Detective Comics is an American comic book series published by DC Comics. The first volume, published from 1937 to 2011, is best known for introducing the superhero Batman in Detective Comics #27. A second series of the same title was launched in the fall of 2011 but in 2016 reverted to the original volume numbering; the series is the source of its publishing company's name, and—along with Action Comics, the series that launched with the debut of Superman—one of the medium's signature series. The series published 881 issues between 1937 and 2011 and is the longest continuously published comic book in the United States. Detective Comics was the final publication of the entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson, whose comics company, National Allied Publications, would evolve into DC Comics, one of the world's two largest comic book publishers, though long after its founder had left it. Wheeler-Nicholson's first two titles were the landmark New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1, colloquially called New Fun Comics #1 and the first such early comic book to contain all-original content, rather than a mix of newspaper comic strips and comic-strip-style new material.
His second effort, New Comics #1, would be retitled twice to become Adventure Comics, another seminal series that ran for decades until issue #503 in 1983, was revived in 2009. The third and final title published under his aegis would be Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936, but premiering three months with a March 1937 cover date. Wheeler-Nicholson was in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld, as well a pulp-magazine publisher and a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News. Wheeler-Nicholson took Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1 through the newly formed Detective Comics, Inc. with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners. Wheeler-Nicholson was forced out a year later. An anthology comic, in the manner of the times, Detective Comics #1 featured stories in the "hard-boiled detective" genre, with such stars as Ching Lung, its first editor, Vin Sullivan drew the debut issue's cover.
The Crimson Avenger debuted in issue #20. In years, the start of this series has been marred by its racism and xenophobia. Detective Comics #27 featured the first appearance of Batman; that superhero would become the star of the title, the cover logo of, written as "Detective Comics featuring Batman". Because of its significance, issue #27 is considered one of the most valuable comic books in existence, with one copy selling for $1,075,000 in a February 2010 auction. Batman's origin is first revealed in a two-page story in issue #33. Batman became the main cover feature of the title beginning with issue #35. Issue #38 introduced Batman's sidekick Robin, billed as "The Sensational Character Find of 1940" on the cover and the first of several characters that would make up the "Batman Family". Robin's appearance and the subsequent increase in sales of the book soon led to the trend of superheroes and young sidekicks that characterize the era fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books.
Several of Batman's best known villains debuted in the pages of Detective Comics during this era including the Penguin in issue #58, Two-Face in issue #66, the Riddler in issue #140. Batwoman first appeared in Detective Comics #233 Since the family formula had proven successful for the Superman franchise, editor Jack Schiff suggested to Batman co-creator Bob Kane that he create one for the Batman. A female was chosen first, to offset the charges made by Fredric Wertham that Batman and Robin were homosexual. Writer Bill Finger and artist Sheldon Moldoff introduced Bat-Mite in issue #267 and Clayface in #298. In 1964, Julius Schwartz was made responsible for reviving the faded Batman titles. Writer John Broome and artist Carmine Infantino jettisoned the sillier aspects that had crept into the franchise such as Ace the Bathound and Bat-Mite and gave the character a "New Look" that premiered in Detective Comics #327. Schwartz, Gardner Fox, Infantino introduced, from the William Dozier produced tv series, Barbara Gordon as a new version of Batgirl in a story titled "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!" in issue #359.
Mike Friedrich wrote the 30th anniversary Batman story in Detective Comics #387, drawn by Bob Brown. Writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams had their first collaboration on Batman on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" in issue #395; the duo, under the direction of Schwartz, would revitalize the character with a series of noteworthy stories reestablishing Batman's dark, brooding nature and taking the books away from the campy look and feel of the 1966–68 ABC TV series. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "O'Neil's interpretation of Batman as a vengeful obsessive-compulsive, which he modestly describes as a return to the roots, was an act of creative imagination that has influenced every subsequent version of the Dark Knight." Adams introduced Man-Bat with writer Frank Robbins in Detective Comics #400. O'Neil and artist Bob Brown crafted Batman's first encounter with the League of Assassins in Detective Comics #405 and created Talia al Ghul in issue #411. After publishing on
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
Crime comics is a genre of American comic books and format of crime fiction. The genre was popular in the late 1940s and early 1950s and is marked by a moralistic editorial tone and graphic depictions of violence and criminal activity. Crime comics began in 1942 with the publication of Crime Does Not Pay published by Lev Gleason Publications and edited by Charles Biro; as sales for superhero comic books declined in the years after World War II, other publishers began to emulate the popular format and subject matter of Crime Does Not Pay, leading to a deluge of crime-themed comics. Crime and horror comics those published by EC Comics, came under official scrutiny in the late 1940s and early 1950s, leading to legislation in Canada and Great Britain, the creation in the United States of the Comics Magazine Association of America and the imposition of the Comics Code Authority in 1954; this code placed limits on the degree and kind of criminal activity that could be depicted in American comic books sounding the death knell for crime comics and their adult themes.
Although petty thieves and outright crooks have existed in American comic books and strips since their inception and strips devoted to criminals and criminal activity are rare. The comic strip Dick Tracy was the first to focus on the character and plots of a vast array of gangsters. Chester Gould's strip, begun in 1931, made effective use of grotesque villains, actual police methods, shocking depictions of violence. Dick Tracy inspired many features starring a variety of police and lawyers but the most memorable devices of the strip would not be featured as prominently until the publication of Crime Does Not Pay in 1942; as edited and written by Charles Biro, Crime Does Not Pay was a 64-page anthology comic book published by Lev Gleason Publications beginning in 1942 and running for 147 issues until 1955. Each issue of the series featured several stories about the lives of actual criminals taken from newspaper accounts, history books, as advertised, "actual police files." The stories provided details of actual criminal activity and, in making the protagonists of the stories actual criminals — albeit criminals who were caught and punished in a violent manner, by story's end — seemed to glorify criminal activity, according to several critics.
An immediate success, the series remained unchallenged in the field of non-fiction comic books for several years until the post-World War II decline in other genres of comic books, including superhero comic books, made it more viable to publish new genres. Beginning in 1947, publishers began issuing new titles in the crime comics genre, sometimes changing the direction of existing series but creating new books whole cloth. Many of these titles were direct imitations of the format and content of Crime Does Not Pay. In May, 1947, Arthur Bernhard's Magazine Village company published True Crime Comics and edited by Jack Cole; the first issue featured Cole's "Murder, Me", the story of a young female drug addict who became involved with gangsters. The story would become one of the most controversial of the period and samples of the art, including a panel from a dream sequence in which the heroine has her eye held open and threatened with a hypodermic needle, would be used in articles and books about the pernicious influence and obscene imagery of crime comics.
In 1947, the team of Joe Simon and Jack Kirby began packaging a pair of crime comics for the Prize Comics line. Headline Comics was transformed from adventure to a crime theme. Published with a date of October/November, Justice Traps the Guilty was a full-fledged crime comic from the onset, besides Simon and Kirby, featured art by Marvin Stein, Mort Meskin, John Severin. At the same time and Kirby revitalized Real Clue Comics for Hillman Comics, giving the title a true-crime veneer and transforming it from a serial character-driven mystery title. EC Comics began publishing Crime SuspenStories in 1950 and Shock SuspenStories in 1952. Both titles featured, in the manner of the EC horror comics, fictional noir-style stories of murder and revenge with stunning art and plotted twist-endings. In the late 1940s, the comic book industry became the target of mounting public criticism for their content and their harmful effects on children. In some communities, children piled their comic books in schoolyards and set them ablaze after being egged-on by moralizing parents and clergymen.
In 1948, John Mason Brown of the Saturday Review of Literature described comics as the "marijuana of the nursery. The same year, after two articles by Dr. Fredric Wertham put comic books through the wringer, an industry trade group, the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers was formed but proved ineffective. In 1949, spearheaded by the campaigning of MP Davie Fulton, crime comics were banned in Canada in Bill 10 of the 21st Canadian Parliament's 1st session; the Criminal Code defined crime comics as a magazine, periodical or book that or comprises matter depicting pictorially the commission of crimes, real or fictitious. The provisions remained in the Criminal Code until December 2018 when Bill C-51 was adopted during the 42nd Canadian Parl
Funnies, Inc. is an American comic book packager of the 1930s to 1940s period collectors and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books. Founded by Lloyd Jacquet, it supplied the contents of early comics, including that of Marvel Comics #1, the first publication of what would become the multimedia corporation Marvel Comics. American comic books originated as oversized magazines that reprinted newspaper comic strips in color; these strips, coming from "the funny pages", were colloquially called "the funnies". New material began to be created for the emerging medium of comic books. In the late 1930s, with the huge sales success of Superman, many magazine publishers and entrepreneurs jumped on the trend. One of the many comics companies founded during this time was Centaur Publications, where Lloyd Jacquet was art director and where comic creators included writer and artist Bill Everett. Jacquet broke off to form Funnies, Inc. called First Funnies, Inc. Located at 45 West 45th Street in Manhattan, New York City, it was one of that era's "comic-book packagers" that would create comics on demand for publishers.
Its competitors included two other comics packagers formed around this time: Eisner & Iger, founded by Will Eisner and Jerry Iger, the quirkily named Harry "A" Chesler's studio. Everett recalled in the late 1960s that, When Lloyd split with John, he offered me and a fellow by the name of Max Neill a chance to go in with him and two other guys, John Mahon and Frank Torpey... We took a small loft office on 45th Street; the idea was to become publishers. But we didn't have the credit to publish our own books so we became an art service. We'd deliver the package to the publisher and get paid for it. Torpey was Centaur's sales director, Mahon a publisher for one of Centaur's early iterations. Other Centaur staffers who followed Jacquet, on at least a freelance basis, included artists Carl Burgos, Paul Gustavson, Ben Thompson. Others who worked for Funnies, Inc. included future novelist Mickey Spillane. As Everett described, "Lloyd... had an idea that he wanted to start his own art service — to start a small organization to supply artwork and editorial material to publishers....
He asked me to join him. He asked Carl Burgos. So we were the nucleus..." I don't know how to explain it. That was the agreement; the artists, including myself, at Funnies, worked on a freelance basis." Comics historian Hames Ware added. It was set up more like a clearinghouse that a conventional shop. While at the other classic shops there were buildings and offices housing... many artists who collaborated on jobs, most of Jacquet's artists worked from home and did solo work and unlike other shops, got credit for whatever job they did.. Funnies, Inc.'s first known project was Motion Picture Funnies Weekly, a promotional comic planned for giveaway in movie theaters. The idea proved unsuccessful, seven of the only eight known samples created to send to theater owners were discovered in an estate sale in 1974. Additionally, proof sheets were found there for the covers of issues #2-4; the "Comic Books on Microfiche" collection of the University of Tulsa's McFarlin Library lists Centaur Publications' Amazing Man Comics #5, the premiere issue, as continuing the numbering of Motion Picture Funnies Weekly, but this is unconfirmed.
Funnies, Inc.'s first actual sale was to pulp magazine publisher Martin Goodman. As Everett recalled, Inc. sales manager Frank Torpey "had a friend, Martin Goodman, in the publishing business, Frank talked Martin into going into publishing comics..." For what would be called Marvel Comics #1, Inc. created a set of features that included two nascent star characters: Burgos' original Human Torch and Everett's Sub-Mariner, expanding an origin story Everett had created for the never-released Motion Picture Funnies Weekly #1. Among the other characters introduced was Gustavson's the Angel, a modest hit who would appear in more than 100 Golden Age stories. Goodman, whose business strategy involved having a multitude of corporate entities used Timely Comics as the umbrella name for his comic-book division. Other early companies that bought material from Funnies, Inc. include Centaur, Fox Feature Syndicate, Hillman Periodicals. For the Novelty Press division of the Premium Service Company, writer-artist Joe Simon created Blue Bolt and Basil Wolverton devised Spacehawk.
Simon said that his Funnies, Inc. rate for a completed comic-book page — written and lettered — was $7. For comparison, he recalled that at Eisner-Iger — where Eisner wrote the features and created characters, hiring novice artists — the page rate was $3.50 to $5.50. Funnies, Inc. was made obsolete by the growing medium's success, allowing publishers to hire their own staffs. As Simon recalled, he stopped freelancing for the company when he became Timely Comics' editor: "Soon, we were buying only'The Human Torch' and'Sub-Mariner' from Jacquet and irritating the hell out of him with demands for script and art changes in the hopes that he would resign the features he had helped to build". Toward the end of 1940, Jacquet sold Goodman the rights to the characters. Business relations evidently remained cordial.
Eastern Color Printing
The Eastern Color Printing Company was a company that published comic books, beginning in 1933. At first it was only newspaper comic strip reprints, but on original material was published. Eastern Color Printing was incorporated in 1928, soon became successful by printing color newspaper sections for several New England and New York papers. Eastern is most notable for its production of Funnies on Parade and Famous Funnies, two publications that gave birth to the American comic book industry. Eastern published its own comic books until the mid-1950s, continued to print comic books for other publishers until 1973. Eastern Color Printing struggled financially from the 1970s to 2002, when the business closed, a victim of changing printing technologies. In March 1924, a newspaper in Waterbury, Connecticut purchased a Goss International single-width press to use in printing Sunday color newspaper comics sections; the Knickerbocker Press of Albany, New York, the Springfield Republican of Springfield, approached the Republican about using the press to print their own color comics supplements.
The Springfield Union soon afterward did as well. The Eastern Color Printing Company, incorporated in August 1928 with William B. Pape as its vice president and principal executive officer, acquired the press and replaced it with a Goss four-deck press; the company acquired additional presses in 1929 and 1931. During this time period, headquartered at 61 Leavenworth Street in Waterbury, established itself in the pulp magazine industry by being one of the few firms to print color covers for the pulps. From 1928 to 1930, Eastern published 36 issues of a tabloid-format comics periodical, The Funnies, with original comic pages in color, for Dell Publishing; this title was the first four-color comic newsstand publication. Dell, owned by George Delacorte, would be associated with other landmark Eastern Color Printing publications. Around 1929, Eastern became the first major institution to perfect an engraving process that allowed for the addition of color to black-and-white comics, proving a boon to newspaper syndicates just beginning to introduce full-page Sunday comics sections.
From 1929 through 1932, Sunday comic pages were printed in both color. By 1932, Eastern Color Printing was printing comic sections for a score of newspapers, by the following year, color for newspapers' Sunday comics section and black-and-white for the daily strips becomes the industry standard. In 1933, Eastern's 45-year-old sales manager Harry I. Wildenberg reinvented the comic-book format when he saw the increasing popularity of newspaper comic strips and determined comics could be a successful medium for advertising. Sales offices at this time were located in New York. In April 1933, Gulf Oil Company approved Wildenberg's idea and hired artists to create an original, promotional giveaway, Gulf Comic Weekly. Printed by Eastern, the comic was advertised on national radio; each of its four pages contained a full-color single-page comic strip. The tabloid proved a hit at Gulf service stations, it was retitled Gulf Funny Weekly. Distribution rose to three million copies a week; the series ran as a tabloid until 1939 before adopting the standard comic-book format of the time.
Eastern published another four-page tabloid, for Standard Oil, titled Standard Oil Comics. In early 1933, Eastern began producing small comic broadsides for the Ledger Syndicate of Philadelphia, printing Sunday color comics from 7" x 9" plates. Wildenberg and his coworkers realized that two such plates would fit on a tabloid-sized page, that year, Wildenberg created the first modern-format comic book when idly folding a newspaper into halves and into quarters and finding that a convenient book size. In Spring 1933, Eastern printed one million copies of the first modern-format comic book, the 32-page Funnies on Parade, as a way to keep their press running, as a promotion for Procter & Gamble; the names of those associated with the project read as a who's-who of early publishers in what comics historians and fans call the Platinum Age and Golden Age of Comic Books: Max Gaines, Leverett Gleason, many other future industry creators are all brought in to work under Wildenberg's supervision. The Funnies on Parade promotion proved a success, Eastern Color that year produced similar periodicals for Canada Dry soft drinks, Kinney Shoes, Wheatena cereal and others, with print runs of from 100,000 to 250,000.
By late 1933, Eastern was publishing more giveaways: Famous Funnies: a Carnival of Comics, A Century of Comics, Skippy’s Own Book of Comics. The latter was the first modern-format comic book about a single character. 1934 Eastern prints Shell Globe, for distribution at 13,000 Shell gas stations. The series features cartoonist Bud Fisher's popular characters Jeff; the characters of Shell Globe are marketed wildly, through miniature figurines, radio announcements, play masks, window stickers. Interest from advertisers tapers off a bit when advertisers doubt that children would be willing to pay money for comic strip reprints. Eastern Color Printing president George Janosik forms a 50/50 joint venture with Dell publisher George Delacorte to publish and market a comic book for retail sales; as a test to see if the public would be willing to pay for comic books, Famous Funnies: Series One, distributed locally, is published and sold for 10 cents each and sells out quickly. 40,000 copies of Famous Funnies: Series One are distributed in chain stores, featuri
Green Lantern (comic book)
Green Lantern is an ongoing American comic book series featuring the DC Comics heroes of the same name. The character's first incarnation, Alan Scott, appeared in All-American Comics #16, was spun off into the first volume of Green Lantern in 1941; that series was canceled in 1949 after 38 issues. When the Silver Age Green Lantern, Hal Jordan, was introduced, the character starred in a new volume of Green Lantern starting in 1960 and has been the lead protagonist of the Green Lantern mythos for the majority of the last 60 years. Although Green Lantern is considered a mainstay in the DC Comics stable, the series has been canceled and rebooted several times; the first series featuring Hal Jordan was canceled at issue #224, but was restarted with a third volume and a new #1 issue in June 1990. When sales began slipping in the early 1990s, DC Comics instituted a controversial editorial mandate that turned Jordan into the supervillain Parallax and created a new protagonist named Kyle Rayner; this third volume ended publication in 2004, when the miniseries Green Lantern: Rebirth brought Hal Jordan back as a heroic character and made him the protagonist once again.
After Rebirth's conclusion, writer Geoff Johns began a fourth volume of Green Lantern from 2005 to 2011, a fifth volume which started after, this time showcasing both Hal Jordan and Sinestro as Green Lanterns. Volume 1 was published from 1941 until 1949 spanning a total of 38 issues; the series featured Alan Scott, the first Green Lantern character, created by writer/artist Martin Nodell and writer Bill Finger. Alan's first appearance was in the anthology series, All-American Comics #16; the Green Lantern character received his own self-titled series in Fall 1941. The first use of the Green Lantern oath was in issue #9. Artist Alex Toth did some of his earliest comics work on the title beginning with issue #28. A canine sidekick named Streak was introduced in #30 and the dog proved so popular that he became the featured character on several covers of the series starting with #34; the series was canceled with #38. Although there have been several subsequent Green Lantern revival projects over the years, this remains the only series to date to spotlight the Alan Scott character.
The Silver Age Green Lantern was created by John Broome and Gil Kane in Showcase #22 at the behest of editor Julius Schwartz. Volume 2 of Green Lantern began publication in August 1960; the series spotlighted the Silver Age Green Lantern, Hal Jordan and introduced the expansive mythology surrounding Hal’s forebearers in the Green Lantern Corps. The supervillain Sinestro was introduced in #7. In 2009, Sinestro was ranked IGN's 15th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time. Hal Jordan's love interest, Carol Ferris, became the Star Sapphire in issue #16. Black Hand, a character featured prominently in the "Blackest Night" storyline in 2009-2010, debuted in issue #29. A substitute Green Lantern, Guy Gardner first appeared in the story "Earth's Other Green Lantern!" in issue #59. Green Arrow joined Hal Jordan in the main feature of the title in an acclaimed series of stories by writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams beginning with issue #76 and ending with issue #122 that dealt with various social and political issues in which Green Arrow spoke for radical change while Green Lantern was an establishment conservative figure, wanting to work within existing institutions of government and law.
Where Oliver Queen advocated direct action, Hal Jordan wanted to work within the system. Each would find their beliefs challenged by the other. Oliver convinced Jordan to see beyond his strict obedience to the Green Lantern Corps, to help those who were neglected or discriminated against; as O'Neil explained: "He would be a hot-tempered anarchist to contrast with the cerebral, sedate model citizen, the Green Lantern." The duo embarked on a quest to find America, witnessing the problems of corruption, racism and overpopulation confronting the nation. O'Neil took on then-current events, such as the Manson Family cult murders, in issue #78 where Black Canary falls under the spell of a false prophet who advocates violence, it was during this period. 2, #85-86, when it was revealed that Green Arrow's ward Speedy was addicted to heroin. In his zeal to save America, Oliver Queen had failed in his personal responsibility to Speedy — who would overcome his addiction with the help of Black Canary, Green Arrow's then-love interest.
