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Side, Turkey

Side is a city on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. It includes the modern resort town and the ruins of the ancient city of Side, one of the best-known classical sites in the country, it lies near the village of Selimiye, 78 km from Antalya in the province of Antalya. It is located on the eastern part of the Pamphylian coast, which lies about 20 km east of the mouth of the Eurymedon River. Today, as in antiquity, the ancient city is situated on a small north-south peninsula about 1 km long and 400 m across. Strabo and Arrian both record that Side was founded by Greek settlers from Cyme in Aeolis, a region of western Anatolia; this most occurred in the 7th century BC. Its tutelary deity was Athena. Dating from the tenth century BC, its coinage bore the head of Athena, the patroness of the city, with a legend, its people, a piratical horde forgot their own language to adopt that of the aborigines. Possessing a good harbour for small-craft boats, Side's natural geography made it one of the most important places in Pamphylia and one of the most important trade centres in the region.

According to Arrian, when settlers from Cyme came to Side, they could not understand the dialect. After a short while, the influence of this indigenous tongue was so great that the newcomers forgot their native Greek and started using the language of Side. Excavations have revealed several inscriptions written in this language; the inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, remain undeciphered, but testify that the local language was still in use several centuries after colonisation. Another object found in the excavations at Side, a basalt column base from the 7th century BC and attributable to the Neo-Hittites, provides further evidence of the site's early history; the name Side may be Anatolian in origin. Next to no information exists concerning Side under Persian sovereignty. Alexander the Great occupied Side without a struggle in 333 BC. Alexander left only a single garrison behind to occupy the city; this occupation, in turn, introduced the people of Side to Hellenistic culture, which flourished from the 4th to the 1st century BC.

After Alexander's death, Side fell under the control of one of Alexander's generals, Ptolemy I Soter, who declared himself king of Egypt in 305 BC. The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Side until it was captured by the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd century BC. Yet, despite these occupations, Side managed to preserve some autonomy, grew prosperous, became an important cultural centre. In 190 BC a fleet from the Greek island city-state of Rhodes, supported by Rome and Pergamum, defeated the Seleucid King Antiochus the Great's fleet, under the command of the fugitive Carthaginian general Hannibal; the defeat of Hannibal and Antiochus the Great meant that Side freed itself from the overlord-ship of the Seleucid Empire. The Treaty of Apamea forced Antiochus to abandon all European territories and to cede all of Asia Minor north of the Taurus Mountains to Pergamum. However, the dominion of Pergamum only reached de facto as far as Perga, leaving Eastern Pamphylia in a state of uncertain freedom; this led Attalus II Philadelphus to construct a new harbour in the city of Attalia, although Side possessed an important harbour of its own.

Between 188 and 36 BC Side minted its own money, tetradrachms showing a laurel wreath. In the 1st century BC, Side reached a peak when the Cilician pirates established their chief naval base and a centre for their slave-trade; the consul Servilius Vatia defeated these brigands in 78 BC and the Roman general Pompey in 67 BC, bringing Side under the control of Rome and beginning its second period of ascendancy, when it established and maintained a good working relationship with the Roman Empire. Emperor Augustus reformed the state administration and placed Pamphylia and Side in the Roman province of Galatia in 25 BC, after the short reign of Amyntas of Galatia between 36 and 25 BC. Side began another prosperous period as a commercial centre in Asia Minor through its trade in olive oil, its population grew to 60,000 inhabitants. This period would last well into the 3rd century AD. Side established itself as a slave-trading centre in the Mediterranean, its large commercial fleet engaged in acts of piracy, while wealthy merchants paid for such tributes as public works and competitions as well as the games and gladiator fights.

Most of the extant ruins at Side date from this period of prosperity. Side was the home of Eustathius of Antioch, of the philosopher Troilus, of the fifth-century ecclesiastical writer Philip. Side began a steady decline from the 4th century on. Defensive walls could not stop successive invasions of highlanders from the Taurus Mountains. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Side experienced a revival, became the seat of the Bishopric of Eastern Pamphylia. Arab fleets raided and burned Side during the 7th century, contributing to its decline; the combination of earthquakes, Christian zealots and Arab raids, left the site abandoned by the 10th century, its citizens having emigrated to nearby Antalya. In the 12th century, Side temporarily established itself once more as a large city. An inscription found on the site of the former ancient city shows a considerable Jewish population in early Byzantine times. However, Side was abandoned again after being sacked, its population moved to Antalya, Side became known as Eski Adalia'Old Antalya' and was buried.

As capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima, Side was ecclesiastically. The earliest known bishop was Epidaurus, presiding at the Synod of Ancyra, 314. Others are John, fourth c

Jay London

Jay London is an American stand-up comic, whose one-liner jokes made him a favorite on NBC's Last Comic Standing. Although he did not win either of the two seasons in which he appeared, his humble personality and clean comedy made him a favorite among the show's fans. London was born in The Bronx, but grew up in Flushing, before moving to Los Angeles in his adult years, he was a boxer and a taxicab driver, among other occupations, before becoming a stand-up comic in the 1980s. London is known for his long curly bib overalls, his signature line is "You might recognize me, I'm the fourth guy from the left on the evolutionary chart," referring to his slouching posture and unkempt appearance. His comedy is self-deprecating and laden with quips such as "0 for 1", "This is death!" and his trademark line, "It's over." During his run on Last Comic Standing, he made a guest appearance on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. After Last Comic Standing, London joined fellow Season 2 competitors Gary Gulman and Alonzo Bodden as part of the "I'm Still Standing" comedy tour.

He has done shows for cancer patients and small comedy clubs. In 2004, Jay made an appearance on the game show Street Smarts. On August 1, 2006, Mr. London made a return appearance on Last Comic Standing; the pilot to his television show, "The Jay London Show", debuted on his official website in January 2007. London served as the opening act on Louis C. K.'s 2015 stand up special, Live At The Comedy Store. Official website

Siege of Cusco

The Siege of Cusco was the siege of the city of Cusco by the army of Sapa Inca Manco Inca Yupanqui against a garrison of Spanish conquistadors and Indian auxiliaries led by Hernando Pizarro in the hope to restore the Inca Empire. The siege lasted ten months and was unsuccessful. A Spanish expedition led by Francisco Pizarro had captured the Inca capital of Cusco on November 15, 1533 after defeating an Inca army headed by general Quisquis; the following month, the conquistadors supported the coronation of Manco Inca as Inca emperor to facilitate their control over the empire. Real power rested with the Spaniards who humiliated Manco Inca and imprisoned him after an attempted escape in November 1535. After his release in January 1536, Manco Inca left Cusco on April 18 promising the Spanish commander, Hernando Pizarro, to bring back a large gold statue when in fact he was preparing a rebellion. Having realized their mistake, Hernando Pizarro led an expedition against Manco Inca's troops, which had gathered in the nearby Yucay Valley.

The Inca emperor did not attack Cusco at once, instead he waited to assemble his full army estimated at between 100,000 and 200,000 men strong around the city. The siege started on May 1536 with a full-scale attack towards the main square of the city; the conquistadors fended off Inca attacks from these constructions and mounted frequent raids against their besiegers. To relieve their position, the Spaniards decided to assault the walled complex of Sacsayhuamán which served as the main base of operations for the Inca army. Fifty horsemen, led by Juan Pizarro, accompanied by Indian auxiliaries broke through the Inca army files, turned around and attacked Sacsayhuamán from outside the city. During the frontal assault against the building's large walls, a stone struck Juan Pizarro in the head; the following day, the Spaniards resisted several Inca counterattacks and mounted a renewed assault at night using scaling ladders. In this way, they captured the terrace walls of Sacsayhuamán while the Inca army held on to the two tall towers of the complex.

The Inca commanders, Paucar Huaman and the high priest or Willaq Umu, decided to leave the confinement of the towers and fight their way towards Calca, the site of Manco Inca's headquarters, to bring back reinforcements. The attempt was successful and the towers were left under the command of Titu Cusi Gualpa, an Inca nobleman. Despite Titu's fierce resistance, the Spaniards and their auxiliaries stormed the towers so that when the Inca commanders returned, Sacsayhuamán was under their control; the capture of Sacsayhuamán eased the pressure on the Spanish garrison at Cusco. During this period, the Spaniards implemented terror tactics to demoralize the Inca army, which included an order to kill any woman caught and cutting off the hands of captured men. Encouraged by their successes, Hernando Pizarro led an attack against Manco Inca's headquarters which were now at Ollantaytambo, further away from Cusco. Manco Inca defeated the Spanish expedition at the Battle of Ollantaytambo by taking advantage of the fortifications and the difficult terrain around the site.

The Spanish garrison had more success with several raids to gather food from regions near Cusco. Meanwhile, Manco Inca tried to capitalize on his success at Ollantaytambo with a renewed assault on Cusco, but a Spanish cavalry party had a chance encounter with the Inca army thus ruining any hope of surprise; that same night the Spaniards mounted a full-scale attack which achieved complete surprise and inflicted severe casualties on Manco Inca's troops. After 10 months of vicious fighting in Cusco, with low morale playing a factor, Manco Inca decided to raise the siege at Cusco and withdraw to Ollantaytambo and Vilcabamba, where he established the small Neo-Inca State, it is suggested by some that by this action he threw away his only real chance to rebuff the Spaniards from the lands of the Inca Empire, but it was the only realistic choice he had considering the arrival of Spanish reinforcements from Chile led by Diego de Almagro. Upon facing victory and the availability of expanding his own reign into Peru, Almagro seized the city once having achieved victory for Spain and had Hernando and Gonzalo imprisoned.

Gonzalo escaped, to face Almagro in a personal triumph at the Battle of Las Salinas. Hemming, John; the conquest of the Incas. London: Macmillan, 1993. ISBN 0-333-10683-0