Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage. He is noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and October, as well as the historical epics Alexander Nevsky and Ivan the Terrible. Eisenstein was born to a family in Riga, Latvia. His father, Mikhail Osipovich Eisenstein was born to a German Jewish father who had converted to Christianity, Osip Eisenstein, and his mother, Julia Ivanovna Konetskaya, was from a Russian Orthodox family. According to other sources, both of his grandparents were of Baltic German descent. His father was an architect and his mother was the daughter of a prosperous merchant, Julia left Riga the same year as the Russian Revolution of 1905, taking Sergei with her to St. Petersburg. Her son would return at times to see his father, who joined them around 1910, divorce followed and Julia left the family to live in France. Eisenstein was raised as an Orthodox Christian, but became an atheist on, at the Petrograd Institute of Civil Engineering, Sergei studied architecture and engineering, the profession of his father.
In 1918 Sergei left school and joined the Red Army to serve the Bolshevik Revolution and this brought his father to Germany after the defeat of the Tsarist government, and Sergei to Petrograd and Dvinsk. In 1920, Sergei was transferred to a position in Minsk. At this time, he was exposed to Kabuki theatre and studied Japanese, learning some 300 kanji characters and these studies would lead him to travel to Japan. In 1920 Eisenstein moved to Moscow, and began his career in working for Proletkult. His productions there were entitled Gas Masks, Listen Moscow, Eisenstein would work as a designer for Vsevolod Meyerhold. In 1923 Eisenstein began his career as a theorist, by writing The Montage of Attractions for LEF, Eisensteins first film, Glumovs Diary, was made in that same year with Dziga Vertov hired initially as an instructor. Strike was Eisensteins first full-length feature film, the Battleship Potemkin was acclaimed critically worldwide. Officially, the trip was supposed to allow Eisenstein and company to learn about sound motion pictures, for Eisenstein, however, it was an opportunity to see landscapes and cultures outside those found within the Soviet Union.
He spent the two years touring and lecturing in Berlin, Zürich and Paris. In 1929, in Switzerland, Eisenstein supervised an educational documentary about abortion directed by Tissé entitled Frauennot - Frauenglück, in late April 1930, Jesse L. Lasky, on behalf of Paramount Pictures, offered Eisenstein the opportunity to make a film in the United States
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow KBE was an American broadcast journalist. He was generally referred to as Ed Murrow, during the war he assembled a team of foreign correspondents who came to be known as the Murrow Boys. A pioneer of television broadcasting, Murrow produced a series of reports that helped lead to the censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Murrow was born Egbert Roscoe Murrow at Polecat Creek, near Greensboro, in Guilford County, North Carolina and he was the youngest of three brothers and was a mixture of English, Scottish and German descent. The firstborn, Roscoe Jr. lived only a few hours, lacey Van Buren was four years old and Dewey Roscoe was two years old when Murrow was born. His home was a log cabin without electricity or plumbing, on a farm bringing in only a few hundred dollars a year from corn and hay. When Murrow was six years old, his family moved across the country to Skagit County in western Washington and he attended high school in nearby Edison, and was president of the student body in his senior year and excelled on the debate team.
He was a member of the team which won the Skagit County championship. After graduation from school in 1926, Murrow enrolled at Washington State College across the state in Pullman. A member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity, he was active in college politics. By his teen years, Murrow went by the nickname Ed and during his year of college. After earning his bachelors degree in 1930, he moved back east to New York and he married Janet Huntington Brewster on March 12,1935. Their son, Charles Casey Murrow, was born in the west of London on November 6,1945, Murrow joined CBS as director of talks and education in 1935 and remained with the network for his entire career. CBS did not have news staff when Murrow joined, save for announcer Bob Trout, Murrows job was to line up newsmakers who would appear on the network to talk about the issues of the day. But the onetime Washington State speech major was intrigued by Trouts on-air delivery, Murrow went to London in 1937 to serve as the director of CBSs European operations.
The position did not involve on-air reporting, his job was persuading European figures to broadcast over the CBS network, during this time, he made frequent trips around Europe. In 1937, Murrow hired journalist William L. Shirer, and this marked the beginning of the Murrow Boys team of war reporters. Murrow gained his first glimpse of fame during the March 1938 Anschluss, Murrow immediately sent Shirer to London, where he delivered an uncensored, eyewitness account of the Anschluss
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Bergen-Belsen, or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle. Originally established as a prisoner of war camp, in 1943, initially this was an exchange camp, where Jewish hostages were held with the intention of exchanging them for German prisoners of war held overseas. The camp was expanded to accommodate Jews from other concentration camps. After 1945 the name was applied to the displaced persons camp established nearby, from 1941 to 1945, almost 20,000 Soviet prisoners of war and a further 50,000 inmates died there. The camp was liberated on April 15,1945, by the British 11th Armoured Division, the soldiers discovered approximately 60,000 prisoners inside, most of them half-starved and seriously ill, and another 13,000 corpses lying around the camp unburied. The horrors of the camp, documented on film and in pictures, there is a memorial with an exhibition hall at the site. In 1935 the Wehrmacht began to build a military complex close to the village of Belsen.
This became the largest military training area in Germany of the time and was used for armoured vehicle training, the barracks were finished in 1937. The camp has been in operation since and is today known as Bergen-Hohne Training Area. It is used by the NATO armed forces, the workers who constructed the original buildings were housed in camps near Fallingbostel and Bergen, the latter being the so-called Bergen-Belsen Army Construction Camp. Once the military complex was completed in 1938/39, the camp fell into disuse. However, after the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, the camp of huts near Fallingbostel became known as Stalag XI-B and was to become one of the Wehrmachts largest POW camps, holding up to 95,000 prisoners from various countries. In June 1940, Belgian and French POWs were housed in the former Bergen-Belsen construction workers’ camp and this installation was significantly expanded from June 1941, once Germany prepared to invade the Soviet Union, becoming an independent camp known as Stalag XI-C.
It was intended to hold up to 20,000 Soviet POWs and was one of three camps in the area. The others were at Oerbke and Wietzendorf, by the end of March 1942, some 41,000 Soviet POWs had died in these three camps of starvation and disease. By the end of the war, the number of dead had increased to 50,000. When the POW camp in Bergen ceased operation in early 1945, as the Wehrmacht handed it over to the SS, in the summer of 1943, Stalag XI-C was dissolved and Bergen-Belsen became a branch camp of Stalag XI-B. It served as the hospital for all Soviet POWs in the region until January 1945, in April 1943, a part of the Bergen-Belsen camp was taken over by the SS Economic-Administration Main Office
The film was produced by Hitchcock and Sidney Bernstein as the first of their Transatlantic Pictures productions. It is the second of Hitchcocks limited setting films, the first being Lifeboat, the original play was said to be inspired by the real-life murder of 14-year-old Bobby Franks in 1924 by University of Chicago students Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb. Two brilliant young aesthetes, Brandon Shaw and Phillip Morgan, strangle to death their former classmate from Harvard University, David Kentley and they commit the crime as an intellectual exercise, they want to prove their superiority by committing the perfect murder. After hiding the body in an antique wooden chest and Phillip host a dinner party at the apartment. The guests, who are unaware of what has happened, include the victims father Mr. Kentley and aunt Mrs. Atwater, there are his fiancée, Janet Walker and her former lover Kenneth Lawrence, who was once Davids close friend. Brandon uses the chest containing the body as a table for the food, just before their housekeeper.
Now the fun begins, Brandon says when the first guests arrive and Phillips idea for the murder was inspired years earlier by conversations with their prep school housemaster, publisher Rupert Cadell. He too is among the guests at the party, since Brandon in particular feels that he would approve of their work of art, brandons subtle hints about Davids absence indirectly lead to a discussion on the art of murder. Brandon appears calm and in control, although when he first speaks to Rupert he is nervously excited, Phillip, on the other hand, is visibly upset and morose. He does not conceal it well and starts to drink too much, much of the conversation, focuses on David and his strange absence, which worries the guests. A suspicious Rupert quizzes a fidgety Phillip about this and about some of the inconsistencies that have raised in conversation. For example, Phillip had vehemently denied ever strangling a chicken at the Shaws farm, Phillip complains to Brandon about having had a rotten evening, not because of Davids murder, but over Ruperts questioning.
As the evening goes on, Davids father and fiancée begin to worry that he has neither arrived nor phoned, Brandon increases the tension by playing matchmaker between Janet and Kenneth. Mrs. Kentley calls, overwrought because she has not heard from David and he takes with him some books Brandon has given him, tied together with the rope Brandon and Phillip used to strangle his son. When Rupert goes to leave, Mrs. Wilson accidentally hands him Davids monogrammed hat, Rupert returns to the apartment a short while after everyone else has departed, pretending that he has left his cigarette case behind. He hides the case behind some books on the chest, asks for a drink and he is encouraged by Brandon, who hopes Rupert will understand and even applaud them. A drunk Phillip is unable to take it any more, he throws a glass and says and mouse, but which is the cat and which is the mouse. Rupert lifts the lid of the chest and finds the body inside and he is horrified but deeply ashamed, realizing that Brandon and Phillip used his own rhetoric to rationalize murder
A major star at MGM during the 1940s, Garson received seven Academy Award nominations, including a record five consecutive nominations, winning the Best Actress award for Mrs. Miniver. Greer Garson was born on 29 September 1904 in Manor Park, East Ham, London and, the child of Nina and George Garson. Her father was born in London, to Scottish parents, and her mother was from Drumaloor, County Down, the name Greer is a contraction of MacGregor, another family name. David Greer lived in a detached house built on the lower part of what was known as Pig Street or known locally as the Back Way near Shillidays builders yard. The house was called Claremount and today the street is named Claremount Avenue and it was often reported that Garson was born in this house. She had intended to become a teacher, but instead began working with an advertising agency, Greer Garsons early professional appearances were on stage, starting at Birmingham Repertory Theatre in January 1932. She appeared on television during its earliest years, most notably starring in a 30-minute production of an excerpt of Twelfth Night in May 1937, with Dorothy Black.
These live transmissions were part of the BBCs experimental service from Alexandra Palace, louis B. Mayer discovered Garson while he was in London looking for new talent. Garson was signed to a contract with MGM in late 1937 and she received her first Oscar nomination for the role, but lost to Vivien Leigh for Gone with the Wind. She received critical acclaim the next year for her role as Elizabeth Bennet in the 1940 film, Garson won the Academy Award for Best Actress in 1942 for her role as a strong British wife and mother in the middle of World War II in Mrs. Miniver. She was nominated for Madame Curie, Mrs. Parkington, Garson was partnered with Clark Gable, after his return from war service, in Adventure. The film was advertised with the catch-phrase Gables back and Garsons got him, Gable argued for He put the Arson in Garson, she countered She put the Able in Gable. Thereafter, the catchphrase was selected. Garsons popularity declined somewhat in the late 1940s, but she remained a prominent film star until the mid-1950s, in 1951, she became a naturalised citizen of the United States.
She made only a few films after her MGM contract expired in 1954, in 1958, she received a warm reception on Broadway in Auntie Mame, replacing Rosalind Russell, who had gone to Hollywood to make the film version. In 1960, Garson received her seventh and final Oscar nomination for Sunrise at Campobello, in which she played Eleanor Roosevelt, Greer was special guest on an episode of the TV series Father Knows Best, playing herself. On 4 October 1956, Garson appeared with Reginald Gardiner as the first two guest stars of the series, in the premiere of NBCs The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford. Garson appeared as a mystery guest on Whats My Line on 25 October 1953 and she was a panelist on the 12 May 1957 episode
Kent /ˈkɛnt/ is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south west, the county shares borders with Essex via the Dartford Crossing and the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. France can be clearly in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county, because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as The Garden of England. The title was defended in 2006 when a survey of counties by the UKTV Style Gardens channel put Kent in fifth place, behind North Yorkshire, Devon. Haulage and tourism are industries, major industries in north-west Kent include aggregate building materials, printing. Coal mining has played its part in Kents industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its transport connections to the capital.
Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the North Downs and The High Weald, the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era, There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley. The modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word Cantus meaning rim or border and this describes the eastern part of the current county area as a border land or coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as Cantium, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC, the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730, the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Cantwara, or Kent people.
These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital, in 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine successfully converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity, the Diocese of Canterbury became Britains first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained Englands centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral, in the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning undefeated. This naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy, the Kent peoples continued resistance against the Normans led to Kents designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067. Under the nominal rule of Williams half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales
UFA GmbH is German film and television production company that unites all production activities of Bertelsmann in Germany. Its history comes from Universum Film AG that was a major German film company headquartered in Babelsberg, the name UFA was revived for an otherwise new film and television outfit. UFA was established as Universum-Film on December 18,1917, as a response to foreign competition in film. UFA was founded by a consortium headed by Emil Georg von Stauß, in 1925, financial pressures compelled UFA to enter into distribution agreements with American studios Paramount and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to form Parufamet. UFAs weekly newsreels continued to reference to the Paramount deal until 1940. Köhnlechner bought UFA, which was strongly in debt, on behalf of Reinhard Mohn for roughly five million Deutschmarks, only a few months later, Köhnlechner acquired the Ufa-Filmtheaterkette, a movie theater chain, for almost eleven million Deutschmarks. Today, UFA GmbH is the parent company uniting all production activities of Bertelsmann/FremantleMedia in Germany, in August 2013, UFA underwent an organizational restructuring that simplified the company down to three production divisions.
Today, UFA Fiction, UFA Serial Drama and UFA Show & Factual are the three units responsible for production, an early step towards the founding of UFA was taken on January 13,1917 with the creation of the Bild- und Filmamt by Germanys Supreme Army Command. Formed as a reaction to the advantage of Germanys enemies in the realm of film propaganda. However, the plans envisaged by the German General Staff – especially those of Erich Ludendorff – went far beyond the creation of Bufa, Ludendorff foresaw a large-scale, state-controlled film corporation that would serve national interests. In this spirit, Universum-Film AG was founded as a consolidation of private companies on December 18,1917 in Berlin. The companys starting capital amounted to 25 million Reichsmark, among the contributors were the German government, the Board Chairman of the new company was Deutsche Bank director Emil Georg von Stauß. Prior to establishing the company, the General Staff had initially considered taking over the Deutsche Lichtbild-Gesellschaft e. V. which had founded in 1916.
This agency, was far too much under the influence of industry and, in particular, of Alfred Hugenberg. Hugenberg would take over UFA in 1927, the studios were previously owned by Continental-Kunstfilm, whose production had slowed since 1915 and didnt join UFA. Greenbaum-Film joined in 1919, but the deal was disastrous for Jules Greenbaum who died in an institution in 1924. Deutsche Bioscope, merged in March 1920 with Erich Pommers German branch of Éclair to form Decla-Bioscop, instead of propaganda films, UFA now produced elaborate entertainment films such as Sumurun. In 1921, UFA was already producing the lions share of German feature films, starting in 1922, large ateliers in Neubabelsberg and on Oberlandstraße in Berlin-Tempelhof were made available for film production
Peter Lorre was an Austro-Hungarian-American actor. In Austria, he began his career in Vienna before moving to Germany where he had his breakthrough, first on the stage, in film in Berlin in the late 1920s. Lorre caused a sensation in the German film M, in which he portrayed a serial killer who preys on little girls. Because he was Jewish, he left Germany after 1933 and his first English-language film was Alfred Hitchcocks The Man Who Knew Too Much made in Great Britain. Eventually settling in Hollywood, he became a featured player in many Hollywood crime. In his initial American films, Mad Love and Crime and Punishment, he continued to play murderers, but he was cast playing Mr. Moto, from 1941 to 1946 he mainly worked for Warner Bros. The first of these films at Warners was The Maltese Falcon and this was followed by Casablanca, the second of the nine films in which Lorre and Greenstreet appeared. Lorres other films include Frank Capras Arsenic and Old Lace and Disneys 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, frequently typecast as a sinister foreigner, his career was erratic.
Lorre was the first actor to play a James Bond villain as Le Chiffre in a TV version of Casino Royale, some of his last roles were in horror films directed by Roger Corman. Lorre was born László Löwenstein on 26 June 1904, the first child of Jewish couple Alajos Löwenstein and his parents had recently moved there following his fathers appointment as chief bookkeeper at a local textile mill. Alajos Löwenstein served as a lieutenant in the Austrian army reserve, lászlós mother died when he was only four years old, leaving Alajos with three very young sons, the youngest only a couple of months old. He soon married his wifes best friend Melanie Klein, with whom he had two more children, however and his stepmother never got along, and this colored his childhood memories. At the outbreak of the Second Balkan War in 1913, anticipating that this would lead to a larger conflict and he was serving on the Eastern Front during the winter of 1914–1915 before being put in charge of a prison camp due to heart trouble.
Lorre began acting on stage in Vienna aged 17, where he worked with Viennese Art Nouveau artist and he moved to the German town of Breslau, and to Zürich. In the late 1920s, the moved to Berlin, where he worked with German playwright Bertolt Brecht, including a role in Brechts Mann ist Mann. The actor became much better known after director Fritz Lang cast him as child killer Hans Beckert in M, a film reputedly derived from the Peter Kürten case. Lang said that he had Lorre in mind while working on the script, the director believed that the actor gave his best performance in M and that it was among the most distinguished in film history. Sharon Packer observed that Lorre played the loner, schizotypal murderer with raspy voice, bulging eyes, in 1932, Lorre appeared alongside Hans Albers in the science fiction film F. P.1 antwortet nicht about an artificial island in the mid-Atlantic
By September 1940—two months into the battle—faulty German intelligence suggested that the Royal Air Force was close to defeat at the hands of the Luftwaffe. The German air fleets were ordered to attack London, thereby drawing up the last remnants of RAF Fighter Command into a battle of annihilation, Adolf Hitler and commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, sanctioned the change in emphasis on 6 September 1940. From 7 September 1940, one year into the war, London was systematically bombed by the Luftwaffe for 56 out of the following 57 days, on 15 September 1940, a large daylight attack against London was repulsed with significant German losses. Thereafter, the Luftwaffe gradually decreased daylight operations in favour of nocturnal attacks and industrial centres outside London were attacked. The main Atlantic sea port of Liverpool was bombed, the North Sea port of Hull, a convenient and easily found target or secondary target for bombers unable to locate their primary targets, was subjected to raids in the Hull Blitz during the war.
More than one million London houses were destroyed or damaged and more than 40,000 civilians were killed, by May 1941, the threat of an invasion of Britain had ended, and Hitlers attention turned to Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. The bombing failed to demoralise the British into surrender or significantly damage the war economy, the eight months of bombing never seriously hampered British production and the war industries continued to operate and expand. The German offensives greatest effect was forcing the dispersal of aircraft production, British wartime studies concluded that cities generally took 10 to 15 days to recover when hit severely but exceptions like Birmingham took three months. The German air offensive failed for several reasons, discussions in OKL revolved around tactics rather than strategy. Poor intelligence on British industry and economic efficiency was a factor, in the 1920s and 1930s, air power theorists Giulio Douhet and Billy Mitchell espoused the idea that air forces could win wars, without a need for land and sea fighting.
It was thought there was no defence against air attack, particularly at night, enemy industry, seats of government and communications could be destroyed, taking away their means to resist. It was thought the bombing of residential centres would cause a collapse of civilian will, where the populace was allowed to show overt disapproval of the state, were thought particularly vulnerable. This thinking was prevalent in both the RAF and the United States Army Air Corps, the policy of RAF Bomber Command became an attempt to achieve victory through the destruction of civilian will and industry. In the Luftwaffe, there was a view of strategic bombing. OKL did not believe that air power alone could be decisive, contrary to popular belief, evidence suggests that the Luftwaffe did not adopt an official bombing policy in which civilians became the primary target until 1942. The vital industries and transport centres that would be targeted for shutdown were valid military targets and it could be claimed civilians were not to be targeted directly, but the breakdown of production would affect their morale and will to fight.
German legal scholars of the 1930s carefully worked out guidelines for what type of bombing was permissible under international law. Wever outlined five points of air strategy, To destroy the air force by bombing its bases and aircraft factories
Northern England or the North of England, known as the North Country or simply the North, is the northern part of England, when considered as a single cultural area. The area roughly spans from the River Trent and River Dee to the Scottish border in the north, Northern England roughly comprises three statistical regions, the North East, North West and Yorkshire and the Humber. These have a population of around 14.9 million as of the 2011 Census. The region has been controlled by groups from the Brigantes. After the Norman conquest in 1066, the Harrying of the North brought destruction, a Council of the North was in place during the Late Middle Ages until the Commonwealth after the Civil War. The area experienced Anglo–Scottish border fighting until the unification of Britain under the Stuarts, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the economy of the North was dominated by heavy industry such as weaving, shipbuilding and mining. The deindustrialisation that followed in the half of the 20th century hit Northern England hard.
For government and statistical purposes, Northern England is defined as the covered by the three statistical regions of North East England, North West England and Yorkshire and the Humber. This definition will be used in article, except when otherwise stated. Using historic county boundaries, the North is generally taken to comprise Cumberland, Westmorland, County Durham and Yorkshire, the Isle of Man is occasionally included in definitions of the North, although it is politically and culturally distinct from England. Additionally, some areas of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire have been associated with the North. The geographer Danny Dorling includes most of the West Midlands and part of the East Midlands in his definition of the North, more restrictive definitions exist, typically based on the extent of the historical Northumbria, which exclude Cheshire and Lincolnshire. Personal definitions of the North vary greatly and are sometimes passionately debated, when asked to draw a dividing line between North and South, Southerners tend to draw this line further south than Northerners do.
Various towns have been described as or promoted themselves as the gateway to the North, including Crewe, Stoke-on-Trent, through the North of England run the Pennines, an upland chain often referred to as the backbone of England. This stretches from the Cheviot Hills on the border with Scotland to the Peak District, the geography of the North has been heavily shaped by the ice sheets of the Pleistocene era, which often reached as far south as the Midlands. On the other side of the Pennines, a glacial lake forms the Humberhead Levels, a large area of fenland which drains into the Humber. This has left the North a region of contrasts, the Lake District includes Englands highest peak, Scafell Pike, which rises to 978 m, its largest lake and its deepest lake, Wastwater. However, dense areas have emerged along the coasts and rivers
ITV Granada is the Channel 3 regional service for North West England. The licence for the region has been held by ITV Broadcasting Limited since November 2008 and it is the largest independent television-franchise producing company in the UK, accounting for 25% of the total broadcasting output of the ITV network. It had been held by Granada Television, which was founded by Sidney Bernstein and this was the only surviving company of the original four Independent Television Authority franchisees from 1954, Granada Media Group merged with Carlton Communications to form ITV plc in 2004. It covers Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Merseyside, northwestern Derbyshire, part of Cumbria, on 15 July 2009, the Isle of Man was transferred to ITV Granada from ITV Border. Broadcasting by Granada Television began on 3 May 1956 under the North of England weekday franchise and it was marked by a distinctive northern identity, and used stylised letter G logo forming an arrow pointing north, often with the tagline Granada, from the north.
Granada plc merged with Carlton Communications to form ITV plc in 2004 after a duopoly had developed over the previous decade, Granada Television Ltd still legally exists. Along with most other companies owned by ITV plc, it is listed on www. companieshouse. gov. uk as a Dormant company. Other companies listed are Granada Television International and Granada Television Overseas Ltd, the North West region is regarded as ITVs most successful franchise. The Financial Times and The Independent once described Granada Television, the franchise holder. Nine Granada programmes were listed in the BFI TV100 in 2000, some of its most notable programmes include Coronation Street, Seven Up. The Royle Family, The Jewel in the Crown, Brideshead Revisited, World in Action, University Challenge, notable employees have included Paul Greengrass, Michael Apted, Mike Newell, Jeremy Isaacs, Andy Harries, Russell T Davies and Leslie Woodhead. Granada Television, a subsidiary of Granada Ltd, originated in Granada Theatres Ltd and it was founded in Dover in 1930 by Sidney Bernstein and his brother Cecil.
The company was incorporated as Granada Ltd in 1934 and listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1935 and it is named after the Spanish city of Granada. Channel 59 from Winter Hill and started broadcasting in colour in the Autumn of 1969, the Bernsteins became involved in commercial television, a competitor to the cinema chains. Bernstein bid for the North of England franchise, which he believed would not affect the companys largely southern-based cinema chain, in 1954, the Independent Television Authority awarded Granada the North of England contract for Monday to Friday, with ABC serving the same area on weekends. The North and London were the two biggest regions, Granada preferred the North because of its tradition of home-grown culture, and because it offered a chance to start a new creative industry away from the metropolitan atmosphere of London. Compare this with London and its suburbs—full of displaced persons, and, of course, if you look at a map of the concentration of population in the North and a rainfall map, you will see that the North is an ideal place for television.
Bernstein selected a base from Leeds and Manchester, Granada executive Victor Peers believed Manchester was the preferred choice even before executives toured the region to find a suitable site
Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museums is a British national museum organisation with branches at five locations in England, three of which are in London. Founded as the Imperial War Museum in 1917, the museum was intended to record the civil and military war effort and sacrifice of Britain, the museums remit has since expanded to include all conflicts in which British or Commonwealth forces have been involved since 1914. As of 2012, the aims to provide for, and to encourage. Originally housed in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham Hill, the museum opened to the public in 1920. The outbreak of the Second World War saw the museum expand both its collections and its terms of reference, but in the period, the museum entered a period of decline. The 1960s saw the museum redevelop its Southwark building, now referred to as Imperial War Museum London, during the 1970s, the museum began to expand onto other sites. The first, in 1976, was an airfield in Cambridgeshire now referred to as IWM Duxford. In 1978, the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Belfast became a branch of the museum, in 1984, the Cabinet War Rooms, an underground wartime command centre, was opened to the public.
From the 1980s onwards, the museums Bethlem building underwent a series of multimillion-pound redevelopments, finally,2002 saw the opening of IWM North in Trafford, Greater Manchester, the fifth branch of the museum and the first in the north of England. In 2011, the museum rebranded itself as IWM, standing for Imperial War Museums, the museum is funded by government grants, charitable donations, and revenue generation through commercial activity such as retailing and publishing. General admission is free to IWM London and IWM North, the museum is an exempt charity under the Charities Act 1993 and a non-departmental public body under the Department for Culture and Sport. As of January 2012, the Chairman of the Trustees is Sir Francis Richards, since October 2008, the museums Director General has been Diane Lees. On 27 February 1917 Sir Alfred Mond, a Liberal MP and First Commissioner of Works and this proposal was accepted by the War Cabinet on 5 March 1917 and the decision announced in The Times on 26 March.
A committee was established, chaired by Mond, to oversee the collection of material to be exhibited in the new museum, there was an early appreciation of the need for exhibits to reflect personal experience in order to prevent the collections becoming dead relics. Sir Martin Conway, the Museums first Director General, said that exhibits must be vitalised by contributions expressive of the action, the experiences, the valour and the endurance of individuals. The museums first curator and secretary was Charles ffoulkes, who had previously been curator of the Royal Armouries at the Tower of London, in July 1917 Mond made a visit to the Western Front in order to study how best to organise the museums growing collection. While in France he met French government ministers, and Field Marshal Haig, in December 1917 the name was changed to the Imperial War Museum after a resolution from the India and Dominions Committee of the museum. The museum was opened by The King at the Crystal Palace on 9 June 1920, shortly afterwards the Imperial War Museum Act 1920 was passed and established a Board of Trustees to oversee the governance of the museum