, the Lviv city administration announced the future transfer of the tombs of Andriy Melnyk, Yevhen Konovalets, Stepan Bandera and other key leaders of the OUN and UPA to a new area of Lychakivskiy Cemetery dedicated to the Ukrainian national liberation struggle.
However this has not been implemented in practice. History of Ukraine Stepan Bandera Andrii Melnyk biography in Encyclopaedia of Ukraine "The History we don't know. Or don't care to know?", Zerkalo nedeli, March 29, 2002, available online in English, in Ukrainian and in Russian
The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host or Zaporozhians were Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine. Today much of its territory is flooded by the waters of Kakhovka Reservoir; the Zaporozhian Sich grew in the 15th century from serfs fleeing the more controlled parts of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It became established as a well-respected political entity with a parliamentary system of government. During the course of the 16th, 17th and well into the 18th century, the Zaporozhian Cossacks became a strong political and military force that challenged the authority of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Tsardom of Russia, the Crimean Khanate; the Host went through a series of conflicts and alliances involving the three powers, including supporting an uprising in the 18th century. Their leader signed a treaty with the Russians; this group was forcibly disbanded in the late 18th century by the Russian Empire, with most of the population relocated to the Kuban region in the South edge of the Russian Empire.
The Cossacks served a valuable role of conquering the Caucasian tribes and in return enjoyed considerable freedom granted by the Tsars. The name Zaporozhtsi comes from the location of their fortress, the Sich, in Zaporozhia, the ‘land beyond the rapids’, it is not clear. There are signs and stories of similar people living in the steppes as early as the 12th century AD. At that time they were not called Cossacks, since cossack is a Turkish word meaning a "free man." The steppes to the north of the Black Sea were inhabited by nomadic tribes such as the Cumans and Khazars. The role of these tribes in the ethnogenesis of the Cossacks is disputed, although Cossack sources claimed Khazar origin. There were groups of people who fled into these wild steppes from the cultivated lands of Kievan Rus' in order to escape oppression or criminal pursuit, their lifestyle resembled that of the people now called Cossacks. They raiding the Asiatic tribes for horses and food. In the 16th century, a great organizer, Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, a Ukrainian noble, united these different groups into a strong military organization.
Zaporozhian Cossacks had various social and ethnic origins but were predominantly made up of escaped serfs who preferred the dangerous freedom of the wild steppes, rather than life under the rule of Polish aristocrats. However, lesser noblemen and Tatars from Crimea became part of the Cossack host, they had to accept Orthodox Christianity as their religion, adopt its rituals and prayers. The nomadic hypothesis was that the Cossacks came from one or more nomadic peoples who at different times lived in the territory of the Northern Black Sea. According to this hypothesis the Cossacks' ancestors were the Scythians, Khazars, Circassians and others; the nomadic hypothesis of the origin of the Cossacks was formed under the influence of the Polish historical school of the 16th-17th centuries and was connected with the theory of the Sarmatian origin of the gentry. According to the tradition of deriving the origin of the state or people from a certain people of antiquity, the Cossack chroniclers of the 18th century advocated the Khazar origin of the Cossacks.
With the expansion of the source base and the formation of historical science, nomadic hypotheses were rejected by official historiography. For the first time, Alexander Rigelman pointed out the imperfection of the hypothesis. In the 20th century, the Russian scientist Gumilyov was an apologist for the Polovtsian origin of the Cossacks. In the XXI century; this hypothesis - concerning Cossacks and Kubans - has been refuted by a number of genetic studies. In the 16th century, with the dominance of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth extending south, the Zaporozhian Cossacks were if tentatively, regarded by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as their subjects. Registered Cossacks were a part of the Commonwealth army until 1699. Around the end of the 16th century, relations between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, which were not cordial to begin with, were further strained by increasing Cossack aggression. From the second part of the 16th century, the Cossacks started raiding Ottoman territories.
