Paryushana is the most important annual holy events for Jains and is celebrated in August or September in Hindi calendar Bhadrapad Month's Shukla Paksha. It lasts 10 days for Digambara sect of Jains. Jains increase their level of spiritual intensity using fasting and prayer/meditation to help; the five main vows are emphasized during this time. There are no set rules, followers are encouraged to practice according to their ability and desires. Digambaras refer it as Das Lakshana Dharma while Śvētāmbaras refer to it as Paryushana; the duration of Paryushana is for eight days for Śvētāmbara Jains and ten days for Jains belonging to the Digambara sect. The festival ends with the celebration of Kshamavani. Paryushana means "abiding and coming together", it is a time when the Jains take on vows of fasting. The Digambara Jains recite the ten chapters of the sacred Jain text, Tattvartha Sutra on ten days of fasting. Digambaras celebrate Ananta Chaturdashi. Many towns have a procession leading to the main Jain temple.
Ananta Chaturdashi marks the day. At the conclusion of the festival, followers request forgiveness from others for any offenses committed during the last year. Forgiveness is asked by saying Micchami Dukkadam to others, which means, "If I have offended you in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word or action I seek your forgiveness." During the eight-day festival, the Śvētāmbara Murtipujakas recite the Kalpa Sūtra, which includes a recitation of the section on birth of Mahavira on the fifth day. Some Śvētāmbara Sthānakavāsīs recite the Antagada Sutra, which details the life of great men and women who attained moksha during the eras of Neminatha and Mahavira. During Paryushana, Jains observe a fast; the span of the fast can last from a day to 30 days or more. In Digambara Jainism, śrāvakas do not take food and/or water more than once in a day when observing fasts, while Śvētāmbaras observing a fast survive on boiled water, consumed only between sunrise and sunset. At the conclusion of the festival, śrāvakas request each other for forgiveness for all offenses committed during the last year.
This occurs on the Paryusha day for Śvētāmbaras and on the Prathama of the month of Ashvin Krashna for Digambaras. Forgiveness is asked by saying Micchami Uttam Kshama to each other, it means "If I have caused you offence in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought word or deed I seek your forgiveness". Das-Dharma are mentioned in Tattvartha Sutra; these are: Uttam Kshama - उत्तम क्षमा Uttam Mardava - उत्तम मार्दव Uttam Aarjava - उत्तम आर्जव Uttam Satya - उत्तम सत्य Uttam Soch - उत्तम सोच Uttam Sanyam - उत्तम संयम Uttam Tap - उत्तम तप Uttam Tyaga - उत्तम त्याग Uttam Aakinchanya and - उत्तम अकिंचन्य Uttam Brahmcharya - उत्तम बह्मचर्यIn the full form, it is a 10-day vrata that comes every year. It may be undertaken during Shukla Panchami to Chaturdashi of Magh or Chaitra months; however it is common to do it during Bhadrapada. The Das-dharmas are all prefixed by the word ‘Uttam’ to signify that they are practiced at the highest level by the Jain monks; the householder practises them to a lesser extent.
It lasts over a period of ten days, each day being dedicated to one of the ten Dharmas. In the sections below a) stands for the temporary point of view of modes and modification b) stands for the permanent point of view of underlying substance. A) We forgive those who have wronged us and seek forgiveness from those we have wronged. Forgiveness is sought not just from human colleagues, but from all living beings ranging from one sensed to five sensed. If we do not forgive or seek forgiveness but instead harbor resentment, we bring misery and unhappiness on ourselves and in the process shatter our peace of mind and make enemies. Forgiving and seeking forgiveness oils the wheel of life allowing us to live in harmony with our fellow beings, it attracts meritorious karma. B) Forgiveness here is directed to oneself; the soul, in a state of mistaken identity or false belief, assumes that it consists of the body, the karmas and the emotions – likes, anger, pride etc. As a result of this incorrect belief, it inflicts pain upon itself and is thus the cause of its own misery.
Nischay Kshama Dharma teaches the soul to identify itself by encouraging it to contemplate in its true nature and hence achieve the state of right Belief. It is only by achieving Samyak Darshan that the soul ceases to inflict pain on itself and attains supreme happiness. A) Wealth, good looks, reputable family or intelligence lead to pride. Pride means to believe one to look down on others. By being proud you are measuring your worth by temporary material objects; these objects will either leave you or you will be forced to leave them when you die. These eventualities will cause you unhappiness as a result of the ‘dent’ caused to your self-worth. Being humble will prevent this. Pride leads to the influx of the bad karmas. B) All the souls are equal, none being superior or inferior to another; the Nischay view encourages one to understand their true nature. All souls have the potential to be liberated souls; the only difference between the liberated souls and those in bondage is that the former have attained liberation as a result of their ‘effort’.
With effort the latter can achieve liberation. A) The action of a deceitful pe
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient, non-theistic, Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BC and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology; the main religious premises of Jainism are anekāntavāda, aparigraha and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā, asteya and aparigraha; these principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles.
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most basic prayer in Jainism. Jainism has Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; the Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources. Jainism has between five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, Diwali; the principle of ahimsa is a fundamental tenet of Jainism. It believes that one must abandon all violent activity, without such a commitment to non-violence all religious behavior is worthless. In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".
Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable. Its theology teaches that one must neither kill another living being, nor cause another to kill, nor consent to any killing directly or indirectly. Furthermore, Jainism emphasizes non-violence against all beings not only in action but in speech and in thought, it states that instead of hate or violence against anyone, "all living creatures must help each other". Violence negatively affects and destroys one's soul when the violence is done with intent, hate or carelessness, or when one indirectly causes or consents to the killing of a human or non-human living being; the idea of reverence for non-violence is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts. However, no other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism.
The theological basis of non-violence as the highest religious duty has been interpreted by some Jain scholars not to "be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self-discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which affects one's salvation and release from rebirths. Causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering. Late medieval Jain scholars re-examined the Ahiṃsā doctrine when one is faced with external threat or violence. For example, they justified violence by monks to protect nuns. According to Dundas, the Jain scholar Jinadatta Suri wrote during a time of Muslim destruction of temples and persecution that "anybody engaged in a religious activity, forced to fight and kill somebody would not lose any spiritual merit but instead attain deliverance". However, such examples in Jain texts that condone fighting and killing under certain circumstances are rare.
The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda or anekantatva, a word derived from anekānta and vada. The anekāntavāda doctrine states that reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From Truth, according to Mahāvīra, language returns and not the other way round. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete". In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. Since reality is many-sided the great error, according to Jainism, is ekānta where some relative truth is treated as an absolute truth to the exclusion of others.
The anekāntavāda premise of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññapha
Parshvanatha known as Parshva and Paras, was the 23rd of 24 tirthankaras of Jainism. He is the earliest tirthankara, acknowledged as a historical figure. Parshvanatha's biography is uncertain, with Jain sources placing him between the 9th and 8th centuries BC and historians saying that he lived in the 8th or 7th century BC. Parshvanatha was born 350 years before Mahavira. With Mahavira and Neminatha, Parshvanatha is one of the four tirthankaras most worshiped by Jains, he is popularly seen as a ford-maker, who can save. Parshvanatha died on Mount Sammeta in an important Jain pilgrimage site, his iconography is notable for the serpent hood over his head, his worship includes Dharanendra and Padmavati. According to Jain texts, Parshvanatha was born in India. Renouncing worldly life, he founded an ascetic community. Texts of the two major Jain sects differ on the teachings of Parshvanatha and Mahavira, this is a foundation of the dispute between the two sects; the Digambaras believe that there was no difference between the teachings of Parshvanatha and Mahavira.
According to the Śvētāmbaras, Mahavira expanded Parshvanatha's first four restraints with his ideas on ahimsa and added the fifth monastic vow. Parshvanatha did not require celibacy, allowed monks to wear simple outer garments. Digambaras disagree with Śvētāmbara interpretations. Śvētāmbara texts, such as section 2.15 of the Acharanga Sutra, say that Mahavira's parents were followers of Parshvanatha. Parshvanatha is the earliest Jain tirthankara, acknowledged as a historical figure. According to Paul Dundas, Jain texts such as section 31 of Isibhasiyam provide circumstantial evidence that he lived in ancient India. Historians such as Hermann Jacobi have accepted him as a historical figure because his Chaturyama Dharma is mentioned in Buddhist texts. Despite the accepted historicity, some historical claims have led to different scholarly conclusions, he is claimed in Jain texts to have been 13.5 feet tall. Parshvanatha's biography is legendary, with Jain texts saying that he preceded Mahavira by about 250 years and that he lived 78 years.
Mahavira is dated to c. 599 – c. 527 BC in the Jain tradition, Parshvanatha is dated to c. 850 – c. 772 BC. According to Dundas, historians outside the Jain tradition date Mahavira as contemporaneous with the Buddha in the 5th century BC and, based on the 250-year gap, date Parshvanatha to the 8th or 7th century BC. Doubts about Parshvanatha's historicity are supported by the oldest Jain texts, which present Mahavira with sporadic mentions of ancient ascetics and teachers without specific names; the earliest layer of Jain literature on cosmology and universal history pivots around two jinas: the Adinatha and Mahavira. Stories of Parshvanatha and Neminatha appear in Jain texts, with the Kalpa Sūtra the first known text. However, these texts present the tirthankaras with non-human physical dimensions, their bodies are celestial, like deva. The Kalpa Sūtra is the most ancient known Jain text with the 24 tirthankaras, but it lists 20. Early archaeological finds, such as the statues and reliefs near Mathura, lack iconography such as lions or serpents.
Parshvanatha was the 23rd of 24 tirthankaras in Jain tradition. He was born on the tenth day of the dark half of the Hindu month of Pausha to King Ashwasena and Queen Vamadevi of Benares. Parshvanatha belonged to the Ikshvaku dynasty. Before his birth, Jain texts state that he ruled as the god Indra in the 13th heaven of Jain cosmology. While Parshvanatha was in his mother's womb, gods performed the garbha-kalyana, his mother dreamt fourteen auspicious dreams, an indicator in Jain tradition that a tirthankara was about to be born. According to the Jain texts, the thrones of the Indras shook when he was born and the Indras came down to earth to celebrate his janma-kalyanaka. Parshvanatha was born with blue-black skin. A strong, handsome boy, he played with the gods of water and trees. At age eight, Parshvanatha began practicing the twelve basic duties of the adult Jain householder, he lived as a soldier in Benaras. According to the Digambara school, Parshvanatha never married. Heinrich Zimmer translated a Jain text that sixteen-year-old Parshvanatha refused to marry when his father told him to do so.
At age 30, on the 11th day of the moon's waxing in the month of Pausha, Parshvanatha renounced the world to become a monk. He removed his clothes and hair, began fasting strictly. Parshvanatha meditated for 84 days before he attained omniscience under a dhaataki tree near Benares, his meditation period included strict vows. Parshvanatha's practices included careful movement, measured speech, guarded desires, mental restraint and physical activity, essential in Jain tradition to renounce the eg
Arihant is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger and greed. Having destroyed four inimical karmas, they realize pure self. Arihants are called kevalins as they possess kevala jnana. An arihant is called a jina. At the end of their life, arihants attain moksha and become siddhas. Arihantas have a body; the Ṇamōkāra mantra, the fundamental prayer dedicated to Pañca-Parameṣṭhi, begins with Ṇamō arihantāṇaṁ, "obeisance to the arihants". Kevalins - omniscient beings - are said to be of two kinds Tirthankara kevalī: 24 human spiritual guides who after attaining omniscience teach the path to salvation. Sāmānya kevalī: Kevalins who are concerned with their own liberation. According to Jains, every soul has the potential to become an arihant. A soul which destroys all kashayas or inner enemies like anger, ego and greed, responsible for the perpetuation of ignorance, becomes an arihant. According to Jain texts, omniscience is attained on the destruction of four types of karmas– deluding, the knowledge-obscuring, the perception-obscuring and the obstructive karmas, in the order mentioned.
The arihants are said to be free from the following eighteen imperfections: janma – birth. In Jainism, omniscience is said to be the infinite, all-embracing knowledge that reflects, as it were in a mirror, all substances and their infinite modes, extending through the past, the present and the future. According to Jain texts, omniscience is the natural attribute of the pure souls; the self-attaining omniscience becomes a kevalin. The four infinitudes are: ananta jñāna, infinite knowledge ananta darśana, perfect perception due to the destruction of all darśanāvaraṇīya karmas ananta sukha, infinite bliss ananta vīrya – infinite energy Those arihants who re-establish the Jain faith are called tirthankaras. Tirthankaras revitalize the sangha, the fourfold order consisting of male saints, female saints, male householders and female householders; the first tirthankara of the current time cycle was Ṛṣabhanātha, the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara was Mahavira, who lived from 599 BCE to 527 BCE. Jain texts mention forty-six attributes of tirthankaras.
These attributes comprise four infinitudes, thirty-four miraculous happenings, eight splendours. The eight splendours are: aśokavrikśa – the Ashoka tree. At the time of nirvana, the arihant sheds off the remaining four aghati karmas: Nama karma Gotra karma, Vedniya karma, Ayushya karma; these four karmas are therefore called aghati karmas. In the Ṇamōkāra mantra, Namo Arihantanam, Namo Siddhanam, Jains worship the arihants first and to the siddhas though the latter are perfected souls who have destroyed all karmas but arihants are considered to be at a higher spiritual stage than siddhas. Since siddhas have attained ultimate liberation, they are not directly accessible but may be through the wisdom they passed on; however arihants are accessible for spiritual guidance of human society until their nirvana. The Dravyasaṃgraha, a major Jain text, states: Having destroyed the four inimical varieties of karmas, possessed of infinite faith, happiness and power, housed in most auspicious body, that pure soul of the World Teacher should be meditated on.
God in Jainism Śramaṇa Simandhar Swami Jainism and non-creationism Jain philosophy Jain, Vijay K, Acarya Pujyapada's Istopadesa – the Golden Discourse, ISBN 9788190363969 Sangave, Vilas Adinath, Aspects of Jaina religion, Bharatiya Jnanpith, ISBN 81-263-0626-2 Rankin, Aidan, "Chapter 1. Jains Jainism and Jainness", Living Jainism: An Ethical Science, John Hunt Publishing, ISBN 978-1780999111 Jain, Vijay K.. Ācārya Nemichandra's Dravyasaṃgraha. ISBN 9788190363952. Non-copyright
Ethics of Jainism
Jain ethical code prescribes two dharmas or rules of conduct. One for those who wish to become ascetic and another for the śrāvaka. Five fundamental vows are prescribed for both votaries; these vows are observed by śrāvakas and are termed as anuvratas. Ascetics observe these fives vows more and therefore observe complete abstinence; these five vows are: Ahiṃsā Satya Asteya Brahmacharya Aparigraha According to Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya:All these subdivisions are hiṃsā as indulgence in these sullies the pure nature of the soul. Falsehood etc. have been mentioned separately only to make the disciple understand through illustrations. Apart from five main vows, a householder is expected to observe seven supplementary vows and last sallekhanā vow. Mahavrata are the five fundamental observed by the Jain ascetics. According to Acharya Samantabhadra’s Ratnakaraņdaka śrāvakācāra:Abstaining from the commitment of five kinds of sins by way of doing these by oneself, causing these to be done, approval when done by others, through the three kinds of activity, constitutes the great vows of celebrated ascetics.
