The diaeresis and the umlaut are two homoglyphic diacritical marks that consist of two dots placed over a letter a vowel. When that letter is an i or a j, the diacritic replaces the tittle: ï; the diaeresis and the umlaut are diacritics marking two distinct phonological phenomena. The diaeresis represents the phenomenon known as diaeresis or hiatus in which a vowel letter is pronounced separately from an adjacent vowel and not as part of a digraph or diphthong; the umlaut, in contrast, indicates a sound shift. These two diacritics originated separately. In modern computer systems using Unicode, the umlaut and diaeresis diacritics are identically encoded, e.g. U+00E4 ä LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS represents both a-umlaut and a-diaeresis; the same symbol is used as a diacritic in other cases, distinct from both diaeresis and umlaut. For example, in Albanian and Tagalog ë represents a schwa; the word diaeresis is from Greek diaíresis, meaning "division", "separation", or "distinction". The word trema, used in French linguistics and classical scholarship, is from the Greek trē̂ma and means a "perforation", "orifice", or "pip", thus describing the form of the diacritic rather than its function.
Umlaut is the German name of both the Germanic umlaut, a sound-law known as i-mutation, the corresponding diacritic. The diaeresis indicates that two adjoining letters that would form a digraph and be pronounced as one are instead to be read as separate vowels in two syllables; the diaeresis indicates. For example, in the spelling coöperate, the diaeresis reminds the reader that the word has four syllables co-op-er-ate, not three, *coop-er-ate. In British English this usage has been considered obsolete for many years, in US English, although it persisted for longer, it is now considered archaic as well, it is still used by the US magazine The New Yorker. In English language texts it is most familiar in the spellings naïve, Noël, Chloë, is used in the name of the island Teän. Languages such as Dutch, French and Spanish make regular use of the diaeresis. Two dots, called a trema, were used in the Hellenistic period on the letters ι and υ, most at the beginning of a word, as in ϊδων, ϋιος, ϋβριν, to separate them from a preceding vowel, as writing was scriptio continua, where spacing was not yet used as a word divider.
However, it was used to indicate that a vowel formed its own syllable, as in ηϋ and Αϊδι. In Modern Greek, αϊ and οϊ represent the diphthongs /ai̯/ and /oi̯/, εϊ the disyllabic sequence /e.i/, whereas αι, οι, ει transcribe the simple vowels /e/, /i/, /i/. The diacritic can be the only one on a vowel, as in ακαδημαϊκός akadimaïkos "academic", or in combination with an acute accent, as in πρωτεΐνη proteïni "protein". Ÿ is sometimes used in transcribed Greek, where it represents the Greek letter υ in hiatus with α. For example, it can be seen in the transcription Artaÿctes of the Persian name Ἀρταΰκτης at the end of Herodotus, or the name of Mount Taÿgetus on the southern Peloponnesus peninsula, which in modern Greek is spelled Ταΰγετος; the diaeresis was borrowed for this purpose in several languages of western and southern Europe, among them Occitan, French, Dutch and English. When a vowel in Greek was stressed, it did not assimilate to a preceding vowel but remained as a separate syllable; such vowels were marked with an accent such as the acute, a tradition, adopted by other languages, such as Spanish and Portuguese.
For example, the Portuguese words saia "skirt" and the imperfect saía " used to leave" differ in that the sequence /ai/ forms a diphthong in the former, but is a hiatus in the latter. In Catalan, the digraphs ai, ei, oi, au, eu, iu are read as diphthongs. To indicate exceptions to this rule, a diaeresis mark is placed on the second vowel: without this the words raïm and diürn would be read * and *, respectively; the Occitan use of diaeresis is similar to that of Catalan: ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou are diphthongs consisting of one syllable but aï, eï, oï, aü, eü, oü are groups consisting of two distinct syllables. In Welsh, where the diaeresis appears, it is on the stressed vowel, this is most on the first of the two adjacent vowels, it is used on the first of two vowels that would otherwise form a diphthong and on the first of three vowels to separate it from a following diphthong: crëwyd is pronounced rather than. In Dutch, spellings such as coëfficiënt are necessary because the digraphs oe and ie represent the simple vowels and, respectively.
