Pokémon X and Y
Pokémon X and Y are role-playing video games developed by Game Freak, published by The Pokémon Company and Nintendo for the Nintendo 3DS. They are the first installments in the sixth generation of the main Pokémon RPG series. First announced in January 2013 by former Nintendo president Satoru Iwata through a special Nintendo Direct, both Pokémon X and Pokémon Y were released worldwide in October 2013, making them the first Nintendo-published retail games to have a simultaneous global release in all key regions; as with previous installments, both games follow the journey of a young Pokémon trainer as they train Pokémon. This time, the games take place in the Kalos region—based on France—with the objective being to thwart the schemes of the nefarious criminal organization Team Flare, all while attempting to challenge the Pokémon League Champion. X and Y introduced 72 new Pokémon species, includes new features such as the new Fairy type, character customization, updated battle and training mechanics, rendered polygonal 3D graphics.
A new form of Pokémon evolution, known as "Mega Evolution," allows players to further evolve many species of evolved Pokémon, with 30 of these evolutions available. Both titles are independent of each other, but feature the same plot, while either can be played separately, trading Pokémon between the two games is, as with past titles, necessary in order for a player to obtain every Pokémon species. X and Y received positive reviews from critics, who praised the advancements in the gameplay and innovations that the developers brought to the franchise; the games' visuals and transition to 3D models were well-received by critics. The anticipated games were a commercial success, selling four million copies worldwide in the first weekend, beating Black and White's record and making them the fastest-selling games on the 3DS; as of December 31, 2018, a combined 16.37 million copies have been sold, making X and Y the second best-selling games on the system. Pokémon X and Y are role-playing video games with adventure elements, presented in a third-person, overhead perspective.
They are the first Pokémon games to include 3D functions, not only in the games' overworld, but compatible with the 3D consoles in the Nintendo 3DS family. The player controls a young trainer who goes on a quest to catch and train creatures known as Pokémon and win battles against other trainers. By defeating enemy Pokémon in turn-based battles, the player's Pokémon gain experience, allowing them to level up and increase their battle statistics, learn new moves to use in battle, in some cases, evolve into more powerful Pokémon. Alternatively, players can capture wild Pokémon found during random encounters by weakening them in battle and catching them with Poké Balls to be added to the player's party. Players are able to battle and trade Pokémon with other human players using the Nintendo 3DS's Internet features, enhanced in the 6th generation of games. Like with previous games in the series, certain Pokémon are only obtainable in either X or Y, keeping players encouraged to trade with others in order to obtain all Pokémon.
Pokémon X and Y are the first titles in the main series presented in 3D polygonal graphics, allowing for more interactivity with the overworld and more dynamic action during battles. Players are able to customize their Pokémon trainer's appearance, choosing gender, skin tone and hair color at the start of the game, can acquire outfits and accessories in-game to change their character's look. Joining the previous generations of Pokémon are all new species, such as the new Starter Pokémon. Players will be able to choose from one of the classic starter Pokémon from Pokémon Red and Blue on in the game; the new Fairy-type is introduced for both new and old Pokémon, the first new type added to the series since Pokémon Gold and Silver. Game developers stated. A new element in the series is Mega Evolution, in which evolved Pokémon, such as Mewtwo and Lucario, can use special items called "Mega Stones" to temporarily evolve further into Mega Evolved forms during battle, with a couple of Pokémon having more than one possible Mega form available.
Introduced are Sky Battles, Horde Encounters. The former are mid-air trainer battles; the latter are one-versus-five wild encounters designed to be more difficult than standard one-versus-one wild battles. Pokémon-Amie lets players interact with their Pokémon using the 3DS' touchscreen and camera, playing with them and giving them treats to strengthen their bonds between trainer and Pokémon affecting the way the Pokémon acts during battle. Super Training features various minigames that help build the base stats of the player's Pokémon, which in turn unlocks training bags that can be used by Pokémon to grow stronger on their own. Along with the many additions that X and Y brought, various improvements to the communication features took place. Using the Player Search System, players can encounter and keep track of various online players, including strangers, allowing them to initiate battles or trades; the Holo Caster allows the player to receive messages and updates from NPCs via StreetPass and SpotPass.
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
Heinrich von Siebold
Heinrich Philipp von Siebold was a German antiquary and translator in the service of the Austrian Embassy in Tokyo. The Siebolds were a family of renowned scholars from Germany. Heinrich was the second son of the famous German physician and pioneer of Japanese studies Philipp Franz von Siebold, who died in 1866, he spent his youth in Bonn and Würzburg. In 1869, just 17, without finishing his Abitur or any higher education, he arrived in Japan, a year after the political and cultural opening up of the country in the Meiji Era. After his arrival, Heinrich entered the diplomatic service of the Austrian-Hungarian embassy in Tokyo as dragoman. Like his father before him, he became one of the most distinguished German researchers on Japan, his antiquarian interest made him a vivid collector of Japanese ethnological items and coins. Heinrich is credited with creating the Japanese-term for archaeology, "kōkogaku", via his 1879 book Kōko setsuryaku. In 1899, he asked for early retirement due to his health.
In the year before, he had married the widow of a British officer. She bought Freudenstein Castle close to Bözen in Switzerland, where they spent comfortably their last years surrounded by his rich collections, he was a well-recognized adviser in Far Eastern affairs, a guide and translator for important visitors from Japan and China. Siebold served many of the European state visitors to whom he attended as a purchasing advisor, including the heir to the Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand when the latter visited Japan in 1893 during his world voyage. On August 11, 1908, he died on Freudenstein Castle, his widow followed soon. In March 1909, his collections dispersed in trade. Many Museums in Europe benefited from his collecting efforts in early Meiji Japan and from his generosity. In 1873, on the occasion of Japan's first participation at the World exhibition in Vienna, he donated collections of Japanese and Far Eastern coins to the Grand-Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Carl Alexander, to the King of Württemberg and the Grand-Duke of Baden.
Carl Alexander deposited his collection with his Grand Ducal Oriental Coin Cabinet at Jena University. In the early 1880s, Siebold made arrangements with several German museums to collect for them. In 1883, he organized an exhibition of his collection in the Museum of Kunstgewerbe und Industrie in Vienna, a collection that he wanted to sell to the Austrian state, but his offer was rejected, he donated his collection to Vienna, where it is now an important part of the collections of the Kunsthistorisches Museum. In 1885, a second much larger collection of Far Eastern and Japanese coins charms and amulets assembled by Siebold, arrived at the Oriental Coin Cabinet Jena, where it is still preserved. Hans Körner: Die Würzburger Siebold. Eine Gelehrtenfamilie des 18. Und 19. Jahrhunderts, pp. 530–548. Josef Kreiner: Heinrich Freiherr von Siebold. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der japanischen Völkerkunde und Urgeschichte. In: Beiträge zur japanischen Ethnogenese - 100 Jahre nach Heinrich von Siebold, Bonn, pp. 147–203.
Karl Vollers: Das orientalische Münzkabinett der Universität Jena im Jahre 1906. In: Blätter für Münzfreunde, vol. 41, no. 6, column 3515-3524. 7/8, column 3529-3537. Orientalisches Münzkabinett Jena Exhibition of the Heinrich von Siebold's collection in Vienna Heinrich von Siebold's Collection at Welt Museum Wien
Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold
Prof Karl Theodor Ernst von Siebold FRS HFRSE was a German physiologist and zoologist. He was responsible for the introduction of the taxa Arthropoda and Rhizopoda, for defining the taxon Protozoa for single-celled organisms, he was born at Würzburg, the son of Elias von Siebild, a professor of obstetrics, his wife, Sophie von Schaffer. He was educated in the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Berlin. Von Siebold studied medicine and science chiefly at the University of Berlin and at Göttingen, submitting a thesis on the metamorphosis of the salamander. In 1831 he began to practice medicine in Heilsberg, East Prussia, moving in 1834 to Königsberg, in the same year to be Director of the Midwifery School in Danzig, he became professor of zoology, comparative anatomy and veterinary science at Erlangen in 1840, professor of zoology and physiology at Freiburg in 1845, professor of physiology at Breslau in 1850, professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at the Maximilians-Universität in Munich in 1853.
