Agamas are texts of Jainism based on the discourses of the tirthankara. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas; the discourse is recorded by Ganadharas, is composed of twelve angas. It is represented by a tree with twelve branches; this canons. These are believed to have originated from the first tirthankara; the earliest versions of Jain Agamas known were composed in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit. Agama is a Sanskrit word which signifies the'coming' of a body of doctrine by means of transmission through a lineage of authoritative teachers. Gautamasvami is said to have compiled the most sacred canonical scriptures comprising twelve parts referred to as eleven Angas and fourteen Pūrvas, since the twelfth Anga comprises the fourteen Pūrvas; these scriptures are said to have contained the most comprehensive and accurate description of every branch of learning that one needs to know. The knowledge contained in these scriptures was transmitted orally by the teachers to their disciple saints While some authors date the composition of Jain Agamas starting from the 6th century BCE, noted Indologist Hermann Jacobi holds that the composition of the Jaina siddhanta would fall somewhere about the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 3rd century BC.
The general consensus amongst western scholars, such as Ian Whicher and David Carpenter, is that the earliest portions of Jain siddhanta were composed around the 4th or 3rd century BCE. This may not be in agreement with Jain tradition according to which the agamic literature and the Purvas were passed from one heads of the order to his disciples for around 170 years after the nirvana of Mahavira. However, with time, it became difficult to keep the entire Jain literature committed to memory. In the 3rd century BCE, Chandragupta Maurya was the ruler of Magadha and Bhadrabahu, was the head of Jain community. Predicting a 12 year long famine, Bhadrabahu went south to Karnataka with his adherents and Sthulabhadra, another Jain monk remained behind. During this time the knowledge of the doctrine was getting lost. A council was formed at Pataliputra where eleven scriptures called Angas were compiled and the remnant of fourteen purvas were written down in 12th Anga, Ditthivaya by the adherents of Sthulbhadra.
Due to the twelve years of famine it was difficult for the Jain ascetics to preserve the entire canonical literature. The Purvas or the ancient texts were forgotten and lost after the famine. According to Svetambara tradition, the agamas were collected on the basis of collective memory of the ascetics in the first council of Pataliputra under the stewardship of Sthulibhadra in around to 463–367 BC. In 453 or 466 CE that the Vallabhi council of the Svetambara Jain monks recompiled the Agamas and recorded them as written manuscripts under the leadership of Acharya Shraman Devardhigani along with other 500 Jain scholars; the existing Svetambara texts are based on the Vallabhi council texts. Digambaras reject the authority of the Agamas compiled at Valabhi; the knowledge of Shruta-Jnana, may be of things which are contained in the Angas or of things outside the Angas. The Agamas were composed of the following forty-six texts: Twelve Angās Ācāranga sūtra Sūtrakrtanga Sthānānga Samavāyānga Vyākhyāprajñapti or Bhagavati sūtra Jnātrdhārmakathāh Upāsakadaśāh Antakrddaaśāh Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Praśnavyākaranani Vipākaśruta Drstivāda Six Chedasūtras Ācāradaśāh Brhatkalpa Vyavahāra Niśītha Mahāniśītha Jītakalpa Four Mūlasūtras Daśavaikālika Uttarādhyayana Āvaśyaka Pindaniryukyti Ten Prakīrnaka sūtras Catuhśarana Āturapratyākhyanā Bhaktaparijñā Samstāraka Tandulavaicarika Candravedhyāka Devendrastava Ganividyā Mahāpratyākhyanā Vīrastava Two Cūlikasūtras Nandī-sūtra Anuyogadvāra-sūtra The Jain literature includes both religious texts and books on secular topics such as sciences and grammar.
The Jains have used several languages in different regions of India. The earliest versions of Jain Agamas known were written in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit language. PrakritPrakrit literature includes the Aagams, Aagam-tulya texts, Siddhanta texts; the dialect used to compose many of these texts is referred to as Jain Prakrit. Composition in Prakrits ceased around the 10th century AD. For Jains, their scriptures represent the literal words of Mahāvīra and the other fordmakers only to the extent that the Agama is a series of beginning-less and fixed truths, a tradition without any origin, human or divine, which in this world age has been channelled through Sudharma, the last of Mahavira's disciples to survive. Jain Agamas Puruşārthasiddhyupāya List of Jain texts Silappatikaram Cort, John E. ed. Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-3785-X Cort, John E. Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1 Dundas, The Jains and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X Jain, Champat Rai, Risabha Deva - The Founder of Jainism, Allahabad: The Indian Press Limited, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain.
Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Umasvami's Tattvarthsutra, Uttarakhand: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1, This articl
Parshvanatha known as Parshva and Paras, was the 23rd of 24 tirthankaras of Jainism. He is the earliest tirthankara, acknowledged as a historical figure. Parshvanatha's biography is uncertain, with Jain sources placing him between the 9th and 8th centuries BC and historians saying that he lived in the 8th or 7th century BC. Parshvanatha was born 350 years before Mahavira. With Mahavira and Neminatha, Parshvanatha is one of the four tirthankaras most worshiped by Jains, he is popularly seen as a ford-maker, who can save. Parshvanatha died on Mount Sammeta in an important Jain pilgrimage site, his iconography is notable for the serpent hood over his head, his worship includes Dharanendra and Padmavati. According to Jain texts, Parshvanatha was born in India. Renouncing worldly life, he founded an ascetic community. Texts of the two major Jain sects differ on the teachings of Parshvanatha and Mahavira, this is a foundation of the dispute between the two sects; the Digambaras believe that there was no difference between the teachings of Parshvanatha and Mahavira.
According to the Śvētāmbaras, Mahavira expanded Parshvanatha's first four restraints with his ideas on ahimsa and added the fifth monastic vow. Parshvanatha did not require celibacy, allowed monks to wear simple outer garments. Digambaras disagree with Śvētāmbara interpretations. Śvētāmbara texts, such as section 2.15 of the Acharanga Sutra, say that Mahavira's parents were followers of Parshvanatha. Parshvanatha is the earliest Jain tirthankara, acknowledged as a historical figure. According to Paul Dundas, Jain texts such as section 31 of Isibhasiyam provide circumstantial evidence that he lived in ancient India. Historians such as Hermann Jacobi have accepted him as a historical figure because his Chaturyama Dharma is mentioned in Buddhist texts. Despite the accepted historicity, some historical claims have led to different scholarly conclusions, he is claimed in Jain texts to have been 13.5 feet tall. Parshvanatha's biography is legendary, with Jain texts saying that he preceded Mahavira by about 250 years and that he lived 78 years.
Mahavira is dated to c. 599 – c. 527 BC in the Jain tradition, Parshvanatha is dated to c. 850 – c. 772 BC. According to Dundas, historians outside the Jain tradition date Mahavira as contemporaneous with the Buddha in the 5th century BC and, based on the 250-year gap, date Parshvanatha to the 8th or 7th century BC. Doubts about Parshvanatha's historicity are supported by the oldest Jain texts, which present Mahavira with sporadic mentions of ancient ascetics and teachers without specific names; the earliest layer of Jain literature on cosmology and universal history pivots around two jinas: the Adinatha and Mahavira. Stories of Parshvanatha and Neminatha appear in Jain texts, with the Kalpa Sūtra the first known text. However, these texts present the tirthankaras with non-human physical dimensions, their bodies are celestial, like deva. The Kalpa Sūtra is the most ancient known Jain text with the 24 tirthankaras, but it lists 20. Early archaeological finds, such as the statues and reliefs near Mathura, lack iconography such as lions or serpents.
Parshvanatha was the 23rd of 24 tirthankaras in Jain tradition. He was born on the tenth day of the dark half of the Hindu month of Pausha to King Ashwasena and Queen Vamadevi of Benares. Parshvanatha belonged to the Ikshvaku dynasty. Before his birth, Jain texts state that he ruled as the god Indra in the 13th heaven of Jain cosmology. While Parshvanatha was in his mother's womb, gods performed the garbha-kalyana, his mother dreamt fourteen auspicious dreams, an indicator in Jain tradition that a tirthankara was about to be born. According to the Jain texts, the thrones of the Indras shook when he was born and the Indras came down to earth to celebrate his janma-kalyanaka. Parshvanatha was born with blue-black skin. A strong, handsome boy, he played with the gods of water and trees. At age eight, Parshvanatha began practicing the twelve basic duties of the adult Jain householder, he lived as a soldier in Benaras. According to the Digambara school, Parshvanatha never married. Heinrich Zimmer translated a Jain text that sixteen-year-old Parshvanatha refused to marry when his father told him to do so.
At age 30, on the 11th day of the moon's waxing in the month of Pausha, Parshvanatha renounced the world to become a monk. He removed his clothes and hair, began fasting strictly. Parshvanatha meditated for 84 days before he attained omniscience under a dhaataki tree near Benares, his meditation period included strict vows. Parshvanatha's practices included careful movement, measured speech, guarded desires, mental restraint and physical activity, essential in Jain tradition to renounce the eg
Shikharji, Giridih district, India, is located on Parasnath hill, the highest mountain in the state of Jharkhand. It is the most important Jain Tirtha for the Jains, believed to be the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras along with many other monks attained Moksha, according to Nirvana Kanda and other texts.. Its distance to cover is 23 kms by walk and takes to climb up and down the hill. If a short route is taken it takes approx 12 hours to complete.. Shikharji means the "venerable peak"; the site is called Sammed Śikhar or Sammet Shikhar "peak of concentration." Because it is a place where twenty of twenty-four Tirthankaras attained Moksha through meditation. The word "Parasnath" is derived from Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Jain tirthankara, one of those, believed to have attained Moksha at the site. Shikarji is located in an inland part of rural east India, it lies on NH-2, the Delhi-Kolkata highway in a section called the Grand Trunk road. Shikharji rises to 4,429 feet making it the highest mountain in Jharkhand state.
The earliest reference to Shikharji as a tirth is found in the Jñātṛdhārmakātha, one of the twelve core texts of Jainism. Shikharji is mentioned in the Pārśvanāthacarita, a twelfth century biography of Pārśva; the popularity of Shikharji as a site of pilgrimage followed that of Vulture Peak, where it is believed the Buddhist Sariputta attained enlightenment. Jharkhand acquired Shikharji under the Bihar Land Reforms Act. Use of Shikharji as a tourist destination impacts on the religious beliefs of the Jain; the pilgrimage to Shikharji is a round trip of 27 km through the Madhuban forest. The section from Gandharva Nala stream to the summit is the most sacred to Jains; the pilgrimage is made on foot or by a litter or doli carried by a doliwallah along a concrete paved track. Along the track are shrines to each of the twenty four tirthankaras and vendors of tea, water and snacks. There is an option for parikrama of a pilgrimage of 54 kilometres; the parikrama path is walking only. The temple at Shikharji is a new construction with some parts dating to the eighteenth century.
However, the idol itself is old. Sanskrit inscriptions at the foot of the image date to 1678. At the base of Shikharji is a temple to Bhomiyaji. On the walls of the Jain temple at the village of Madhuban, there is a mural painting depicting all the temples on Parasnath Hill. Temples along the track include: In Jainism, the building of replica temples is seen as auspicious and worthwhile. On August 13, 2012, the world's first to-scale complete replication of Shikharji was opened in Siddhachalam in New Jersey over 120 acres of hilly terrain. Called Shikharji at Siddhachalam, it has become an important place of pilgrimage for the Jain diaspora. There is a small scale replica of Shikharji at Mehrauli; the nearest railway station named "Parasnath Station" is situated in Isri Bazar, Jharkhand. Its around 25 km from Madhuban, at the base of Shikharji. Parasnath station is situated on Grand Chord, part of Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line and Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line. Many long distance trains have halts at Parasnath Station.
Daily connectivities to Mumbai, Jaipur, Kolkata, Allahbad, Jammutawi, Kalka etc. are available. 12301-12302 Howrah Rajdhani Express via Gaya Junction has a halt on Parasnath station which run 6 days in a week. By Airway. Durgapur has direct flights from Kolkata and Delhi "Save Shikharji" is a protest movement by Jain sects who are against the state's development plans for Shikharji. Jain community members have opposed the plans of the state government to improve the infrastructure in the hill to boost tourism as alleged attempts to commercialize the Shikharji hill; this movement is headed by Yugbhushan Surishwarji, demands Shikharji Hill to be declared as a place of worship by Government of Jharkhand. List of Jain temples Tirth Pat Nirvana Kanda Tourist Places in Giridih Parasnath Hills travel guide from Wikivoyage
Samantabhadra (Jain monk)
Samantabhadra was a Digambara acharya who lived about the part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived before Pujyapada. Samantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE, he was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty. He was a poet, eulogist and an accomplished linguist, he is credited with spreading Jainism in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka. As, digambara monks don't eat more than once in a day, he endured great pain, he sought the permission of his preceptor to undertake the vow of Sallekhana. The preceptor asked him to leave monasticism and get the disease cured. After getting cured he became a great Jain Acharya. Samantabhadra affirmed Kundakunda's theory of the two nayas - niścayanaya, he argued however that the mundane view is not false, but is only a relative form of knowledge mediated by language and concepts, while the ultimate view is an immediate form of direct knowledge.
Samantabhadra developed further the Jain theory of syādvāda. Jain texts authored by Acharya Samantabhadra are: Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra - The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra discusses the conduct of a Śrāvaka in detail. Gandhahastimahabhasya, a monumental commentary on the Tattvartha Sutra; the Gandhahaslimahahhasya, with the exception of its Manglacharana, is extant now. The Manglacharana is known as the'Devagama stotra' or Āpta-mīmāṁsā. Āpta-mīmāṁsā- A treatise of 114 verses, it discusses the Jaina concept of omniscience and the attributes of the Omniscient. Svayambhustotra- An adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankaras - 143 verses Yuktyanusasana- Sixty-four verses in praise of Tirthankara Vardhamāna Mahāvīra Jinasatakam - Poetical work written in Sanskrit in praise of twenty-four Jinas. Tattvanusasana Vijayadhavala tika Jinasena, in his celebrated work, Ādi purāṇa praises the Samantabhadra as Ghoshal, Saratchandra, Āpta-mīmāṁsā of Āchārya Samantabhadra, ISBN 9788126307241 Jain, Vijay K. Acarya Samantabhadra's Svayambhustotra: Adoration of The Twenty-four Tirthankara, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-7-6, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain.
Jain, Samantabhadrabhāratī, Budhānā, Muzaffarnagar: Achārya Shāntisāgar Chani Smriti Granthmala, ISBN 978-81-90468879 Jain, Champat Rai, The Ratna Karanda Sravakachara, The Central Jaina Publishing House, This article incorporates text from this source, in the public domain. Long, Jeffery D. Jainism: An Introduction, I. B. Tauris, ISBN 978-1-84511-625-5 Shah, Jainism: The World of Conquerors, I, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1938-1
The flag of Jainism has five colours: red, white and black. These five colours represent the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi, it represents the five main vows, which are small as well as great. These five colours represent the "Pañca-Parameṣṭhi" and the five vows, small as well as great: White - represents the arihants, souls who have conquered all passions and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realization, it denotes peace or ahimsa. Red - represents souls that have attained salvation and truth, it denotes truthfulness. Yellow - represents the acharya the Masters of Adepts; the colour stands for non-stealing. Green - represents those who teach scriptures to monks, it signifies chastity. Dark blue or black - represents monks and nuns, it signifies non-possession. It is believed that the complexion of all the 24 Tirthankaras was of one of these 5 colours. For instance and Pushpadanta were white and Neminatha were blue or dark colour and Vasupujya were red, Mallinatha and Pārśva were green, while the remaining were golden or yellowish.
The swastika in the centre of the flag represents the four states of existence of soul. The four stages may be: heaven-beings or deities human beings animal/birds/insects/plants hell beingsIt represents that the soul can embody any of these forms, owing to karma, which may escalate it to higher-level forms such as heavenly beings, or degrade it to lower-level forms such as lesser animals or hell beings; the purpose of soul is to liberate itself from these four stages and be arihants or Siddha eventually. The three dots above the swastika represent the Ratnatraya of Jainism: Samyak Darshana - "Right Faith" or "Right Vision" Samyak Gyana - "Right Knowledge" Samyak Charita - "Right Conduct"These are part of the Jainist paradigm by which jīva seek to rid themselves of karma and the cycle of rebirth, saṃsāra, which it develops; the curve above the three dots denotes Siddhashila, a place in the highest realms of Universe, composed of pure energy. It is above earth, or heaven, it is the place where souls that have attained salvation, for instance and Siddhas reside eternally with supreme bliss.
Respect for Jain Flag is respect for Pañca-Parameṣṭhi. According to Jainism, respect for Pañca-Parameṣṭhi abiding the Ratnatraya destroys the sorrow of the four states of existence and guides one to the sweet home of infinite bliss. Jain symbols Jain rituals
Acharya Kundakunda was a Digambara Jain monk and philosopher, still revered. He authored many Jain texts such as: Samayasara, Pancastikayasara, Pravachanasara and Barasanuvekkha, he occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Digambara Jain acharyas, a position comparable to Christ in Christianity and Muhammad in Islam. All Digambara Jains say his name before starting to read the scripture. Modern scholarship has found it difficult to locate him chronologically, with a possible low date in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE and a late date in 8th century, his proper name was Padmanandin, he is popularly referred to as Kundakunda because the modern village of Kondakunde in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh might represent his native home. A. N. Upadhye has shown that apart from the name Elacarya, all the other names ascribed to Kundakunda go against the tradition of the early epigraphic records. Acharya Kundakunda belonged to the Mula Sangh order of Digambara sect, he is dated to have flourished around second century CE.