The Polish government could not control the fiercely independent Cossacks but, since they were nominally subjects of the Commonwealth, it was held responsible for raids by their victims. Reciprocally, the Tatars living under the Ottoman rule launched raids in the Commonwealth in the sparsely inhabited south-east territories of the Ukraine. Cossacks, were raiding wealthy merchant port cities in the heart of the Ottoman Empire, which were just two days away by boat from the mouth of the Dnieper River. By 1615 and 1625, Cossacks had managed to raze townships on the outskirts of Constantinople, forcing the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV to flee his palace, his nephew, Sultan Mehmed IV, fared little better as the recipient of the legendary Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, a ribald response to Mehmed's insistence that the Cossacks submit to his authority. Consecutive treaties between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth called for both parties to
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and partisan formation. During World War II, it was engaged in guerrilla warfare against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, the Polish Underground State and Communist Poland, its ultimate purpose was an independent and unified Ukrainian state. The insurgent army arose out of separate militant formations of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists—Bandera faction, other militant national-patriotic formations, some former defectors of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, mobilization of local populations and others; the political leadership of the army belonged to the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists—Bandera. It was the primary perpetrator of the ethnic cleansing of Poles in Eastern Galicia, its official date of creation is day of the Intercession of the Theotokos feast. The Ukrainian People's Revolutionary Army at the period from December 1941 till July 1943 has the same name; the OUN's stated immediate goal was the re-establishment of a united, quasi-independent Nazi-aligned, mono-ethnic national state on the territory that would include parts of modern day Russia and Belarus.
Violence was accepted as a political tool against foreign as well as domestic enemies of their cause, to be achieved by a national revolution led by a dictatorship that would drive out what they considered to be occupying powers and set up a government representing all regions and social groups. The organization developed into a guerrilla army. In 1943, the UPA was controlled by the OUN and included people of various political and ideological convictions. Furthermore, it needed the support of the broad masses against the Soviets. Much of the nationalist ideology, including the concept of dictatorship, did not appeal to former Soviet citizens who had experienced the dictatorship of the Communist Party. Hence, a revision of the OUN ideology and political program was imperative. At its Third Extraordinary Grand Assembly on 21–25 August 1943, the OUN condemned "internationalist and fascist national-socialist programs and political concepts" as well as "Russian-Bolshevik communism" and proposed a "system of free peoples and independent states the single best solution to the problem of world order."
Its social program did not differ from earlier ones, but it emphasized a wide range of social services, worker participation in management, a mixed economy, choice of profession and workplace, free trade unions. The OUN affirmed that it was fighting for freedom of the press and thought, its earlier nationality policy, encapsulated in the slogan "Ukraine for Ukrainians". During its existence, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army fought against the Poles and the Soviets as their primary opponents, although the organization fought against the Germans starting from February 1943 – with many cases of collaboration with the German forces in the fight against Soviet partisan units. From late spring 1944, the UPA and Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists-B —faced with Soviet advances—also cooperated with German forces against the Soviets and Poles in the hope of creating an independent Ukrainian state; the OUN played a substantial role in the ethnic cleansing of the Polish population of Volhynia and East Galicia, preventing the deportation of the Ukrainians in southeastern Poland.
After the end of World War II, the Polish communist army—the People's Army of Poland—fought extensively against the UPA. The UPA remained active and fought against the People's Republic of Poland until 1947, against the Soviet Union until 1949, it was strong in the Carpathian Mountains, the entirety of Galicia and in Volhynia—in modern Western Ukraine. By the late 1940s, the mortality rate for Soviet troops fighting Ukrainian insurgents in Western Ukraine was higher than the mortality rate for Soviet troops during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Between February 1943 and May 1945, unlike most resistance movements, it had no significant foreign support, its growth and strength were a reflection of the popularity it enjoyed among the people of Western Ukraine. Outside of Western Ukraine, support was not significant, the majority of the Soviet Ukrainian population considered, at times still viewed, the OUN/UPA to have been collaborators with the Germans; the UPA's command structure overlapped with that of the underground nationalist political party, the OUN, in a sophisticated centralized network.
The UPA was responsible for military operations while the OUN was in charge of administrative duties. The six main departments were military, security service, mobilization and the Ukrainian Red Cross. Despite the division between the UPA and the OUN, there was overlap between their posts and the local OUN and UPA leaders were the same person. Organizational methods were borrowed and adapted from the German and Soviet military, while UPA units based their training on a modified Red Army field unit manual; the General Staff, formed at the end of 1943 consisted of operations, training, logistics and political education departments. UPA's largest units, consisting of 500-700 soldiers, were equivalent to battalions in a regular army, its smallest units, with eight to ten soldiers, were equivalent to squads, and in Vo
The Cossack Hetmanate known as the Zaporizhian Host was a Ukrainian Cossack host in Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764. The Hetmanate was founded by the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Bohdan Khmelnytsky during the Uprising of 1648–57. Establishment of vassal relations with the Tsardom of Russia in the Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1654 is considered a benchmark of the Cossack Hetmanate in Soviet and Russian historiography; the second Pereyaslav Council in 1659 further restricted the independence of the Hetmanate, from the Moscow side there were attempts to declare agreements reached with Yuri Khmelnitsky in 1659 as nothing more than the "former Bohdan's agreements" of 1654. The 1667 Treaty of Andrusovo – conducted without any representation from the Cossack Hetmanate – established borders between the Polish and Russian states, dividing the Hetmanate in half along the Dnieper and putting the Zaporizhian Sich under a formal joint Russian-Polish administration. After a failed attempt to break the union with Russia by Ivan Mazepa in 1708, the whole area was included into the Government of Kiev and Cossack autonomy was restricted.
Catherine II of Russia abolished the institute of the Hetman in 1764, in 1764-1781 the Cossack Hetmanate was incorporated as the Little Russia Governorate headed by Pyotr Rumyantsev, with the last remnants of the Hetmanate's administrative system abolished in 1781. The official name of the Cossack Hetmanate was Zaporizhian Host; the historiographic term Hetmanate was coined in the late 19th century, deriving from the word hetman, the title of the general of the Zaporizhian Army. Zaporizhian Host means an "army of the Zaporizhia", where the Zaporizhia is a historical and geographic region in Southern Ukraine centered at the Zaporizhian Sich as well as a general name of Ukrainian Cossacks as a political and military organization. Inhabitants of the Cossack Hetmanate referred to the place in Ukrainian as "Ukraine" or "Vkraine". In Muscovite diplomatic correspondence it was called the Little Russia; the Cossack Hetmanate was called the country of Ukraine by the Ottoman Empire. The founder of the Hetmanate, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, declared himself as the ruler of the Ruthenian state to the Polish representative Adam Kysil in February 1649.
His contemporary Metropolitan Sylvestr Kosiv recognized him as "the leader and the commander of our land". In his letter to Constantin Șerban he referred to himself as Clementiae divinae Generalis Dux Exercituum Zaporoviensium. After many successful military campaigns against the Poles, Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky made a triumphant entry into Kiev on Christmas 1648 where he was hailed liberator of the people from Polish captivity. In February 1649, during negotiations in Pereiaslav with a Polish delegation, Khmelnytsky had made it clear to the Poles that he wanted to be the Hetman of Ruthenia that could stretch all the way to Chelm and Halych, build with the Tatar's help, he warned them about his intention to resume his military campaign. When the returned delegation informed John II Casimir of Khmelnytsky's new campaign the king called for all szlachta volunteer army, while sending the regular troops against cossacks to southern Volhynia. However, after obtaining an intelligence report of the superior cossack forces, the Polish troops retreated to Zbarazh to set a defense.
The forces of Jeremi Wiśniowiecki reinforced the Zbarazh defenders while he took the lead of all Polish forces. Khmelnytsky besieged the city wearing down through series of random attacks and firing at it; the king while rushing to help Wiśniowiecki was ambushed with his newly gathered forces. Khmelnytsky leaving part of his army with Ivan Cherniata near Zbarazh moved together with İslâm III Giray to intercept the Polish reinforcements and block their way at a river crossing near Zboriv. Caught by some degree of surprise, John Casimir started negotiations with the Tatar's khan. With the khan on his side, they forced Khmelnytsky to start peace negotiations. Khmelnytsky signed the Treaty of Zboriv in August 1649, with a result somewhat less than the Cossack leader had anticipated from his campaign; as ruler of the Hetmanate, Khmelnytsky engaged in state-building across multiple spheres: in the military, finance and culture. He invested the Zaporozhian Host under the leadership of its hetman with supreme power in the new Ruthenian state, he unified all the spheres of Ukrainian society under his authority.
This would involve building a government system and a developed military and civilian administration out of Cossack officers and Ruthenian nobles, as well as the establishment of an elite within the Cossack Hetman state. The Hetmanate used Polish currency, Polish as an administrative language and a language of command. However, after the Truce of Andrusovo in 1667, the "simple language", or the spoken vernacular language of Ukraine, began to be written down and used in official documents of the Cossack Hetmanate; this is known as the modern Ukrainian language. After the Crimean Tatars betrayed the Cossacks for the third time in 1653, Khmelnytsky realized he could no longer rely on Ottoman support against Poland, he was forced to turn to Tsardom of Russia for help. Final attempts to negotiate took place in January 1654 in the town of Pereyaslav between Khmelnytsky with Cossack leaders and the ambassador from Tsar, Vasiliy Buturlin; the treaty was co
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians