Palkuriki Somanatha was one of the most noted Telugu language writers of the 12th or 13th century. He was an accomplished writer in the Kannada and Sanskrit languages and penned several classics in those languages, he was a Shaiva by faith and a follower of the 12th century social reformer Basava and his writings were intended to propagate this faith. He was a well acclaimed Shaiva poet. Indication that he was not a Shaiva by birth comes from the fact that he mentions the names of his parents in his first work, Basava Purana, violating a general practice of Shaiva writers who do not mention their real parents but rather consider the god Shiva as the father and his consort Parvati as the mother. However, the scholar Bandaru Tammayya has argued; the scholar Seshayya places him in the late 13th to early 14th century and proposes that the writer lived during the reign of Kakatiya king Prataparudra II, whereas the Kannada scholar R. Narasimhacharya dates his writings to the 12th century and claims Somanatha was patronised by Kakatiya king Prataparudra I.
His place of birth is uncertain because there is a village by the name Palkuriki in the Warangal district of the Telangana state as well as in the Kannada speaking region. Telugu languageImportant among his Telugu language writings are the Basava Purana, Panditaradhya charitra, Malamadevipuranamu and Somanatha Stava–in dwipada metre. Kannada languageHis contributions to Kannada literature are, the Basavaragada, Sadgururagada, Sahasragananama, Pancharantna. Several Vachana and ragale poems are his contributions to Kannada literature. Somanatha's Telugu Basavapurana was the inspiration for Vijayanagara poet Bhimkavi who wrote a Kannada book by the same name. Somanatha was the protagonist of a 16th-century Kannada purana written by the Vijayanagara poet Tontadarya. Sanskrit languageImportant among his Sanskrit language writings are the Somanathabhashya, Vrishabhastaka, Basavashtaka, Basava panchaka, Ashtottara satanama gadya, Panchaprakara gadya and Asharanka gadya. Siva's Warriors: The Basava Purana of Palkuriki Somanatha, Tr. by Velcheru Narayana Rao.
Princeton Univ Press, 1990. ISBN 0691055912. Various. Encyclopaedia of Indian literature – vol 5. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1221-8. Sastri, Nilakanta K. A.. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8. Narasimhacharya, R. History of Kannada Literature. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0303-6. Web page on Palkuriki Somanatha
Akka Mahadevi was one of the early female poets of the Kannada language and a prominent personality in the Lingayat sect of Hinduism in the 12th century. Her 430 extant Vachana poems, the two short writings called Mantrogopya and the Yogangatrividhi are considered her most notable contribution to Kannada literature, she composed fewer poems than other saints of the movement. Yet the term Akka, an honorific given to her by great Lingayat saints such as Basavanna and Allamaprabhu is an indication of her contribution to the spiritual discussions held at the "Anubhava Mantapa", she is in hindsight seen as an inspirational woman for Kannada literature and the history of Karnataka. She is known to have considered the god Shiva as her husband. Akka Mahadevi born near Shivamogga in the Indian state of Karnataka; the year of her birth is believed to be around 1130. Some scholars suggest that she was born to a couple named Nirmalshetti and Sumati, who were both devotees of Para Shiva. Little is known about her life, however, it has been the subject of hagiographic folk and mythological claims, sourced both, in oral traditions, as well as from her lyrics.
One of her lyrics, for instance, appears to record her experiences of leaving her place of her birth and family in order to pursue Para Shiva. Tharu and Lalita document a popular claim that a local Jain king named Kaushika sought to marry her, but that she rejected him, choosing instead to fulfil the claims of devotion to the deity Para Shiva. However, it is important to note that the medieval sources that form the basis of accounts of Akka Mahadevi's marriage are themselves ambiguous and inconclusive. Elaborations on this account include a referral to one of her poems, or vachanas, in which she lays down three conditions on which she agreed to marry the King, including a complete control over the choice to spend her time in devotion or in conversation with other scholars and religious figures, as opposed to with the King. There is some dispute over whether the marriage did in fact take place: the medieval scholar and poet Harihara suggests in his biography of her that it did take place but was a marriage in name only, while other accounts from Camasara suggest that the conditions were not accepted and the marriage did not occur.
Harihara's account, which suggests that a marriage did take place, goes on to provide that when King Kaushika violated the conditions she had laid down, Akka Mahadevi left the palace, renouncing all her possessions including clothes, to travel to Srisailam, believed to be the home of the god Para Shiva. Alternative accounts suggest that Akka Mahadevi's act of renunciation was in response to King Kaushika's threats following her refusal to marry him, it is that she visited the town of Kalyana, en route, where she met two other poets and prominent figures of the Lingayat movement and Basava. She is believed to have travelled, towards the end of her life, to the Srisailam mountains, where she lived as an ascetic, died. A vachana attributed to Akka Mahadevi suggests that towards the end of her life, King Kaushika visited her there, sought her forgiveness, she is considered by modern scholars to be a prominent figure in the field of female emancipation. A household name in Karnataka, she had said that she was a woman only in name and that her mind and soul belonged to Lord Shiva.
During a time of strife and political uncertainty in the 12th. Century, she stood by her choice, it is known that she took part in many gatherings of learned such as the Anubhavamantapa in Kalyana to debate about philosophy and attainment of enlightenment. In search for her eternal soul mate, Lord Shiva, she made the animals and birds her friends and companions, rejecting family life and worldly attachment. Bhakti recorded a rethinking of the ashrama dharma which suggested a stages-of-life approach that began with the pursuit of education and ended with the pursuit of moksha. Akka was a revelation here in that she pursued enlightenment recording her journey in vachanas of simple language but great cognitive rigor, it is said that Mahadevi was married by arrangement to Kausika but did not as the king disrespected some conditions set by her. There were immediate tensions, however, as Kausika was a Jain, a group that tended to be wealthy and was, as a result, much resented by the rest of the population.
Akka's poetry explores the themes of rejecting mortal love in favour of the everlasting love of God. Her vachanas talk about the methods that the path of enlightenment demand of the seeker, such as killing the'I', conquering desires and the senses and so on, she rejected her life of luxury to live as a wandering poet-saint, travelling throughout the region and singing praises to her Lord Shiva. She went in search of fellow seekers or sharanas because the company of the saintly or sajjana sanga is believed to hasten learning, she found the company of such sharanas in Bidar district. Akka utters many vachanas in praise of them, her non-conformist ways caused a lot of consternation in a conservative society and her eventual guru Allama Prabhu had to face difficulties in enlisting her in the gatherings at Anubhavamantapa. A true ascetic, Mahadevi is said to have refused to wear any clothing—a common practice among male ascetics, but shocking for a woman. Legend has it that due to her true devotion with God her whole body was protected by hair.
All the sharnas of Anubhavamantapa Basavanna, Chenna Basavanna, Kin
Kudalasangama in India is an important centre of pilgrimage for Lingayats. It is located about 15 kilometres from the Almatti Dam in Bagalkot district of Karnataka state; the Krishna and Malaprabha River rivers flow east towards Srisailam Andhra Pradesh. The Aikya Mantapa or the holy Samādhi of Basavanna, the founder of the Lingayat sect of Hindu religion along with Linga, believed to be self-born, is here; the Kudala Sangama Development Board takes care of the development. The main attractions in and around Kudala Sangama are: The Sangamanatha Temple in Chalukya style The Aikya Linga of Basaveshwara The Mahamane Campus of the Basava Dharma Peetha The Poojavana, a mini forest with neat paths amidst the trees; the Sabha Bhavana. Colossal, it is a spacious auditorium with a seating capacity for 6,000; the exquisite doorways on the four sides - named after Gangambike, Nilambike and Akka Nagamma - surround the huge grey dome in the centre. The Basava Gopura. Tall, it is slated to house the Basava International Centre.
The 200 feet high symmetrical tower is imposing. Museum; the Ashrama, meant for visitors to stay has a museum with a collection of sculptures related to Basavanna and the history of Karnataka state. An inscription in the temple of AD 1213 records a gift to the god Acheshvara. Another stone record of AD 1160 refers to land grant to deities and Achesvara, it is believed that in the 12th century Jathaveda Muni Sarangamath had set up an education centre here and Basaveshvara and Akkanagamma were students. Basaveshvara spent his boyhood here and, after his return from Kalyana, he is said to have become one with the God at this place; the vachanas composed by him are dedicated to Sangamanatha. The place is a village about 19 kilometres from Hungund. Close by is the holy pilgrim centre and the renowned temple of Sangameshwara, on the river bank, at the confluence of the Krishna and the Malaprabha rivers, it was known as Kappadi sangama where Basaveshwara’s teacher Ishanaguru lived. The temple consists of a porch and the main shrine.
