Frito-Lay, Inc. is an American subsidiary of PepsiCo that manufactures and sells corn chips, potato chips, other snack foods. The primary snack food brands produced under the Frito-Lay name include Fritos corn chips, Cheetos cheese-flavored snacks; each brand has generated annual worldwide sales over $1 billion in 2009. Frito-Lay began in the early 1930s as two separate companies, The Frito Company and H. W. Lay & Company, which merged in 1961 to form Frito-Lay, Inc. Four years in 1965, Frito-Lay, Inc. merged with the Pepsi-Cola Company, resulting in the formation of PepsiCo. Since that time, Frito-Lay has operated as a wholly owned subsidiary of PepsiCo. Through Frito-Lay, PepsiCo is the largest globally distributed snack food company, with sales of its products in 2009 comprising 40 percent of all "savory snacks" sold in the United States, 30 percent of the non-U. S. market. In 2018, Frito-Lay North America accounted for 25 percent of PepsiCo's annual sales. In 1932, Kansas City, Kansas-born Charles Elmer Doolin, manager of the Highland Park Confectionery in San Antonio, purchased a corn chip recipe, a handheld potato ricer, 19 retail accounts from a corn chip manufacturer for $100, which he borrowed from his mother.
Doolin established The Frito Company, in his mother's kitchen. Doolin, with his mother and brother, produced the corn chips, named Fritos, had a production capacity of 10 pounds per day and 30 cents per product. Doolin distributed the Fritos in 5¢ bags. Daily sales totaled $8 to $10 and profits averaged about $2 per day. In 1933 the production of Fritos increased from 10 pounds to nearly 100 pounds due to the development of a "hammer" press; the Frito Company headquarters moved to Dallas to capitalize on the city's central location and better availability of raw materials. In 1937 The Frito Company opened its Research and Development lab and introduced new products, including Fritos Peanut Butter Sandwiches and Fritos Peanuts, to supplement Fritos and Fritatos Potato chips, introduced in 1935. In 1939, the company incorporated the Dallas business. Frito relocated the operation from Haskell Avenue to a new facility at 2005 Wall Street. Alice Rupe, one of Fluffs' original six all-woman crew, was placed in charge of operations.
In 1940, she was named Assistant Manager. In 1941, the company opened its Western Division in Los Angeles with two sales routes, which would become the prototype for The Frito Company's distribution system. In 1945, The Frito Sales Company was established to separate sales from production activities. Expansion continued with the issue of six franchises through the Frito National Company in the same year. In 1950, Fritos were sold in all 48 states; the Frito Company issued its first public stock offering in 1954. At the time of Doolin's death in 1959, The Frito Company produced over forty products, had plants in eighteen cities, employed over 3,000 people, had sales in 1958 in excess of $50 million. By 1962, Fritos would be sold in 48 countries. In 1931, North Carolina-born salesman Herman Lay sold potato chips in the Southern United States out of his car. In 1932, he began a potato chip business in Tennessee. Lay was hired as a salesman for the Barrett Food Products Company, an Atlanta, Georgia manufacturer of Gardner's Potato Chips, took over Barrett's Nashville warehouse as a distributor.
Lay hired his first salesman in 1934, three years had 25 employees and a larger manufacturing facility where he produced popcorn and peanut butter sandwich crackers. A representative of the Barrett Food Company contacted Lay in 1938, offering to sell Barrett's plants in Atlanta and Memphis to Lay for $60,000. Lay borrowed $30,000 from a bank and persuaded the Barrett Company to take the difference in preferred stock. Lay moved his headquarters to Atlanta and formed H. W. Lay & Company in 1939, he purchased the Barrett manufacturing plant in Jacksonville, along with additional plants in Jackson, Mississippi. Lay retained the Gardner trademark of Barrett Food Products until 1944, when the product name was changed to Lay's Potato Chips. Lay expanded further in the 1950s, with the purchase of The Richmond Potato Chip Company and the Capitol Frito Corporation. By 1956, with more than 1,000 employees, plants in eight cities, branches or warehouses in thirteen others, H. W. Lay & Company was the largest manufacturer of potato chips and snack foods in the United States.