In Munich, he received the additional duties as professor of zoology and director of the zoological and zootomical cabinet. He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1856, he died in Munich on 7 April 1885. He was considered “an industrious and critical observer and... as his biographer justly calls him, the Nestor of German zoology”. His best-known publication was the Lehrbuch der Vergleichenden Anatomie which he co-edited with Hermann Friedrich Stannius, being responsible for the first volume, on invertebrates. Siebold was the originator, after Cuvier, of the first important reforms in systematic zoology, established the unicellular nature of the Protozoa, which he first combined into a phylum, he introduced the taxa Rhizopoda. In 1848, together with R. A. von Kölliker he founded the leading biological journal Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, which he edited until his death. This was long anatomical journal of Europe, his scientific accomplishments included collaborating with Theodor Bilharz on the first description of the blood-fluke Schistosoma haematobium, the elucidation of the life cycle of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, the suggestion that the cercariae of the fluke Fasciola hepatica were the infective stage which passed from the invertebrate to the vertebrate host, the discovery of parthenogenesis in insects.
He published work on medusae, other cestodes and trematodes, strepsipterans... His collection of worm specimens was purchased for the Helminth Collection of the Natural History Museum in London in 1851, his fish collection, specializing in freshwater fishes of Bavaria, was deposited at the Zoological Cabinet of the Bavarian State in 1863, though most were lost in WWII, some specimens remain at the Zoologische Staatssammlung in Munich. He married twice: in 1831 in 1855 to Antoynie Noldechen, his father was cousin to physician Philipp Franz von Siebold. Observationes de Salamandris et Tritonibus Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der wirbellosen Thiere Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbellossen Thiere, being the first volume of Lehrbuch der Vergleichenden Anatomie. Beiträge zur Parthenogenesis der Arthropoden Here he established the fact of parthenogenesis in two wasps, in a saw fly, in several moths, in certain phyllopod crustacea. Ergasilus sieboldi von Nordmann, 1832 Lineola sieboldii Gerlach & Riemann, 1974 Pegantha sieboldi Trichosphaerium sieboldi Schneider, 1878 Stenostomum sieboldi von Graff, 1878 Colobomatus sieboldi Hyalonema sieboldi Gray, 1835Source: Hans G. Hansson, Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names, Tjärnö Marine Biol.
Lab. Sweden. Two snakes: Geophis sieboldi Jan, 1862 Amphiesma sieboldii This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Siebold, Carl Theodor Ernst von". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Siebold, Karl Theodor Ernst von". Encyclopedia Americana. Gilman, D. C.. "Siebold, Karl Theodor Ernst von". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead
Carl Caspar von Siebold
Carl Caspar von Siebold was a German surgeon and obstetrician, a native of Nideggen in the Duchy of Jülich. From 1760 to 1763 he studied medicine in Würzburg, afterwards furthered his medical education in Paris and Leiden. In 1769 he became a professor of anatomy and obstetrics at the University of Würzburg, he remained a professor at Würzburg until his death in 1807. He was grandfather to German naturalist Philipp Franz von Siebold. In 1776 Siebold was appointed as head physician of the Juliusspital in Würzburg. Under his leadership at Juliusspital, new surgical techniques were introduced, a regimen of hygiene was established, renovation of the Theatrum Anatomicum took place. In 1805 the Juliusspital had the first modern operating room in the world; some of Siebold's better known students were Franz Kaspar Hesselbach, Johann Friedrich Meckel and Nicolaus Anton Friedreich. Siebold Gymnasium Würzburg
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Philipp Franz von Siebold
Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold was a German physician and traveler. He achieved prominence by his studies of Japanese flora and fauna and the introduction of Western medicine in Japan, he was the father of Kusumoto Ine. Born into a family of doctors and professors of medicine in Würzburg, Siebold studied medicine at University of Würzburg from November 1815, where he became a member of the Corps Moenania Würzburg. One of his professors was author of the Flora Wirceburgensis. Ignaz Döllinger, his professor of anatomy and physiology, most influenced him. Döllinger was one of the first professors to treat medicine as a natural science. Siebold stayed with Döllinger, he read the books of Humboldt, a famous naturalist and explorer, which raised his desire to travel to distant lands. Philipp Franz von Siebold became a physician by earning his M. D. degree in 1820. He practiced medicine in Heidingsfeld, in the Kingdom of Bavaria, now part of Würzburg. Invited to Holland by an acquaintance of his family, Siebold applied for a position as a military physician, which would enable him to travel to the Dutch colonies.