Ahimsa is formalised into Jain doctrine as the foremost vow. According to the Jain text, Tattvarthsutra: "The severance of vitalities out of passion is injury." Satya is the vow to not lie, to speak the truth. A monk or nun must not speak the false, either be silent or speak the truth. According to Pravin Shah, the great vow of satya applies to "speech and deed", it means discouraging and disapproving others who perpetuate a falsehood; the underlying cause of falsehood is passion and therefore, it is said to cause hiṃsā. Asteya as a great vow means not take anything, not given and without permission, it applies to anything if unattended or unclaimed, whether it is of worth or worthless thing. This vow of non-stealing applies to action and thought. Further a mendicant, states Shah, must neither encourage others to do so nor approve of such activities. According to the Jain text, Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya:Driven by passions, taking anything that has not been given be termed as theft and since theft causes injury, it is hiṃsā According to Tattvarthasutra, five observances that strengthen this vow are: Residence in a solitary place Residence in a deserted habitation Causing no hindrance to others, Acceptance of clean food, Not quarreling with brother monks.
Brahmacharya as a great vow of Jain mendicants means celibacy and avoiding any form of sexual activity with body, words or mind. A monk or nun should not enjoy sensual pleasures, which includes all the five senses, nor ask others to do the same, nor approve of another monk or nun engaging in sexual or sensual activity. According to Tattvarthsutra, "Infatuation is attachment to possessions". Jain texts mentions that "attachment to possessions is of two kinds: attachment to internal possessions, attachment to external possessions; the fourteen internal possessions are: Wrong belief The three sex-passions Male sex-passion Female sex-passion Neuter sex-passion Six defects Laughter Liking Disliking Sorrow Fear Disgust Four passions Anger Pride Deceitfulness GreedExternal possessions are divided into two subclasses, the non-living, the living. According to Jain texts, both internal and external possessions are proved to be hiṃsā; the five great vows apply only to ascetics in Jainism, in their place are five minor vows for householders.
The historic texts of Jains accept that any activity by a layperson would involve some form of himsa to some living beings, therefore the minor vow emphasizes reduction of the impact and active efforts to protect. The five "minor vows" in Jainism are modeled after the great vows, but differ in degree and they are less demanding or restrictive than the same "great vows" for ascetics. Thus, brahmacharya for householders means chastity, or being sexually faithful to one's partner. States John Cort, a mendicant's great vow of ahimsa requires that he or she must avoid gross and subtle forms of violence to all six kinds of living beings. In contrast, a Jain householder's minor vow requires no gross violence against higher life forms and an effort to protect animals from "slaughter, beating and suffering". Apart from five fundamental vows seven supplementary vows are prescribed for a śrāvaka; these include four śikşā vratas. The vow of sallekhanâ is observed by the votary at the end of his life, it is prescribed both for the householders.
According to the Jain text, Puruşārthasiddhyupāya:The man who incessantly observes all the supplementary vows and sallekhanâ for the sake of safeguarding his vows, gets fervently garlanded by the maiden called'liberation'. Digvrata- restriction on movement with regard to directions. Bhogopabhogaparimana- vow of limiting consumable and non-consumable things Anartha-dandaviramana- refraining from harmful occupations and activities. Samayika- vow to meditate and concentrate periodically. Desavrata- limiting movement to certain places for a fixed period of time. Prosadhopavâsa- Fasting at regular intervals. Atihti samvibhag- Vow of offering food to the ascetic and needy people. An ascetic or householder who has observed all
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
The Palitana temples of Jainism are located on Shatrunjaya hill by the city of Palitana in Bhavnagar district, India. The city of the same name, known as Padliptapur, has been dubbed "City of Temples". Shatrunjaya means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies"; this site on Shatrunjaya hill is considered sacred by Svetambara Jains. It is said. There are 863 marble-carved temples on the hills spread in nine clusters, some being vast temple complexes, while most small in size; the main temple is dedicated to the first Tirthankara. The main temple is reached by stepping up 3500 steps. Along with Shikharji in the state of Jharkhand, the two sites are considered the holiest of all pilgrimage places by the Jain community. Jains believe that a visit to this group of temples is essential as a once-in-a-lifetime chance to achieve nirvana or salvation. Of note, Digambara Jains have only one temple here on the hills. Hingraj Ambikadevi is considered as the presiding deity of the hill, a Hindu Goddess worshiped in Baluchistan province of Pakistan, Sindh province and Saurashtra provinces of Gujarat state, near by regions.
On the summit, there is a shrine of a Muslim saint by name Angar Pir, reported to have protected the temples during Muslim invasions in early 14th century. As the temple-city was built to be an abode for the divine, no one is allowed to stay overnight, including the priests. Shatrunjaya means a "place of victory against inner enemies" or "which conquers inner enemies". There are 108 names of Shatrunjaya but only some of them are in common use; the Gulf of Cambay is to the south of the Shatrunjaya Hills, Bhavnagar city is to the north of the hills with the Shetrunji River flowing in between. The temple complex on the hills is located 56 kilometres southwest of Bhavnagar. Palitana, a town in the foothill is 2 kilometres away; the Palitana town is at an altitude of only 66 m. The Palitana Temples are situated at the saddle linking them; the summit is situated at an elevation of 7,288 feet. Reaching it involves climbing over 3,750 stone steps; the temples remain closed for the devotees during the monsoon season.
PathsIt takes two hours to make the 3.5 kilometres climb. There are multiple routes; the shortest one goes around the outer walls of the temples on the hilltop and passes Angar Pir, the shrine of a Muslim saint, reported to have protected the temples during Muslim invasions. A second route goes around the foot of the mountain. Elderly pilgrims who cannot climb the stairs are carried on a doli carried by porters and charged based on the pilgrim's weight. A large number of pilgrims take part in a third route in the month of Phalguna, which passes five sacred temple sites over a distance of 45 kilometres. GroundsFrom the top of Shatrunjaya are views of the Shetrunji river and the rugged, drought-affected landscape; the narrow streets or lanes in the temple complex are similar to the ones found in the medieval cities of Europe. The high walls surrounding the temples give the appearance of a fort. Important features include the Ashok tree, the Chaitra tree, four-faced idol of Mahavir, Hingraj Ambikadevi, Kumarpal and Samprati.
According to the Shatrunjaya Mahatmya, the first Tirthankara Rishabha sanctified the hill where he delivered his first sermon. It was his grandson Pundarika, grandson of Rishabha who attained Nirvana at Shatrunjay, hence the hill was known as "Pundarikgiri". There exists a marble image of Pundaraksvami consecrated in V. S. 1064 by Shersthi Ammeyaka to commemorate the sallekhana of a muni belonging to the Vidhyadhara Kula. Bharata Chakravartin, the father of Pundarik and half-brother of Bahubali came to Shatrunjaya many times, he is credited with building a temple here in honour of his father Rishabha. Legendarily it is associated with many other Tirthankaras.:249The Palitana temples were built over a period of 900 years starting in the 11th century. Kumarpal Solanki, a great Jain patron built the earliest temples, it is said that sculptors' skills and capacity to carve with abrasive cords the intricate designs was paid on the basis of the marble dust that they had collected every evening after their hard labour.
They were destroyed by Turkish Muslims invaders in 1311 AD, when the saint Jinaprabhasuri, 50 years old, presided over the temples. Two years the rebuilding began. While some temple building activity took place under Samara Shah, it was only two centuries that it picked up momentum, when in 1593, Hiravijayasuri organized a major pilgrimage to this location to attend the consecration ceremony of the temple built for Rishabha by Tej Pal Soni, a merchant. Following this, there was proliferation of temples here. Most of the temples which are now present date to the 16th century. In 1656, Shah Jahan's son Murad Baksh granted Palitana villages to the prominent Jain merchant Shantidas Jhaveri, a Svetambara Jain, in 1656, subsequently when all taxes were exempted that the temple town further prospered, it was brought under the control of the Anandji Kalyanji Trust in 1730 to manage not only Palitana temples but many other temples of Svetambara Jains, since the Mughal period. History makes a mention that Lunia Seth Tilokchand, a merchant from Ajmer led a large contingent of pilgrims to