In 1945, the Frito Company granted the H. W. Lay & Company an exclusive franchise to manufacture and distribute Fritos in the Southeast; the two companies developed a close business affiliation. In September 1961, The Frito Company and H. W. Lay & Company merged to become Inc. combining their headquarters in Dallas, Texas. At this point, the company's annual revenues totaled $127 million generated from sales of its four main brands at the time: Fritos, Lays and Ruffles. In February 1965, the boards of directors for Frito-Lay, Inc. and Pepsi-Cola announced a plan for the merger of the two companies. On June 8, 1965, the merger of Frito-Lay and Pepsi-Cola Company was approved by shareholders of both companies, a new company called PepsiCo, Inc. was formed. At the time of the merger, Frito-Lay owned 46 manufacturing plants nationwide and had more than 150 distribution centers across the Unite
Ogden is a village in Champaign County, United States. The population was 810 at the 2010 census. Ogden is located at 40°6′49″N 87°57′26″W. According to the 2010 census, Ogden has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 743 people, 275 households, 207 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,311.2 people per square mile. There were 285 housing units at an average density of 502.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the village was 99.19% White, 0.27% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.40% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.21% of the population. There were 275 households out of which 41.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.4% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the village, the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $45,083, the median income for a family was $48,125. Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $24,327 for females; the per capita income for the village was $19,679. About 2.5% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.1% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over
Norfolk Southern Railway
The Norfolk Southern Railway is a Class I railroad in the United States. With headquarters in Norfolk, the company operates 19,420 miles route miles in 22 eastern states, the District of Columbia, has rights in Canada over the Albany to Montréal route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, on CN from Buffalo to St. Thomas. NS is responsible for maintaining 28,400 miles, with the remainder being operated under trackage rights from other parties responsible for maintenance; the most common commodity hauled on the railway is coal from mines in Indiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and West Virginia. The railway offers the largest intermodal network in eastern North America. NS is a major transporter of export coal; the railway's major sources of the mineral are located in: Pennsylvania's Cambria and Indiana counties, as well as the Monongahela Valley. In Pennsylvania, NS receives coal through interchange with R. J. Corman Railroad/Pennsylvania Lines at Cresson, originating in the "Clearfield Cluster". NS's export of West Virginia bituminous coal begins transport on portions of the well-engineered former Virginian Railway and the former N&W double-tracked line in Eastern Virginia to its Lambert's Point coal pier on Hampton Roads at Norfolk.
Coal transported by NS is thus exported to steel mills and power plants around the world. The company is a major transporter of auto parts and completed vehicles, it operates some in conjunction with other railways. NS was the first railway to employ roadrailers which are highway truck trailers with interchangeable wheel sets; the Norfolk Southern Railway's parent Norfolk Southern Corporation is based in Virginia. Norfolk Southern Corporation was incorporated on July 23, 1980 in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol NSC; the primary business function of Norfolk Southern Corporation is the rail transportation of raw materials, intermediate products, finished goods across the Southeast and Midwest United States. The corporation further facilitates transport to the remainder of the United States through interchange with other rail carriers while serving overseas transport needs by serving several Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports; as of April 10, 2019, Norfolk Southern Corporation's total public stock value was over $51.6 billion.
On December 12, 2018, Norfolk Southern announced that it would be relocating its headquarters to Atlanta, leaving its hometown of Norfolk, Virginia after 38 years. The move is expected to be completed by the year 2021; the system began in 1982 with the creation of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, a holding company for the Southern Railway and Norfolk & Western Railway. The new company was given the name of the Norfolk Southern Railway, an older line acquired by SOU in 1974, that served North Carolina and the southeastern tip of Virginia. Headquarters for the new NS were established in Virginia; the company suffered a slight embarrassment when the marble headpiece at the building's entrance was unveiled, which read "Norfork Southern Railway". A new headpiece replaced the erroneous one several weeks later. NS aimed to compete in the eastern United States with CSX Transportation, formed after the Interstate Commerce Commission's 1980 approval of the merger of the Chessie System and the Seaboard System.
Norfolk Southern's predecessor railroads date to the early 19th century. The SR's earliest predecessor line was Rail Road. Chartered in 1827, the South Carolina Canal & Rail Road Company became the first to offer scheduled passenger train service with the inaugural run of the Best Friend of Charleston in 1830. Another early predecessor, the Richmond & Danville Railroad, was formed in 1847 and expanded into a large system after the American Civil War under Algernon S. Buford; the R&D fell on hard times and in 1894, it became a major portion of the new Southern Railway. Financier J. P. Morgan selected veteran railroader Samuel Spencer as president. Profitable and innovative, Southern became, in 1953, the first major U. S. railroad to switch to diesel-electric locomotives from steam. The City Point Railroad, established in 1838, was a 9-mile railroad in Virginia that started south of Richmond — City Point on the navigable portion of the James River, now part of the independent city of Hopewell — and ran to Petersburg.
It was acquired by the South Side Railroad in 1854. After the Civil War, it became part of the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, a trunk line across Virginia's southern tier formed by mergers in 1870 by William Mahone, who had built the Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad in the 1850s; the AM&O was the oldest portion of the Norfolk & Western when it was formed in 1881, under new owners with a keen interest and financial investments in the coal fields of Western Virginia and West Virginia, a product which came to define and enrich the railroad. In the second half of the 20th century, the N&W acquired the Virginian Railway, the Wabash Railway, the Nickel Plate Road, among others. In 1982, the two systems formed the Norfolk Southern Railway; the system grew with the acquisition of over half of Conrail. In 1996, CSX bid to buy Conrail. S. responded with a bid of its own. On June 23, 1997, NS and CSX filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchas
Foosland is a village in Champaign County, United States. The population was 101 at the 2010 census; the village is named after William Foos. Foosland is located in the northwest corner of Champaign County three miles southeast of Illinois Route 54. Gibson City lies nine miles to the northeast along Route 54 and Champaign is 22 miles to the southeast. Lone Tree Creek, a tributary to the Sangamon River, flows past the south side of the community. According to the 2010 census, Foosland has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 90 people, 40 households, 25 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,246.6 people per square mile. There were 44 housing units at an average density of 609.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. There were 40 households out of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.5% were married couples living together, 2.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.5% were non-families.
37.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 3.00. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the village was $36,250, the median income for a family was $53,125. Males had a median income of $31,750 versus $22,188 for females; the per capita income for the village was $20,173. There were 8.0% of families and 15.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including 37.5% of under eighteens and 15.4% of those over 64. Foosland was founded in 1874 and a post office was established on June 19 that year, it was incorporated in 1959. Champaign County Judge Frederick S. Green approved a canvass of votes of elected officers.
The first mayor was Paul Verkler
Homer is a village in Champaign County, United States. Its population was 1,193 at the 2010 census. Homer grew from a settlement named Union, on the Fort Clark or State Road running between Danville and Urbana, nearly three miles north of the present town. Union was little more than several cabins built in 1829-30, but it served as a post office and meeting place in what was Vermilion County prior to the creation of Champaign County in 1833. Moses Thomas, a native of Pennsylvania, built a mill on the Salt Fork creek southeast of Union in 1834 and began to mill grain. A young merchant traveling from Indiana, Michael Doctor Coffeen, built a store adjacent to the mill, with Thomas created the village of Homer on January 26, 1837; the post office was moved to Homer with M. D. Coffeen as postmaster in 1841. Homer grew to 120 people in 1850, the coming of the Great Western Railroad to the south of the town prompted the village to move to its present location. In February 1855, the town's 32 buildings were dragged 1.5 miles south by 18 teams of oxen.
The village became a stop on the railway named the Wabash Railroad, becoming the center of agriculture in eastern Champaign County. In 1905, the town became the location for Homer Park, an amusement park on the Illinois Traction System interurban line. Homer Park, north of the village on the Salt Fork creek, offered swimming, baseball, movies and a small zoo; the park closed in 1937 after poor management. The Homer School District, which served the village and the surrounding area, set a record for the longest teacher's strike in the nation's history, spanning from October 26, 1986, to June 23, 1987. At 156 days, the strike was more than twice as long as the second-longest, set by a school district near Cleveland, Ohio during the 2002-2003 school year. At issue throughout the negotiations was the salary formula, which the Chicago Tribune reported was "not to drastically change the pay rates of... teachers." Other provisions included allowing teachers fired during the strike to be allowed to return with no loss of salary or seniority and the district's newly unionized support staff getting a 6 percent pay increase beginning July 1, an additional 2 percent increase at the beginning of the 1988-1989 school year.
Legal fees were estimated to be $150,000. Although the strike lasted 156 days, students only lost 11 days of class time as strikebreaking teachers were hired to teach classes. However, some families moved from Homer or paid tuition to have their children attend neighboring schools; the Homer School District consolidated with the Allerton-Broadlands-Longview School District, many of the teachers left and all but two school board members either did not seek re-election or were defeated in the first election after the settlement. The town suffered from the effects of the strike for many years, according to a 2006 article in The News Gazette of Champaign-Urbana. Homer is located at 40°2′6″N 87°57′32″W. According to the 2010 census, Homer has a total area of all land; this Homer should not be confused with the former village of Homer, now called Troy Grove nor the Homer Glen area of Will County in Homer Township. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,200 people, 489 households, 339 families residing in the village.
The population density was 1,169.3 people per square mile. There were 511 housing units at an average density of 497.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.83% White, 0.08% African American, 0.50% Asian, 0.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.25% of the population. There were 489 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.7% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.99. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $37,429, the median income for a family was $43,170. Males had a median income of $33,021 versus $23,897 for females; the per capita income for the village was $18,788. About 7.3% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.6% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. Raymond Kelly Cunningham Jr. and Molly Shoaf. "From the Timber to the Prairie: A History of Homer Illinois Volume I." Village of Homer Illinois Homepage
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Salt Fork Vermilion River
The Salt Fork is a tributary of the Vermilion River located in Illinois. The Salt Fork owes its name to saline springs that provided natural salt licks for animals, which were used for production of salt by Native Americans and early settlers; the springs were located about eight miles west to the south of Muncie, Illinois. The upper reaches of the Salt Fork do not contain saline springs. In its natural state, the Salt Fork drained a vast upland marsh between Rantoul; the Salt Fork has been extended into these marshes by drainage ditches. Including the ditches, the Salt Fork is about 70 miles long. Crystal Lake Park, Urbana Park District Homer Lake Park, Champaign County Forest Preserve District The following cities and villages are in the Salt Fork watershed: Champaign Homer Rantoul Sidney St. Joseph Thomasboro Urbana The following counties are in the Salt Fork watershed: Champaign County, Illinois Vermilion County, Illinois Prairie Rivers Network USGS Streamgage, Salt Fork near St. Joseph