This story prompted a congratulatory letter from the Mayor of John Lindsay. Another backup Green Lantern, John Stewart was introduced in #87; the series did not match commercial expectations and Neal Adams had trouble with deadlines, causing issue #88 to be an unscheduled reprint issue. Four months Green Lantern began a backup feature in The Flash #217 and appeared in most issues through The Flash #246 until his own solo series was revived; the Green Lantern title returned with issue #90 and continued the Green Lantern/Green Arrow team format. Julius Schwartz, who had edited the title for most of its run since 1960, left the series as of issue #103. In issue # 123, Hal Jordan resumed Green Arrow left the series. On the advice of artist Joe Staton, editor Jack C. Harris gave British artist Brian Bolland his first assignment for a U. S. comics publisher, the cov
Timely Comics is the common name for the group of corporations, the earliest comic book arm of American publisher Martin Goodman, the entity that would evolve by the 1960s to become Marvel Comics. Founded in 1939, during the era called the Golden Age of comic books, "Timely" was the umbrella name for the comics division of pulp magazine publisher Goodman, whose business strategy involved having a multitude of corporate entities all producing the same product; the company first publication in 1939 used Timely Publications, based at his existing company in the McGraw-Hill Building at 330 West 42nd Street in New York City. In 1942, it moved to the 14th floor of the Empire State Building, where it remained until 1951. In 2016, Marvel announced that Timely Comics would be the name of a new imprint of low-priced reprint comics. In 1939, with the emerging medium of comic books proving hugely popular, the first superheroes setting the trend, pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded Timely Publications, basing it at his existing company in the McGraw-Hill Building at 330 West 42nd Street in New York City.
Goodman – whose official titles were editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher – contracted with the newly formed comic-book "packager" Funnies, Inc. to supply material. His first effort, Marvel Comics #1, featured the first appearances of writer-artist Carl Burgos' android superhero, the Human Torch, Paul Gustavson's costumed detective the Angel; as well, it contained the first published appearance of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, created for the unpublished movie-theater giveaway comic Motion Picture Funnies Weekly earlier that year, with the eight-page original story now expanded by four pages. Included were Al Anders' Western hero the Masked Raider. A painted cover by veteran science-fiction pulp artist Frank R. Paul featured the Human Torch, looking much different from the interior story; that initial comic, cover-dated October 1939 sold out 80,000 copies, prompting Goodman to produce a second printing, cover-dated November 1939.
The latter is identical except for a black bar over the October date in the inside-front-cover indicia, the November date added at the end. That sold 800,000 copies. With a hit on his hands, Goodman began assembling an in-house staff, hiring Funnies, Inc. writer-artist Joe Simon as editor. Simon brought along artist Jack Kirby, followed by artist Syd Shores. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. There is evidence that "Red Circle Comics" – a name that would be used for an unrelated imprint of Archie Comics in the 1970s and 1980s – may have been a term in use as Goodman prepared to publish his first comic book. Historian Les Daniels, referring to Goodman's pulp-magazine line, describes the name Red Circle as "a halfhearted attempt to establish an identity for what was described loosely as'the Goodman group' when a new logo was adopted: a red disk surrounded by a black ring that bore the phrase'A Red Circle Magazine.' But it appeared only intermittently.
Historian Jess Nevins, writes that, "Timely Publications Goodman's group had become known. The Grand Comics Database identifies 23 issues of Goodman comic books from 1944 to 1959 with Red Circle, Inc. branding, a single 1948 issue under Red Circle Magazines Corp. Marvel Comics was rechristened Marvel Mystery Comics with issue #2. Timely began publishing additional series, beginning with Daring Mystery Comics #1, Mystic Comics #1, Red Raven Comics #1, The Human Torch #2, Captain America Comics #1. Going on sale in December 1940, a year before the bombing of Pearl Harbor and showing the hero punching Hitler, that first issue sold nearly one million copies. With the hit characters Human Torch and Sub-Mariner now joined by Simon & Kirby's seminal patriotic hero Captain America, Timely had its "big three" stars of the era fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books. Rival publishers National Comics Publications / All-American Comics, the sister companies that would evolve into DC Comics had their own "big three": Superman and Batman plus the soon-to-debut Wonder Woman.
Timely's other major competitors were Fawcett Publications. Other Timely characters, many seen both in modern-day retroactive-continuity appearances and in flashbacks, include the Angel, the next-most-popular character in terms of number of appearances.