For Digambaras, his name has auspicious significance and occupies third place after Lord Mahavira and Gautama Ganadhara in the sacred litany. Kundakunda's singular contribution consists in his compiling a number of liturgical tracts and creating several masterly doctrinal works of his own, which provided a parallel canon for the Digambara tradition; this earned him the everlasting gratitude of the Digambaras, who have for centuries invoked his name together with that of Mahavira and his Ganadhara, placing him ahead of Bhadrabahu and some forty other elders in the lineage, thus making him the founder of the Digambara sect. Dr. A. N. Upadhye in his critical edition of the Pravachansara has examined at great length the problems concerning the date and author-ship of these and other works attributed to Kundakunda and has placed him in the middle of the 2nd century AD; this would make him the first significant and independent thinker of the post-canonical period whose views are accepted as representing the Jain thought.
In texts such as Pravacanasāra and Samayasāra, Kundakunda distinguishes between two perspectives of truth: vyavahāranaya or ‘mundane perspective’ delusion niścayanaya or ‘ultimate perspective’ called “supreme” and “pure” For Kundakunda, the mundane realm of truth is the relative perspective of normal folk, where the workings of karma operate and where things emerge, last for a certain duration and perish. The mundane aspect is associated with the changing qualities of the soul the influx of karmic particles; the ultimate perspective meanwhile, is that of the pure soul or atman, the jiva, "blissful, energetic and omniscient". Delusion and bondage is caused by the confusion of the workings of karma with the true nature of the soul, always pure, in other words, it is caused by taking the view of vyavahāranaya, not the higher niścayanaya, the absolute perspective of a Jina - Kevala Jnana, his view has become the mainstream view in Digambara Jainism. The works attributed to Kundakunda, all of them in Prakrit, can be divided in three groups.
The first group comprises four original works described as "The Essence" — namely, the Niyamasara, the Pancastikayasara, the Samayasara, the Pravachanasara. The second group is a collection of ten bhaktis, short compositions in praise of the acharya, the scriptures, the mendicant conduct, so forth, they form the standard liturgical texts used by the Digambara in their daily rituals and bear close resemblance to similar texts employed by the Śvētāmbara, suggesting the possibility of their origin in the canonical period prior to the division of the community. The last group consists of eight short texts called Prabhrta compilations from some older sources, on such topics as the right view, right conduct, the scripture, so forth. Various Jain texts mention that Acharya Kundkunda wrote'84 Pahurs', only some of them are available at present. Simandhar Swami Kundadri Taran Svami Jain, Vijay K. Acharya Kundkund's Samayasara, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-3-8 Singh, Upinder, A history of ancient and early medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12th century, New Delhi: Pearson Education, ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0 Balcerowicz, Piotr, ed. Essays in Jaina Philosophy and Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1977-2 Cort, John E. Open Boundaries: Jain Communities and Cultures in Indian History, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-3785-X Jaini, Padmanabh and Salvation: Jaina Debates on the Spiritual Liberation of Women, Berkeley: University of California Press Shah, Jainism: The World of Conquerors, I, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1938-1 Jain Literature and Kundakunda Acharya Kundkund
The Kalpa Sūtra is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira. Traditionally ascribed to Bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century BCE. it was put to writing only after 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana of Mahavira. Within the six sections of the Jain literary corpus belonging to the Svetambara school, it is classed as one of the Cheda Sūtras; this Sutra contains detailed life histories and, from the mid-15th century, was illustrated with miniature painting. The oldest surviving copies are written on paper in western India in the 14th century. Kalpasutra is ascribed to Bhadrabahu, traditionally said to have composed it some 150 years after the Nirvāṇa of Mahavira, it was compiled during the reign of Dhruvasena, 980 or 993 years after the Nirvana of Mahavira. The book is read and illustrated in an eight-day-long festival of Paryushan by Jain monks for general people. Only Monks can read this scriptures as in Jainism, this book has high spiritual values.
Parshvanatha Neminatha Dundas, The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X Jain, Kailash Chand, Lord Mahāvīra and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8 "The Kalpa Sûtra" translated in English by Hermann Jacobi is published by Motilal Banarsidass Publishers in Delhi in " The Sacred Books of the East" ISBN 81-208-0123-7 TranslationsKalpa Sutra text The Kalpa sutra, Nava tatva