GameSpy was a provider of online multiplayer and matchmaking middleware for video games. com. GameSpy merged with IGN in 2004, by 2014, its services had used by over 800 video game publishers and developers since its launch. In August 2012, the GameSpy Industries division was acquired by video game developer Glu Mobile. IGN retained ownership of the GameSpy. com website, in February 2013, IGNs new owner, Ziff Davis, shut down IGNs secondary sites, including GameSpys network. This was followed by the announcement in April 2014 that GameSpys service platform would be shut down on May 31,2014, Mark Surfas saw the need for hosting and distribution of these mods and created PlanetQuake, a Quake-related hosting and news site. The massive success of mods catapulted PlanetQuake to huge traffic and a position in the burgeoning game website scene. Quake marked the beginning of the Internet multiplayer real-time action game scene, finding a Quake server on the Internet proved difficult, as players could only share IP addresses of known servers between themselves or post them on websites.
To solve this problem, a team of three programmers formed Spy Software and created QSpy and this allowed the listing and searching of Quake servers available across the Internet. Surfas licensed QSpy and became the distributor and marketer while retaining the original programming team. QSpy became QuakeSpy and went on to be bundled with ids QuakeWorld update - an unprecedented move by a top tier developer, with the release of the Quake Engine-based game Hexen II, QuakeSpy added this game to its capabilities and was renamed GameSpy3D. In 1997 Mark Surfas licensed GameSpy 3D from Spy Software, in 1999, GameSpy received angel investment funding from entrepreneur David Berkus. The company released MP3Spy. com, a software browser allowing people to browse and connect to online radio feeds, the expanding of the companys websites included the games portal, GameSpy. It included platform-specific sites, but these were consolidated into GameSpy. com, forumPlanet and FilePlanet were services offered by GameSpy, and were not part of the Planet Network.
In 2000, GameSpy received additional investment funding from the Ziff Davis publishing division ZDNet. com and from Guillemot Corporation, GameSpy shut down its RadioSpy division, backing away from the online music market which was dominated by peer-to-peer applications such as Napster and Gnutella. In 2001, GameSpys corporate technology business grew to include software development kits and middleware for video game consoles, such as Sonys PlayStation 2, Segas Dreamcast and Microsofts Xbox. In March 2004, IGN and GameSpy Industries merged, and was known as IGN/GameSpy before formalizing their corporate name as IGN Entertainment. GameSpy Arcade was the companys flagship matchmaking software, allowing users to servers for different online video games. This software rivaled the other major voice chat software Ventrilo and Teamspeak, the companys Powered by GameSpy technology enabled online functionality in over 300 PC and console games
The website was the brainchild of media entrepreneur Chris Anderson and launched on September 29,1996. It focuses on games, television, technology, the company is located in San Franciscos SOMA district in California, United States. Originally a network of websites, IGN is now distributed on mobile platforms, console programs on the Xbox and PlayStation, FireTV, and via YouTube, Hulu. IGN was sold to publishing company Ziff Davis in February 2013 and now operates as a J2 Global subsidiary. com, PSXPower, Next-Generation. com and Ultra Game Players Online. Imagine expanded on its owned-and-operated websites by creating a network that included a number of independent fansites such as PSX Nation. com, Sega-Saturn. com, Game Sages. In 1998, the network launched a new homepage that consolidated the individual sites as system channels under the IGN brand, the homepage exposed content from more than 30 different channels. Next-Generation and Ultra Game Players Online were not part of this consolidation, dissolved with the cancellation of the magazine, and Next-Generation was put on hold when Imagine decided to concentrate on launching the short-lived Daily Radar brand.