However, hyphenation is now preferred for compound words. In German, diaeresis occurs in a few proper names, such as Bernhard Hoëcker. In Galician, diaeresis is employed to indicate hiatus in the first and second persons of the plural of the imperfect tense of verbs ended in -aer, -oer, -aír and -oír; this stems from the fact that an unstressed -i- is left betwe
In written Latin, the apex is a mark with the shape of an acute accent, placed over vowels to indicate that they are long. The shape and length of the apex can vary, sometimes within a single inscription. While all apices consist of a line sloping up to the right, the line can be more or less curved, varies in length from less than half the height of a letter to more than the height of a letter. Sometimes, it is adorned at the top with a distinct hook. Rather than being centered over the vowel it modifies, the apex is considerably displaced to the right; the apex developed into the acute accent, still used to mark vowel length in some languages, Czech, Slovak and Irish, for the long vowels of Icelandic. In the 17th century, it was adapted to mark final nasalization in the early Vietnamese alphabet. Although hardly known by most modern Latinists, the use of the sign was quite widespread during classical and postclassical times; the reason why it so passes unnoticed lies in its smallish size and thinner nature in comparison with the lines that compose the letter on which it stands.
Yet the more careful observer will soon start to notice apices in the exhibits of any museum, not only in many of the more formal epigraphic inscriptions, but in handwritten palaeographic documents. However, otherwise punctilious transcriptions of the material customarily overlook this diacritic. An apex is not used with the letter i. Other expedients, like a reduplication of the vowels, are attested in archaic epigraphy, its use is recommended by the best grammarians, like Quintilian, who says that writing the apex is necessary when a difference of quantity in a vowel can produce a different meaning in a word, as in malus and málus or liber and líber or rosa and rosá. In modern Latin orthography, long vowels are sometimes marked by a macron, a sign that had always been used, still is, to mark metrically long syllables. To confuse matters further, the acute accent is sometimes used in Latin to mark stressed syllables, as in Spanish, when the macron is not used; the apex is contrasted with another ancient Latin diacritic, the sicilicus, said to have been used above consonants to denote that they should be pronounced double.
However, in his article Apex and Sicilicus, Revilo P. Oliver argues that they are one and the same sign, a geminationis nota, used over any letter to indicate that the letter should be read twice; the distinction between a sicilicus, used above consonants and an apex, applied to vowels is completely artificial: “There is no example of this mark that can be distinguished from an apex by any criterion other than its presence above a letter, not a long vowel.” "No ancient source says explicitly. The presence of this sign, whatever its name, over a consonant is scarcely attested. If Revilo P. Oliver is right, the apex as a sign denoting vowel length would have its origin in the time when long vowels were written double; when long vowels ceased to be written twice, the usage of the sicilicus above vowels evidently remained after it fell out of use above consonants, the apex, as it was now called, was redefined as a sign denoting the phonematic feature of vowel length, rather than as a purely orthographic shorthand.
However, Oliver's view that the two marks were identical has been challenged. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Vietnamese alphabet incorporated both apex marks; the acute indicates rising tone. In his 1651 Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, Alexandre de Rhodes makes it clear that the apex is a distinct diacritic: The third sign is the apex, which in this language is necessary because of a difference in the ending, which the apex makes distinct from the ending that m or n makes, with a meaning diverse in words in which it is employed. However, this sign, namely the apex, only affects o᷄ and u᷄, at the end of a word, as ao᷄ "bee", ou᷄ "grandfather" or "lord", it is pronounced, such that neither the lips touch together nor the tongue touches the palate. The apex appears atop ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩, less ⟨ơ⟩; as with other accent marks, a tone mark can appear atop the apex. According to canon law historian Roland Jacques, the apex indicated a final labial-velar nasal /ŋ͡m/, an allophone of /ŋ/, peculiar to the Hanoi dialect to the present day.