He entered the Dutch military service on June 19, 1822, was appointed as ship's surgeon on the frigate Adriana, sailing from Rotterdam to Batavia in the Dutch East Indies. On his trip to Batavia on the frigate Adriana, Siebold practiced his knowledge of the Dutch language and rapidly learned Malay, during the long voyage he began a collection of marine fauna, he arrived in Batavia on February 18, 1823. As an army medical officer, Siebold was posted to an artillery unit. However, he was given a room for a few weeks at the residence of the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, Baron Godert van der Capellen, to recover from an illness. With his erudition, he impressed the Governor-General, the director of the botanical garden at Buitenzorg, Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt; these men sensed in Siebold a worthy successor to Engelbert Kaempfer and Carl Peter Thunberg, two former resident physicians at Dejima, a Dutch trading post in Japan, the latter of whom was the author of Flora Japonica. The Batavian Academy of Arts and Sciences soon elected Siebold as a member.
On 28 June 1823, after only a few months in the Dutch East Indies, Siebold was posted as resident physician and scientist to Dejima, a small artificial island and trading post at Nagasaki, arrived there on 11 August 1823. During an eventful voyage to Japan he only just escaped drowning during a typhoon in the East China Sea; as only a small number of Dutch personnel were allowed to live on this island, the posts of physician and scientist had to be combined. Dejima had been in the possession of the Dutch East India Company since the 17th century, but the Company had gone bankrupt in 1798, after which a trading post was operated there by the Dutch state for political considerations, with notable benefits to the Japanese; the European tradition of sending doctors with botanical training to Japan was a long one. Sent on a mission by the Dutch East India Company, Engelbert Kaempfer, a German physician and botanist who lived in Japan from 1690 until 1692, ushered in this tradition of a combination of physician and botanist.
The Dutch East India Company did not, however employ the Swedish botanist and physician Carl Peter Thunberg, who had arrived in Japan in 1775. Japanese scientists invited Siebold to show them the marvels of western science, he learned in return through them much about the Japanese and their customs. After curing an influential local officer, Siebold gained the permission to leave the trade post, he used this opportunity to treat Japanese patients in the greater area around the trade post. Siebold is credited with the introduction of vaccination and pathological anatomy for the first time in Japan. In 1824, Siebold started a medical school in Nagasaki, the Narutaki-juku, that grew into a meeting place for around fifty students, they helped him in naturalistic studies. The Dutch language became the lingua franca for these academic and scholarly contacts for a generation, until the Meiji Restoration, his patients paid him in kind with a variety of objects and artifacts that would gain historical significance.
These everyday objects became the basis of his large ethnographic collection, which consisted of everyday household goods, woodblock prints and hand-crafted objects used by the Japanese people. During his stay in Japan, Siebold "lived together" with Kusumoto Taki, who gave birth to their daughter Kusumoto Ine in 1827. Siebold named a Hydrangea after her. Kusumoto Ine became the first Japanese woman known to have received a physician's training and became a regarded practicing physician and court physician to the Empress in 1882, she died at court in 1903. His main interest, focused on the study of Japanese fauna and flora, he collected as much material. Starting a small botanical garden behind his home Siebold amassed over 1,000 native plants. In a specially built glasshouse he cultivated the Japanese plants to endure the Dutch climate. Local Japanese artists like Kawahara Keiga drew and painted images of these plants, creating botanical illustrations but images of the daily life in Japan, which compl