In February 1999, Imagine Media incorporated a spin-off that included IGN and its channels as Affiliation Networks. In September, the newly spun-out standalone internet media company, changed its name to Snowball. com, at the same time, small entertainment website The Den merged into IGN and added non-gaming content to the growing network. Snowball held an IPO in 2000, but shed most of its properties during the dot-com bubble. In June 2005, IGN reported having 24,000,000 unique visitors per month, with 4.8 million registered users through all departments of the site, IGN is ranked among the top 200 most-visited websites according to Alexa. In September 2005, IGN was acquired by Rupert Murdochs multi-media business empire, News Corporation, IGN celebrated its 10th anniversary on January 12,2008. IGN was headquartered in the Marina Point Parkway office park in Brisbane, California, on May 25,2011, IGN sold its Direct2Drive division to Gamefly for an undisclosed amount. In 2011, IGN Entertainment acquired its rival UGO Entertainment from Hearst Corporation, News Corp.
planned to spin off IGN Entertainment as a publicly traded company, continuing a string of divestitures for digital properties it had previously acquired. Financial details regarding the purchase were not revealed, prior to its acquisition by UGO, 1UP. com had previously been owned by Ziff Davis. Soon after the acquisition, IGN announced that it would be laying off staff and closing GameSpy, 1UP. com, the role-playing video game interest website Vault Network was acquired by IGN in 1999. GameStats, a review website, was founded by IGN in 2004. GameStats includes a GPM rating system incorporates an average press score and average gamer score
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3,1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the war and is often described as the wars turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meades Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lees attempt to invade the North. After his success at Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved of command just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade. Elements of the two armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1,1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, his objective being to engage the Union army. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division under Brig.
Gen. John Buford, on the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. In the late afternoon of July 2, Lee launched an assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devils Den. On the Union right, Confederate demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culps Hill, all across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines. The charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire, at great loss to the Confederate army, Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 soldiers from both armies were casualties in the battle, the most costly in US history. Shortly after the Army of Northern Virginia won a victory over the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Such a move would upset U. S. plans for the campaigning season. The invasion would allow the Confederates to live off the bounty of the rich Northern farms while giving war-ravaged Virginia a much-needed rest, in addition, Lees 72, 000-man army could threaten Philadelphia and Washington, and possibly strengthen the growing peace movement in the North.
Thus, on June 3, Lees army began to shift northward from Fredericksburg, the Cavalry Division remained under the command of Maj. Gen. J. E. B. The Union Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of seven corps, a cavalry corps. The first major action of the campaign took place on June 9 between cavalry forces at Brandy Station, near Culpeper, Virginia
Age of Empires (video game)
Age of Empires is a history-based real-time strategy video game developed by Ensemble Studios and published by Microsoft. The game uses the Genie, a 2D sprite-based game engine, the game allows the user to act as the leader of an ancient civilization by advancing it through four ages, gaining access to new and improved units with each advance. It was ported to Pocket PCs with Windows, resulting in a very similar to the PC game. Originally touted as Civilization meets Warcraft, some felt that the game failed to live up to these expectations when it was released. Despite this, it received good reviews, and an expansion pack. Both the original Age of Empires and the pack were released as The Gold Edition. A sequel, Age of Empires II, was released in 1999, Age of Empires requires the player to develop a civilization from a handful of hunter-gatherers to an expansive Iron Age Empire. To assure victory, the player must gather resources in order to pay for new units, resources must be preserved, as no new resources become available as the game progresses, for example, trees that are cut down will not grow back.
Each with individual sets of attributes, including a number of available technologies. Each civilization has technologies unique to them, so that no civilization possesses all the technologies possible within the game, a major component of the game is the advancement through four ages. These are the Stone Age, the Tool Age, the Bronze Age, advancement between ages is researched at the Town Center, and each advancement brings the player new technologies and units. The game features four campaigns in which the player is required to complete specific objectives. Campaigns are a collection of scenarios which are completed in a linear fashion, aside from the campaigns, there is a game mode called random map, in which a different map is generated for each new game. Variations of random map, such as the death match, are available. Age of Empires facilitated online and network play with up to 8 people simultaneously, because the network play is less sophisticated than that of modern games and disconnections often occur.