The idols of Basaveshvara, Neelamma and Ganapathi have been placed in the navaranga. The door frame of the garbhagriha is richly carved with floral designs and animal figures. In the shrine is the linga famed as Sangameshvara or Sangamanatha. In front of the temple, in the midst of the river, is a small stone mantapa with a Shivalinga in it, lofty cement concrete dry well has been built around it to protect it from submersion. On the east, across the river Krishna, stands the Neelamma’s temple, she was the consort of Basaveshvara. Here a high cement concrete dry well has been built around the structure to protect it from the waters. Vishwaguru Basavanna is the famous Philosopher and social reformer, born in Bagewadi, a small village in Bijapur District, in North Karnataka called Ingaleshwara Bagewadi. Agrahara was an important place in town; the house of Madiraja the chief of the township was situated here. Basaveshwara was born to Madiraja and Madambike on third day of Vyshakha month of Anandanama year in Rohini star, according to the Hindu calendar.
Basavanna was a great saint. A true visionary of his time and a revolutionary who started Lingayat sect. Basavanna's ultimate aim was to make this fundamental right available to everyone. Basavanna, keeping welfare as the ultimate aim, expedited programmes to take religion to the people by preaching and writing religious literature in Kannada, his samadhi is at Kudalasangama. Vachana Sahitya Basavakalyan Ulavi Basavana Bagewadi Tangadagi Muddebihal Bagalkot Karnataka More info Kudala Sangama in Lingayat Religion ಕೂಡಲ ಸಂಗಮ Koodalasangam Indian Mirror article on Kudala Sangama Jangam Lingayats
Basavanna was a 12th-century Hindu philosopher, Kannada poet in the Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I in Karnataka, India. Basavanna spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly known as Vachanaas. Basavanna rejected gender or social discrimination and rituals such as the wearing of sacred thread, but introduced Ishtalinga necklace, with an image of the Shiva Liṅga, to every person regardless of his or her birth, to be a constant reminder of one's bhakti to Shiva; as the chief minister of his kingdom, he introduced new public institutions such as the Anubhava Mantapa, which welcomed men and women from all socio-economic backgrounds to discuss spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open. The traditional legends and hagiographic texts state Basava to be the founder of the Lingayats. However, modern scholarship relying on historical evidence such as the Kalachuri inscriptions state that Basava was the poet philosopher who revived and energized an existing tradition.
The Basavarajadevara Ragale by the Kannada poet Harihara is the earliest available account on the life of the social reformer and is considered important because the author was a near contemporary of his protagonist. A full account of Basava's life and ideas are narrated in a 13th-century sacred Telugu text, the Basava Purana by Palkuriki Somanatha. Basava literary works include the Vachana Sahitya in Kannada Language, he is known as Bhaktibhandari, Basavanna or Basaveswara. Basava was born in 1105 CE in the town of Basavan bagewadi in north Karnataka, to Madarasa and Madalambike, a Kannada Brahmin family devoted to Hindu deity Shiva, he was named Basava, a Kannada form of the Sanskrit Vrishabha in honor of Nandi bull and the local Shaivism tradition. Basava grew up near the banks of rivers Krishna and its tributary Malaprabha. Basava spent twelve years studying in a Hindu temple in the town of Kudalasangama, at Sangameshwara a Shaivite school of learning of the Lakulisha-Pashupata tradition.
Basava married a cousin from his mother side. His wife Gangambike, was the daughter of the prime minister of the Kalachuri king, he began working as an accountant to the court of the king. When his maternal uncle died, the king invited him to be the chief minister; the king married Basava's sister named Padmavati. As chief minister of the kingdom, Basava used the state treasury to initiate social reforms and religious movement focussed on reviving Shaivism and empowering ascetics who were called Jangamas. One of the innovative institutions he launched in 12th century, was the Anubhava Mantapa, a public assembly and gathering, which attracted men and women across various walks of life, from distant lands to discuss spiritual and social issues of life, he composed poetry in local language, spread his message to the masses. His teachings and verses such as Káyakavé Kailása became popular. Several works are attributed to Basava; these include various Vachana such as the Shat-sthala-vachana, Kala-jnana-vachana, Mantra-gopya, Ghatachakra-vachana and Raja-yoga-vachana.
The Basava Purana, a Telugu biographical epic poem, first written by Palkuriki Somanatha in 13th-century, an updated 14th century Kannada version, written by Bhima Kavi in 1369, are sacred texts in Lingayatism. Other hagiographic works include the 15th-century Mala Basava-raja-charitre and the 17th-century Vrishabhendra Vijaya, both in Kannada. Scholars state that the legends about Basava were written down long after Basava's death; this has raised questions about the accuracy and creative interpolation by authors who were not direct witness, but derived their work relying on memory and hearsay of others. Michael states, "All Vachana collections as they exist at present are much than the 15th-century. Much critical labor needs to be spent in determining the authenticity of portions of these collections". Basava grew up in a Brahmin family with a tradition of Shaivism; as a leader, he developed and inspired a new devotional movement named Virashaivas, or "ardent, heroic worshippers of Shiva". This movement shared its roots in the ongoing Tamil Bhakti movement the Shaiva Nayanars traditions, over the 7th- to 11th-century.
However, Basava championed devotional worship that rejected temple worship and rituals led by Brahmins, replaced it with personalized direct worship of Shiva through practices such as individually worn icons and symbols like a small linga. This approach brought Shiva's presence to everyone and at all times, without gender, class or caste discrimination. Basava's poem, such as Basavanna 703, speak of strong sense of gender equality and community bond, willing to wage war for the right cause, yet being a fellow "devotees' bride" at the time of his or her need. A recurring contrast in his poems and ideas is of Sthavara and Jangama, that is, of "what is static, standing" and "what is moving, seeking" respectively. Temples, ancient books represented the former, while discussion represented the latter. Basava emphasized constant personal spiritual development as the path to profound enlightenment, he championed the use of vernacular language, Kannada, in all spiritual discussions so that translation and interpretation by the elite is unnecessary, everyone can understand the
Basavana Bagewadi is a panchayat town and taluka in Bijapur district in the state of Karnataka, India. As of 2001 India census, the town of Basavana Bagevadi had a population of 28,582. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Basavana Bagevadi had an average literacy rate of 53%, lower than the national average of 59.5%. 16% of the population was under 6 years of age. The town of Basavana Bagewadi is in Basavana Bagewadi Taluka; the town of Basavana Bagewadi is situated along Bijapur–Bangalore National Highway No.13 at a distance of 44 kilometres from Bijapur, 493 kilometres distance from the state capital of Bangalore. There are 38 panchayat villages in Basavana Bagewadi Taluka: The Town Municipal Council Basavana Bagewadi was constituted in 1973; the TMC has 5 Numbers of Nominee Councilors. Basavana Bagewadi TMC stretches to an area of 10.30 sq km. Kudagi super national thermal power project 18 kilometres, Basavan Bagewadi road Railway Station 19 kilometres. In 1994 the town elected Patil Basanagoda Somanagouda, a representative of the Indian National Congress party.
In 2012 the town's MLA of India S. K. Bellubbi handed over 623 houses to flood victims. Basavana Bagewadi town is claimed to be the birthplace of Basava, the philosopher of the Lingayat sect; the Basaveshwar Temple was constructed in the 11th century during the rule of the Chalukya dynasty. Basavakalyan Bijapur Sindagi Kudalasangama Bagalkot Muddebihal "Bijapur District Official Website". Bijapur District
Solapur is a city located in the south-western region of the Indian state of Maharashtra, close to its border with Karnataka. Solapur is located on major Highway, rail routes between Mumbai, Pune and Hyderabad, with a branch line to the cities of Bijapur and Gadag in the neighbouring state of Karnataka.& Solapur Is well connected through Airlines way.& Also Solapur international Airport is under construction. It is classified as a 1 Tier and B-1class city by House Rent Allowance classification by the Government of India, it is the 5th biggest city in Maharashtra and the 49th most populous city in India and 43rd largest urban agglomeration. Solapur leads Maharashtra in production of Indian beedi. Solapuri Chadars and towels are famous in India and at a global level, however there has been a significant decline in their exports due to quality reasons. "Solapuri chadars" are the famous and first product in Maharashtra to get a Geographical Indication tag It has been a leading centre for cotton mills and power looms in Maharashtra.
Solapur had Asia's largest spinning mill. The National Research Centre on Pomegranate of India is located in Solapur. and pomegranate farming is done on a large scale in Solapur District. The Science Centre in Kegaon is the third largest and prominent scientific association in Maharashtra; the Raichur-Solapur Power Transmission line of 765 kV power capacity suffices the power grid accessing need of the southern states of Karanataka and Andhra Pradesh. The first waste-to-energy electricity plant in Maharashtra is situated in Solapur; the Gramadevata of the city is Shri Shivyogi Siddheshwar. The "Nandidhwaj" procession on the Hindu festival of Makar Sankranti and on account of it an annual fair locally known as Gadda Yatra attracts large crowds and is associated with the marriage of Lord Siddheshwar. In 1992, the Solapur Municipal Corporation extended its area up to 300 square kilometres by merging its suburbs; the Solapur District was ruled by various dynasties such as Andhrabhratyas, Rashtrakutas and Bahamanis.'Solapur' spelled in (Marathi: सोलापूर is believed to be derived from the combination of two words: Sola / सोळा in Marathi means "sixteen" and "Pura / पुर" means "village".
The present city of Solapur was considered to be spread over sixteen villages viz. Aadilpur, Chapaldev, Jamdarwadi, Khadarpur, Muhammadpur, Sandalpur, Solapur, Sonallagi and Vaidakwadi and all these villages are now merged with Solapur Municipal Corporation, it is evident from the inscriptions of Shivayogi Lord Siddheshwar of the time of the Kalachuristis of Kalyani, that the town was called'Sonnalage' which came to be pronounced as'Sonnalagi'. The town was known as Sonnalagi up to the times of Yadavas. A Sanskrit inscription dated Śakē 1238, after the downfall of the Yadavas found at Kamati in Mohol shows that the town was known as Sonalipur. One of the inscriptions found in Solapur fort shows that the town was called Sonalpur while another inscription on the well in the fort shows that it was known as Sandalpur. Subsequently, the British rulers pronounced Solapur as Sholapur and hence the name of the district; the present Solapur district was part of Ahmednagar and Satara districts. In 1838 it became the Sub-district of Ahmednagar.
It included Barshi, Madha, Indi and Muddebihal Sub-divisions. In 1864 this Sub-district was abolished. In 1871 this district was reformed joining the Sub-divisions viz. Solapur, Mohol and Karmala and two Subdivisions of Satara district viz. Pandharpur, Sangola and in 1875 Malshiras Sub-division was attached. After the State reorganisation in 1956 Solapur was included in Bombay State and it became a full-fledged district of Maharashtra State in 1960; the municipal corporation building was built by Rao Saheb Mallappa Warad. He was one of the first to bring the farming tractor to India, it was his wish that the building should be used for some public purpose and thus the building was made the municipal council. The building is called Indra Bhawan which means'Abode of Indra'. Mallappa Warad was one of the ten members of'Chamber of Merchants' under Queen Victoria; the Solapur Municipal Council was the first municipal council to hoist the indian national flag on the Municipal Council building in 1930.
Taking the spirit of Dandi March from Mahatma Gandhi, the freedom fighters of Solapur hoisted the National Flag on 6 April 1930 on the Municipal Council building. This was the unique incidence of such kind throughout the country. During the Indian independence movement, the people of Solapur enjoyed full freedom on 9–11 May 1930. However, this resulted in the executions of Mallappa Dhanshetti, Abdul Rasool Qurban Hussein, Jagannath Bhagwan Shinde and Shrikisan Laxminarayan Sarada, who were hanged on 12 January 1931, in the prison at Pune; this resulted in the city becoming recognized as "The City of Hutatmas" "The City of Martyrs". There is one of the oldest Ganesh temples, Ajoba Ganpati temple, which started celebrating the Ganesh festival in 1885; the inscriptions of chief deity of Solapur Shivyogi Shri. Siddheshwar of the time of the Kalachuri suggest that the town was called "Sonnalage" which came to be pronounced as "Sonnalagi". A Sanskrit inscription dated Shake 1238, after the downfall of the Yadavas found at Kamati in Mohol shows that the town was known as Sonalipur.
One of the inscriptions found in Solapur fort shows. It was the main commercial hub of an important trading city; the town was
In Indian religions and society, an acharya is a preceptor or instructor in religious matters. The designation has different meanings in Hinduism and secular contexts. Acharya is sometimes used to address a teacher or a scholar in any discipline, e.g.: Bhaskaracharya, the mathematician. The term "acharya" is most said to include the root "char" or "charya", thus it connotes "one who teaches by conduct", i.e. an exemplar. In Hinduism, an acharya is a formal title of a teacher or guru, who has attained a degree in Veda and Vedanga. Prominent acharyas in the Hindu tradition are as given below: Adi Sankaracharya Ramanujacharya Madhvacharya Nimbarkacharya VallabhacharyaChaitanya MahaprabhuAcharya Sandipani Bhadreshdas Swami In Buddhism, acharya is a senior teacher. Notable acharyas: Pema Chödrön acharya at Gampo Abbey In Jainism, an acharya is the highest leader of a Jain order. Acharya is one of the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi and thus worthy of worship, they are the final authority in the monastic order and has the authority to ordain new monks and nuns.
They are authorized to consecrate new idols, although this authority is sometimes delegated to scholars designated by them. An acharya, like any other Jain monk, is expected to wander except for the Chaturmas. Bhaṭṭārakas, who head institutions, are technically junior monks, thus permitted to stay in the same place. Bhaskaracharya Mahaviracharya Bhaskaracharya I In Sanskrit institutions, acharya is a post-graduate degree. A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Srikanta Acharya Scriptural References to'acarya' Jain Monks and Aryikas Dr. K. C. Jain