The apex fell out of use during the mid–18th century, being unified with ⟨-ng⟩, in a major simplification of the orthography, though the Vietnamese Jesuit Philipphê Bỉnh continued to use the old orthography into the early 19th century. In Pierre Pigneau de Behaine and Jean-Louis Taberd's 1838 Dictionarium Anamitico-Latinum, the words ao᷄ and ou᷄ became ong and ông, respectively; the Middle Vietnamese apex is known as dấu dấu lưỡi câu in modern Vietnamese. Though it has no official Unicode representation, one possible approximation is U+1DC4 ◌᷄ COMBINING MACRON-ACUTE; the apex is mistaken for a tilde in modern reproductions of early Vietnamese writing. Acute accent Latin spelling
The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam ⟨إِعْجَام⟩ - i‘jām, consonant pointing and tashkil ⟨تَشْكِيل⟩ - tashkīl, supplementary diacritics. The latter include the ḥarakāt ⟨حَرَكَات⟩ vowel marks - singular: ḥarakah ⟨حَرَكَة⟩; the Arabic script is an impure abjad, where short consonants and long vowels are represented by letters but short vowels and consonant length are not indicated in writing. Tashkīl is optional to consonant length. Modern Arabic is always written with the i‘jām - consonant pointing, but only religious texts, children's books and works for learners are written with the full tashkīl - vowel guides and consonant length; the literal meaning of tashkīl is'forming'. As the normal Arabic text does not provide enough information about the correct pronunciation, the main purpose of tashkīl is to provide a phonetic guide or a phonetic aid, it serves the same purpose as furigana in Japanese or pinyin or zhuyin in Mandarin Chinese for children who are learning to read or foreign learners.
The bulk of Arabic script is written without ḥarakāt. However, they are used in texts that demand strict adherence to exact wording; this is true of the Qur'an ⟨الْقُرْآن⟩ and poetry. It is quite common to add ḥarakāt to hadiths ⟨الْحَدِيث⟩ and the Bible. Another use is in children's literature. Moreover, ḥarakāt are used in ordinary texts in individual words when an ambiguity of pronunciation cannot be resolved from context alone. Arabic dictionaries with vowel marks provide information about the correct pronunciation to both native and foreign Arabic speakers. In art and calligraphy, ḥarakāt might be used because their writing is considered aesthetically pleasing. An example of a vocalised Arabic from the Basmala: بِسْمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحْمٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِBismi Llāhi r-Raḥmāni r-RaḥīmiIn the Name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful... Some Arabic textbooks for foreigners now use ḥarakāt as a phonetic guide to make learning reading Arabic easier; the other method used in textbooks is phonetic romanisation of unvocalised texts.
Vocalised Arabic texts are sought after by learners of Arabic. Some online bilingual dictionaries provide ḥarakāt as a phonetic guide to English dictionaries providing transcription; the ḥarakāt, which means'motions', are the short vowel marks. There is some ambiguity as to which tashkīl are ḥarakāt; the fatḥah ⟨فَتْحَة⟩ is a small diagonal line placed above a letter, represents a short /a/. The word fatḥah itself means opening and refers to the opening of the mouth when producing an /a/. For example, with dāl: ⟨دَ⟩ /da/; when a fatḥah is placed before a plain letter ⟨ا⟩, it represents a long /aː/. For example: ⟨دَا⟩ /daː/; the fatḥah is not written in such cases. When a fathah placed before the letter ⟨ﻱ⟩, it creates an /aj/. For example: ⟨دِ⟩ /di/; when a kasrah is placed before a plain letter ⟨ﻱ⟩, it represents a long /iː/. For example: ⟨دِي⟩ /diː/; the kasrah is not written in such cases, but if yā’ is pronounced as a diphthong /aj/, fatḥah should be written on the preceding consonant to avoid mispronunciation.
The word kasrah means'breaking'. The ḍammah ⟨ضَمَّة⟩ is a small curl-like diacritic placed above a letter to represent a short /u/ and its allophones. For example: ⟨دُ⟩ /du/; when a ḍammah is placed before a plain letter ⟨و⟩, it represents a long /uː/. For example: ⟨دُو⟩ /duː/; the ḍammah is not written in such cases, but if wāw is pronounced as a diphthong /aw/, fatḥah should be written on the preceding consonant to avoid mispronunciation. The superscript alif ⟨أَلِف خَنْجَرِيَّة⟩, is written as short vertical stroke on top of a consonant, it indicates a long /aː/ sound for which alif is not written. For example: ⟨هَٰذَا⟩ or ⟨رَحْمَٰن⟩; the dagger alif occurs in only a few words. Most keyboards do not have dagger alif; the word Allah ⟨الله⟩ is produced automatically by entering alif lām lām hāʾ. The word consists of alif + ligature of doubled lām with a dagger alif above lām; the maddah ⟨مَدَّة⟩ is a tilde-shaped diacritic, which can appear on top of an alif and indicates a glottal stop /ʔ/ followed by a long /aː/.
In theory, the same sequence /ʔaː/ could be represented by two alifs, as in *⟨أَا⟩, where a hamza above the first alif represents the /ʔ/ while the second alif represents the /aː/. However, consecutive alifs are never used in the Arabic orthography. Instead, this sequence must always be written as a single alif with a maddah above it, the combination known as an alif maddah. For example: ⟨قُرْآن⟩ /qurˈʔaːn/; the waṣlah ⟨وَصْلَة⟩, alif waṣlah ⟨أَلِف وَصْلَة⟩ or hamzat waṣl ⟨هَمْزَة وَصْل⟩ looks like a small letter ṣād on top of an alif ⟨ٱ⟩. It means. For
The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin and Greek scripts, used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus "bent around"—a translation of the Greek περισπωμένη; the circumflex in the Latin script is chevron-shaped, while the Greek circumflex may be displayed either like a tilde or like an inverted breve. In English the circumflex, like other diacritics, is sometimes retained on loanwords that used it in the original language; the diacritic is used in mathematics, where it is called a hat or roof or house. The circumflex has its origins in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it marked long vowels that were pronounced with high and falling pitch. In a similar vein, the circumflex is today used to mark tone contour in the International Phonetic Alphabet; the shape of the circumflex was a combination of the acute and grave accents, as it marked a syllable contracted from two vowels: an acute-accented vowel and a non-accented vowel.
A variant similar to the tilde was used. The term "circumflex" is used to describe similar tonal accents that result from combining two vowels in related languages such as Sanskrit and Latin. Since Modern Greek has a stress accent instead of a pitch accent, the circumflex has been replaced with an acute accent in the modern monotonic orthography; the circumflex accent marks a long vowel in the transliteration of several languages. In Afrikaans, the circumflex marks a vowel with a lengthened pronunciation arising from compensatory lengthening due to the loss of ⟨g⟩ from the original Dutch form. Examples of circumflex use in Afrikaans are sê "to say", wêreld "world", môre "tomorrow", brûe "bridges". Akkadian. In the transliteration of this language, the circumflex indicates a long vowel resulting from an aleph contraction; the PDA orthography for Domari uses circumflex-bearing vowels for length. In Emilian, â î û are used to represent French. In some varieties, such as in Belgian French, Swiss French and Acadian French, vowels with a circumflex are long: fête is longer than faite.
This length compensates for a deleted consonant s. Standard Friulian. Japanese. In the Kunrei-shiki and Nihon-shiki systems of romanization, sometimes the Hepburn system, the circumflex is used as a replacement for the macron. Jèrriais. In Kurmanji Kurdish, ⟨ê î û⟩ are used to represent /eː iː uː/. Ligurian language. In Luxembourgish m̂ n̂ can be used to indicate nasalisation of a vowel; the circumflex can be over the vowel to indicate nasalisation. In either case, the circumflex is rare. Classical Malay In Serbo-Croatian the circumflex can be used to distinguish homographs, it is called the "genitive sign" or "length sign". Examples include sam "am" versus sâm "alone". For example, the phrase "I am alone" may be written Ja sam sâm to improve clarity. Another example: da "yes", dâ "gives". Turkish. According to Turkish Language Association orthography, düzeltme işareti "correction mark" over a, i and u marks a long vowel to disambiguate similar words. For example, compare ama "but" and âmâ "blind", şura'that place, there' and şûra "council".
In general, circumflexes occur only in Arabic and Persian loanwords as vowel length in early Turkish was not phonemic. However, this standard was never applied consistently and by the early 21st century many publications had stopped using circumflexes entirely. Welsh; the circumflex is known as hirnod "long sign" or acen grom "crooked accent", but more and colloquially as to bach "little roof". It lengthens a stressed vowel, is used to differentiate between homographs. In Adûnaic, the Black Speech, Khuzdul, constructed languages of J. R. R. Tolkien, all long vowels are transcribed with the circumflex. In Sindarin, another of Tolkien's languages, long vowels in polysyllabic words take the acute, but a circumflex in monosyllables, to mark a non-phonemic extra lengthening; the circumflex accent marks the stressed vowel of a word in some languages: Portuguese â, ê, ô are stressed “closed” vowels, opposed to their open counterparts á, é, ó. Welsh: the circumflex, due to its function as a disambiguating lengthening sign, is used in polysyllabic words with word-final long vowels.
The circumflex thus indicates the stressed syllable, since in Welsh, non-stressed vowels may not be long. This happens notably where the singular ends in an a, to, e.g. singular camera, opera, sinema → plural camerâu, dramâu, operâu, sinemâu. In Bamanankan, it marks a falling tone, as opposed to a háček which signifies that on this syllable, the tone is rising. In Breton, it is used on an e to show. In Bulgarian, the sound represented in Bulgarian by the Cyrillic letter ъ is transliterated as â in systems used prior to 1989. Although called a schwa, it is more described as a mid back unrounded vowel /ɤ/. Unlike English or French, but similar to Romanian and Afrikaans, it can be stressed. In Pinyin romanized Mandarin Chinese, ê is used to represent the sound /ɛ/ in isolation, which occurs sometimes as an exclamation. In French, the letter ê is pronounced open, like è. In the usual pronunci
Double acute accent
The double acute accent is a diacritic mark of the Latin script. It is used in written Hungarian, is sometimes referred to by typographers as Hungarumlaut; the signs formed with a regular umlaut are letters in their own right in the Hungarian alphabet—for instance, they are separate letters for the purpose of collation. Letters with the double acute, are considered variants of their equivalents with the umlaut, being thought of as having both an umlaut and an acute accent. Length marks first appeared in Hungarian orthography in the 15th-century Hussite Bible. Only á and é were marked, since they are different in quality as well as length. Í, ó, ú were marked as well. In the 18th century, before Hungarian orthography became fixed, u and o with umlaut + acute were used in some printed documents. 19th century typographers introduced the double acute as a more aesthetic solution. In Hungarian, the double acute is thought of as the letter having both an umlaut and an acute accent. Standard Hungarian has 14 vowels in a symmetrical system: seven short vowels and seven long ones, which are written with an acute accent in the case of á, é, í, ó, ú, with the double acute in the case of ő, ű.
Vowel length has phonemic significance in Hungarian, that is, it distinguishes different words and grammatical forms. At the beginning of the 20th century, the letter A̋ a̋ was sometimes used in Slovak as a long variant of the short vowel Ä ä, representing the vowel /æː/ in dialect or in some loanwords. Other long vowels are written with a single acute accent; the letter is still used for this purpose in Slovak phonetic transcription systems. In handwriting in German and Swedish, the umlaut is sometimes written to a double acute; the Chuvash language written in the Cyrillic script uses a double-acute Ӳ, ӳ /y/ as a front counterpart of Cyrillic letter У, у /u/ after the analogy of handwriting in Latin script languages. In other minority languages of Russia, the umlauted form Ӱ is used instead. Classical Danish handwriting uses "ó" for "ø", which becomes a problem when writing Faroese in the same tradition, as "ó" is a part of the Faroese alphabet, thus ő is sometimes used for ø in Faroese. The IPA and many other phonetic alphabets use two systems to indicate tone: a diacritic system and an adscript system.
In the diacritic system, the double acute represents an extra high tone. One may encounter this use as a tone sign in some IPA-derived orthographies of minority languages, such as in the North American Native Tanacross. In line with the IPA usage it denotes the extra-high tone. O and U with double acute accents are supported in the Code page 852, ISO 8859-2 and Unicode character sets; some of the box drawing characters of the original DOS code page 437 were sacrificed in order to put in more accented letters. In ISO 8859-2 Ő, ő, Ű, ű take the place of some similar looking letters of ISO 8859-1. All occurrences of "double acute" in character names in the Unicode 9.0 standard: In LaTeX, the double acute accent is typeset with the \H command. For example, the name Paul Erdős would be typeset as In modern X11 systems, the double acute can be typed by pressing the Compose key followed by = and desired letter. Acute accent Double grave accent Umlaut/Diaeresis Hungarian alphabet Diacritics Project—All you need to design a font with correct accents
The acute accent is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. An early precursor of the acute accent was the apex, used in Latin inscriptions to mark long vowels; the acute accent was first used in the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, where it indicated a syllable with a high pitch. In Modern Greek, a stress accent has replaced the pitch accent, the acute marks the stressed syllable of a word; the Greek name of the accented syllable was and is ὀξεῖα "sharp" or "high", calqued into Latin as acūta "sharpened". The acute accent marks the stressed vowel of a word in several languages: Blackfoot uses acute accents to show the place of stress in a word: soyópokistsi "leaves". Bulgarian: stress, variable in Bulgarian, is not indicated in Bulgarian except in dictionaries and sometimes in homonyms that are distinguished only by stress. However, Bulgarian uses the grave accent to mark the vowel in a stressed syllable, unlike Russian, which uses the acute accent.
Catalan uses it in stressed vowels: é, í, ó, ú. Dutch uses it to mark a more closed vowel if it is not clear from context. Sometimes, it is used for disambiguation, as in één – een, meaning "one" and "a". Galician Hopi has acute to mark a higher tone. Italian The accent is used to indicate the stress in a word, or whether the vowel is "open" or "wide", or "closed", or "narrow". For example, pèsca "peach" and pésca "fishing". Lakota. For example, kákhi "in that direction" but kakhí "take something to someone back there". Leonese uses it for marking disambiguation. Modern Greek marks the stressed vowel of every polysyllabic word: ά, έ, ή, ί, ό, ύ, ώ. Navajo where the acute marks a higher tone. Norwegian and Danish use the acute accent to indicate that a terminal syllable with the e is stressed and is omitted if it does not change the meaning: armen means "the arm" while armén means "the army". Stress-related are the different spellings of the words en/én and et/ét; the acute points out that there is one and only one of the object, which derives from the obsolete spelling een and eet.
Some loanwords from French, are written with the acute accent, such as Norwegian and Swedish kafé and Danish café. Occitan Portuguese: á, é, í, ó, ú, it may indicate height. Russian. Stress is irregular in Russian, in reference and teaching materials, stress is indicated by an acute accent above the stressed vowel; the acute accent can be used both sometimes in the romanised text. Spanish marks stressed syllables in words, it is used to distinguish homophones such as el and él. Ukrainian: marks the stress, but in regular typography is only used when it can help to distinguish between homographs: за́мок vs. замо́к. Used in dictionaries and some children books. Welsh: word stress falls on the penultimate syllable, but one way of indicating stress on a final vowel is by the use of the acute accent. In the Welsh orthography, it can be on any vowel: á, é, í, ó, ú, ẃ, or ý. Examples: casáu "to hate", sigarét "cigarette", ymbarél "umbrella"; the acute accent marks. To mark high vowels: Bislama; the acute is used only on é, but only in one of the two orthographies.
It distinguishes é from e. The orthography after 1995, does not distinguish these sounds. Catalan; the acute marks the quality of the vowels é, ó. French; the acute is used only on é. It is known as accent aigu, in contrast to the accent grave, the accent sloped the other way, it distinguishes é from è, ê, e. Unlike other Romance languages, the accent marks do not imply stress in French. Italian; the acute accent is compulsory only in words of more than one syllable stressed on their final vowel. Words ending in stressed -o are never marked with an acute accent, but with a grave accent. Therefore, only é and è are contrasted in words ending in -ché, such as perché; the symbol ó can be used in the body of a word for disambiguation, for instance between bótte and bòtte, though this is not mandatory: in fact standard Italian keyboards lack a dedicated ó key. Occitan; the acute marks the quality of the vowels é, ó and á. Scottish Gaelic uses/used a system in which é is contrasted with è and ó with ò. Both the grave and acute indicate length.
Besides, á appears in the words á, ám and ás in order to distinguish them from a, am and as respectively. The other vowels (i and