Until June 19,2006, multiplayer gameplay was supported by Microsoft Gaming Zone, at that point, the Zone abandoned support of most CD-ROM games, including Age of Empires and Age of Empires II, The Age of Kings. The creation of user-made scenarios or series of scenarios for the game was possible using the Scenario Builder. This tool is simpler and easier to learn than comparable editors used in modern games
First Battle of Bull Run
It was the first major battle of the American Civil War. The Unions forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements time to arrive by rail, each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory, followed by a retreat of the Union forces. Yielding to political pressure, Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell led his unseasoned Union Army across Bull Run against the equally inexperienced Confederate Army of Brig. Gen. P. G. T. Confederate reinforcements under Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad, the Confederates launched a strong counterattack, and as the Union troops began withdrawing under fire, many panicked and the retreat turned into a rout. McDowells men frantically ran without order in the direction of Washington, both armies were sobered by the fierce fighting and many casualties, and realized that the war was going to be much longer and bloodier than either had anticipated.
The Battle of First Bull Run highlighted many of the problems, McDowell, with 35,000 men, was only able to commit about 18,000, and the combined Confederate forces, with about 32,000 men, committed only 18,000. Earlier, South Carolina and seven other Southern states had declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. To suppress the rebellion and restore Federal law in the Southern states and he accepted an additional 40,000 volunteers with three-year enlistments and increased the strength of the U. S. Army to almost 20,000. In Washington, D. C. as thousands of volunteers rushed to defend the capital, General in Chief Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott laid out his strategy to subdue the rebellious states. He proposed that an army of 80,000 men be organized and sail down the Mississippi River, while the Army strangled the Confederacy in the west, the U. S. Navy would blockade Southern ports along the eastern and Gulf coasts. The press ridiculed what they dubbed as Scotts Anaconda Plan, many believed the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond, only one hundred miles south of Washington, would quickly end the war.
By July 1861 thousands of volunteers were camped in and around Washington, since General Scott was seventy-five years old and physically unable to lead this force, the administration searched for a more suitable field commander. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase championed fellow Ohioan, although McDowell was a West Point graduate, his command experience was limited. In fact, he had spent most of his career engaged in staff duties in the Adjutant Generals Office. While stationed in Washington he had become acquainted with Chase, a former Ohio governor and senator, McDowell immediately began organizing what became known as the Army of Northeastern Virginia,35,000 men arranged in five divisions. Under public and political pressure to begin operations, McDowell was given very little time to train the newly inducted troops. Units were instructed in the maneuvering of regiments, but they received little or no training at the brigade or division level and he was reassured by President Lincoln, You are green, it is true, but they are green also, you are all green alike
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Metacritic is a website that aggregates reviews of media products, music albums, movies, TV shows, DVDs, and formerly, books. For each product, the scores from each review are averaged, Metacritic was created by Jason Dietz, Marc Doyle, and Julie Doyle Roberts. The site provides an excerpt from each review and hyperlinks to its source, a color of Green, Yellow or Red summarizes the critics recommendations and therefore the general appeal of the product to reviewers and, to a lesser extent, the public. It is regarded as the game industrys foremost review aggregator. Metacritics scoring converts each review into a percentage, either mathematically from the mark given, before being averaged, the scores are weighted according to the critics fame and volume of reviews. Metacritic was launched in July 1999 by Marc Doyle, his sister Julie Doyle Roberts, rotten Tomatoes was already compiling movie reviews, but Doyle and Dietz saw an opportunity to cover a broader range of media. They sold Metacritic to CNET in 2005, CNET and Metacritic are now owned by the CBS Corporation.
Nick Wingfield of The Wall Street Journal wrote in September 2004, Mr. Doyle,36, is now a product manager at CNET. Speaking of video games, Doyle said, A site like ours helps people cut through. unobjective promotional language and he added that the review process was not taken as seriously when unconnected magazines and websites provided reviews in isolation. In August 2010, the appearance was revamped, reaction from users was overwhelmingly negative. Certain publications are given more significance because of their stature, games Editor Marc Doyle was interviewed by Keith Stuart of The Guardian to get a look behind the metascoring process. Stuart wrote, the phenomenon, namely Metacritic and GameRankings, have become an enormously important element of online games journalism over the past few years. The ranging of metascores is, Metacritic is regarded as the foremost online review site for the video game industry. Nick Wingfield of The Wall Street Journal has written that Metacritic influence the sales of games and he explains its influence as coming from the higher cost of buying video games than music or movie tickets.
Many executives say that low scores can hurt the sales potential. He claimed that a number of businesses and financial analysts use Metacritic as an early indicator of a games potential sales and, by extension. In 2004, Jason Hall of Warner Bros. began including quality metrics in contracts with partners licensing its movies for games, if a product does not at least achieve a specific score, some deals require the publisher to pay higher royalties. In 2008, Microsoft began using Metacritic averages to de-list underperforming Xbox Live Arcade games and these are the top 10 individual games with the highest scores on the site as of 2 April 2017
Firaxis Games, Inc. is an American video game developer founded in 1996 by Sid Meier, Jeff Briggs, and Brian Reynolds upon leaving MicroProse. Now a wholly owned subsidiary of Take-Two Interactive, the company is best known for its Civilization series of games, Firaxis is based in Sparks, Sid Meier continues to lead creative efforts there. Since 1997, Firaxis has released several PC games, including Sid Meiers Gettysburg. based on their namesake famous American Civil War battles, and Sid Meiers Alpha Centauri, a space colonization game taking place in the Alpha Centauri star system. In early 2000, co-founder Brian Reynolds parted with Firaxis to form his new studio, Firaxis Games went on to release Sid Meiers SimGolf, a golf course building/management game. Perhaps their most popular releases have been Civilization III, and Civilization IV, in November 2004, Firaxis released Sid Meiers Pirates. A remake of Meiers classic 1987 game of the same name, an Xbox version of the game was released in 2005 and a PSP version was released in 2007.
Civilization IV started production in late 2003 and was released in 2005, Civilization Revolution, a console-only version of their popular Civilization series, was released in 2008. On November 7,2005, Take-Two Interactive announced that it was acquiring Firaxis, the company was consolidated with PopTop Software in March 2006, the resultant combined studio to be headed up by Sid Meier. Jeff Briggs assumed the role of Chairman in April 2006 and left the company completely in November, in April 2007, Soren Johnson left the company and joined Electronic Arts to work on Spore with Lead Designer Will Wright. Johnson was formerly a key person for Firaxis, acting as co-designer for Civilization III, in September 2009, the studio moved a few miles, from Hunt Valley, Maryland to Sparks, Maryland. Firaxis titles are prefixed with Sid Meiers name, a practice continued from Meiers earlier games at Microprose. Official website Firaxis Games profile at MobyGames
MobyGames is a commercial website which catalogs video games both past and present. As of October 2016, this includes over 200 gaming platforms and over 114,000 games, the site is supported by banner ads and by users paying to become patrons. The MobyGames database contains information on games and the people. Some individual developer profiles have biographical information, content is added on a volunteer crowdsourced basis, with all items tracked to a non-anonymous user account. The most commonly used sources are game packaging and manual or the game itself, registered users can rate and review any game entry, and the scores are aggregated into a single value. Users can create game have lists and want lists, which may be made public. This can generate another list of available for trade with other users. The site has an integrated forum, each listed game can have its own subforum. MobyGames was founded on March 1,1999, by Jim Leonard, Brian Hirt, Leonard had the idea of sharing information about electronic games with a larger audience.
The database began with entries for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows games, on its second birthday, MobyGames started supporting other platforms, initially the leading consoles of the time such as the PlayStation, with older systems added later. MobyGames was nominated for a Webby Award for Best Games-Related Website by the International Academy of Digital Arts, in mid-2010, MobyGames was sold by its founders to GameFly for an undisclosed amount. As this was announced to the community post factum, a few major contributors left in protest. On December 18,2013, MobyGames was acquired by Jeremiah Freyholtz, owner of Blue Flame Labs, upon assuming control of the site, Blue Flame Labs reverted MobyGames interface to its pre-overhaul look and feel. Support for arcade coin-operated games was added in January 2014
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16. 5% of the land area. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 565 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. 5% of the worlds population, North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery.
Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Because of the history of colonialism, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, the Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a map, in which he placed the word America on the continent of South America. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio, for Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In 1538. Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands
Sidney K. Sid Meier is a programmer and producer of several popular strategy video games and simulation video games, most notably the Civilization series. Meier co-founded MicroProse in 1982 with Bill Stealey and is the Director of Creative Development of Firaxis Games and he has won several prestigious accolades for his contributions to the video game industry. Meier was born in the Canadian city of Sarnia to parents of Dutch and Swiss descent, a few years the family moved to Michigan, where Sid Meier grew up and studied history and computer science, graduating with a degree in computer science from the University of Michigan. Meier lives in Hunt Valley, with his wife and he met his wife at the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Faith Lutheran, in Cockeysville, where he plays the organ. Meier and his wife both sing in the church choir, Meier founded MicroProse with Bill Stealey in 1982, and by 1986 the company was using his name and face in advertisements for its games. MicroProse at first developed mostly simulation video games, such as Silent Service, in 1987, the company released Sid Meiers Pirates.
Which began a trend of placing Meiers name in the titles of his games and he explained that the inclusion of his name was because of the dramatic departure in the design of Pirates. Compared to the earlier titles. Stealey decided that it would improve the companys branding, believing that it would make those who purchased the flight simulators more likely to play the game, Stealey recalled, We were at dinner at a Software Publishers Association meeting, and Robin Williams was there. And he kept us in stitches for two hours, and he turns to me and says Bill, you should put Sids name on a couple of these boxes, and promote him as the star. And thats how Sids name got on Pirates, and Civilization, the idea was successful, by 1992 an entry in Computer Gaming Worlds poetry contest praised Meiers name as a guarantee they got it right. Meier is not always the main designer on titles that carry his name, after the release of F-19 Stealth Fighter, Meier focused on strategy games, saying Everything I thought was cool about a flight simulator had gone into that game.
Meier eventually left MicroProse and in 1996 founded Firaxis Games along with veteran designer, the company makes strategy games, many of which are follow-ups to Meiers titles, such as the new Civilization games and Sid Meiers Pirates. In 1996, he invented a System for Real-Time Music Composition, next Generation listed him in their 75 Most Important People in the Games Industry of 1995, calling him a prolific developer of some of the best games in s catalog. In 2011, the search company PeekYou claimed that Meier has the largest digital footprint of any video game designer. In 1996, GameSpot put Meier at the top of their listing of the Most Influential People in Computer Gaming of All Time, calling him our Hitchcock, our Spielberg, our Ellington. In 1997, Computer Gaming World ranked him as one on the list of the Most Influential People of All Time in Computer Gaming. In 1999, he became the person to be inducted into the Academy of Interactive Arts
Computing platform means in general sense, where any piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the system, even a web browser or other application. The term computing platform can refer to different abstraction levels, including a hardware architecture, an operating system. In total it can be said to be the stage on which programs can run. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware, platforms may include, Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS, this is referred to as running on bare metal, a browser in the case of web-based software. The browser itself runs on a platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser. An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in a scripting language. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform, software frameworks that provide ready-made functionality.
Cloud computing and Platform as a Service, the social networking sites Twitter and facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine, applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, which is executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a system, including virtualized hardware, OS, software. These allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on what is physically a Mac, some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it. In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer immediately beneath it, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS