City of regional significance (Ukraine)
City of regional significance is a city municipality, designated as a separate district within its region. In Crimea, these cities are referred to as cities of republican significance, while in regular oblasts those municipalities are referred to as cities of oblast significance; the designation of regional significance was created with the introduction of oblasts in 1932. Such city municipality is complex and combines the city proper as well as the adjacent populated places; the city of regional significance is governed by a city council known as mis'krada, chaired by a mayor. There are instances where a municipality may include only the city alone, while in others instances a municipality may consists of its own subdivisions such as districts in city to the cities with special status or other cities which carry designation of cities of district significance; each region has at least one city of regional significance as its administrative center. A city is granted the status for being an economical and cultural center that has a developed industry, utilities, a considerable amount of state provided housing, a population of over 50,000, if for further economical and social development of a city it is appropriate to establish a direct management by regional organizations.
In some cases, a city with a population of less than 50,000 can be a city of regional significance if it has important industrial, social-cultural, historical significance, or a propensity for further economical and social development and population increase. These exceptions are granted on a decision of the Supreme Council of Ukraine – Verkhovna Rada; the city can be divided into districts at the city's authorities' discretion. Along with raions of a region, the cities of regional significance are the second level of administrative-territorial division of Ukraine. Beside having districts, the city can be divided into various municipal councils such as smaller city councils, town councils, or rural councils. Additionally, a city of regional significance can be composed of one settlement itself. In 2012, there were 178 cities of regional significance across the different regions of Ukraine, ranging from the Donetsk Region, which has the highest number of cities at 28, to the Ternopil Region, which has only one, Ternopil.
On average there are seven cities in Crimea. Population statistics are from the 2001 Ukrainian Census. An asterisk indicates cities. * - Not shown on map Administrative divisions of Ukraine City of district significance, similar category for smaller cities Consolidated city-county List of places named after people "Regions of Ukraine and their composition". Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 26 December 2011. Retrieved 25 December 2011. "On Procedure of settlement of matters of administrative-territorial structure of the Ukrainian SSR". Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 6 October 2013
Donetsk is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River. The population was estimated at 929,063 in the city, over 2,000,000 in the metropolitan area. According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, Donetsk was the fifth-largest city in Ukraine. Administratively, it has been the centre of Donetsk Oblast, while it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the larger economic and cultural Donets Basin region. Donetsk is adjacent to another major city of Makiivka and along with other surrounding cities forms a major urban sprawl and conurbation in the region. Donetsk has been a major economic and scientific centre of Ukraine with a high concentration of companies and a skilled workforce; the original settlement in the south of the European part of the Russian Empire was first mentioned as Aleksandrovka in 1779, under the Russian Empress Catherine the Great. In 1869, Welsh businessman, John Hughes, built a steel plant and several coal mines in the region. During Soviet times, the city's steel industry was expanded.
In 1924, it was renamed Stalino, in 1932 the city became the centre of the Donetsk region. Renamed Donetsk in 1961, the city today remains the centre for steel industry. Since April 2014, Donetsk and its surrounding areas have been one of the major sites of fighting in the ongoing Donbass War, as pro-Russian separatist forces have battled against Ukrainian military forces for control of the city and surrounding areas. Through the majority of the course of this war, the city of Donetsk has been administered by the pro-Russian separatist forces, with outlying territories of the Donetsk region being divided between the two sides. On June 27, 2014, the unrecognized nation of South Ossetia recognized the Donetsk People's Republic's independence from Ukraine; as of May 8, 2018, the Donetsk People's Republic has full control of the city, with Ukrainian and DPR forces still engaging in combat outside of the city. The city was founded in 1869 when the Welsh businessman John Hughes built a steel plant and several coal mines at Aleksandrovka, in the south of European part of Russia.
It was named Hughesovka. In its early period, it received immigrants from Wales the town of Merthyr Tydfil. By the beginning of the 20th century, Yuzovka had 50,000 inhabitants, had attained the status of a city in 1917; the main district of "Hughezovka" is named English Colony, the British origin of the city is reflected in its layout and architecture. When the Russian Civil War broke out, on 12 February 1918 Yuzovka was part of the Donets-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic; the Republic was disbanded at the 2nd All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets on 20 March 1918 when the independence of the Soviet Ukraine was announced. It failed to achieve recognition, either internationally or by the Russian SFSR, and, in accordance with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was abolished. In 1924, under the Soviet rule, the city's name was changed to Stalin. In that year, the city's population totaled 63,708, in the next year, 80,085. In 1929–31 the city's name was changed to Stalino; the city did not have a drinking water system until 1931, when a 55.3 km system was laid underground.
In July 1933, the city became the administrative center of the Donetsian Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1933, the first 12 km sewer system was installed, next year the first exploitation of gas was conducted within the city. In addition, some sources state that the city was called Trotsk—after Leon Trotsky—for a few months in 1923. At the beginning of World War II, the population of Stalino consisted of 507,000, after the war, only 175,000; the German invasion during World War II completely destroyed the city, rebuilt on a large scale at the war's end. It was occupied by German and Italian forces as part of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine between 16 October 1941 and 5 September 1943. In 1945, young men and women aged 17 to 35, from the Danube Swabian communities of Yugoslavia and Romania, were forcibly sent to Russia as Allied "war reparations", being put to work as slave labour to rebuild Stalino and to work in its mines; the conditions were so poor that many died from malnutrition. During Nikita Khrushchev's second wave of destalinization in November 1961, the city was renamed Donetsk, after the Seversky Donets River, a tributary of the Don in order to distance it from the former leader Joseph Stalin.
In 1965, the Donetsk Academy of Sciences was established as part of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. After experiencing a tough time in the 1990s, when it was the center of gang wars for control over industrial enterprises, Donetsk has modernised in recent years under the influence of big companies. In 1994 a referendum took place in the Donetsk Oblast and the Luhansk Oblast, with around 90% supporting the Russian language gaining status of an official language alongside Ukrainian, for the Russian language to be an official language on a regional level. In the 1990s and the 2000s coal mine collapses took place in Donetsk and the region, taking the lives of hundreds. Ukraine has had a series of mining accidents since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, one reason being given is the linking of miners' pay t
Avdiivka is a city of oblast significance in Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine. The city is located in center of the region just north from the city of Donetsk. Avdiivka is best known for its big Avdiivka Coke Plant; the town's population is 35,128 . Starting Mid-April 2014 pro-Russian separatists captured several towns in Donetsk Oblast. On 21 July, 2014, Ukrainian forces secured the city from separatists; this claim was repeated the next day. Ukrainian forces kept control of Avdiivka, which became a frontline city and shelled. According to the OSCE the area between Avdiivka and neighboring separatist controlled Yasynuvata is one of the hotspots of the War in Donbass. In March 2016 the Ukrainian army set up its fortifications in the area "Industrial Zone", until a buffer zone between the Donetsk People's Republic controlled territories and Ukrainian army controlled Ukraine located in the eastern part Avdiivka; this meant that the pro-Russian separatists no longer had full control of the highway that united their controlled cities Donetsk and Horlivka and that it became more difficult for them to fire at Avdiivka with weapons not prohibited by the Minsk II agreement.
Since March 2016 fighting for Avdiivka's "Industrial Zone" intensified. From 29 January 2017 until 4 February 2017 the city was embroiled in the Battle of Avdiivka which left Avdiivka without electricity and heating for several days; as of the Ukrainian Census of 2001: EthnicityUkrainians: 63.5% Russians: 33.7% Belarusians: 0.9% Greeks: 0.6%LanguageRussian: 87.2% Ukrainian: 12.5% Belarusian: 0.1% Armenian: 0.1% Heating energy is provided via natural gas from the Avdiivka Coke Plant. The plant was damaged and its gas pipe shattered during a bombardment by pro-Russian separatists in January 2017, leaving the town without heating for several days. Beside Avdiivka Coke, the city has Avdiivka Factory of Metallic Structures, quartz sand quarry and some other factories and industrial centers; the city has its own tramway service. There are the city train station; the city is conditionally split by a railroad into Old city and settlement "Khimik"
Myrnohrad Dymytrov, is a city of oblast significance in Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine. Population: 49,646 ; the city was named after Georgi Dimitrov - a prominent Bulgarian and Soviet communist politician, but was renamed to Myrnohrad during decommunisation in May 2016. Unlike in most bigger cities in Donetsk Oblast, the separatist Donetsk People's Republic 11 May 2014 referendum on independence was not held in the city; as of the Ukrainian Census of 2001: EthnicityUkrainians: 64.2% Russians: 31.3% Tatars: 0.7% Belarusians: 0.6% Armenians: 0.2%LanguageRussian: 71.8% Ukrainian: 26.0% Armenian: 0.1% Belarusian: 0.1% The main city employer is a mining company "Myrnohradvuhillya" along with refining factory "Komsomolska". Myrnohradvuhillya Kapitalna coal mine Tsentralna coal mine Dymytrova coal mine Rodynska coal mine
Snizhne or Snezhnoye is a significant regional city in eastern Ukraine within the Donetsk Oblast. Along with cities of Shakhtarsk and Torez, it is surrounded by Shakhtarsk Raion, according to the regional territorial division; the eastern edge of Snizhne is adjacent to administrative border of Luhansk Oblast. Its population is 47,259 ; the settlement was established in 1784 as a "winter place" Vasylivka by Don Cossacks and was part of the Taganrog city municipality. In 1864 it was renamed as Snizhne/Snezhnoye which means Snowy. During the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine the town was held by separatists. On July 15, 2014, rockets from an unidentified aircraft struck the town hitting an apartment building and a tax office, leaving at least eleven people dead and eight injured. Separatists blamed the Ukrainian Air Force for the attack, but Ukrainian sources denied it and stated that since the incident where a An-26 plane was shot down on July 14, 2014, they have carried out no flights there. Instead they blamed Russian jets.
After the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 on July 17, 2014, a YouTube video and photo emerged with citizen journalists claiming the material was from Snizhne and showed a Buk missile launcher. On 28 September 2016, the Joint Investigation Team, investigating into the shoot down, confirmed that the aircraft had been brought down with a 9M38 BUK missile, fired from a rebel-controlled field near town of Pervomaiske, 6 km south of Snizhne. Fighting for the control of the town between the separatists and the Ukrainian army broke out on 28 July 2014. Snizhne remained under the separatist control of the Donetsk People's Republic; as of the 2001 Ukrainian Census: EthnicityUkrainians: 51.3% Russians: 45.1% Belarusians: 1.0% Tatars: 0.9% Armenians: 0.2% Greeks: 0.2%LanguageRussian: 84.1% Ukrainian: 14.8% Armenian: 0.1% Belarusian: 0.1% Snizhneantratsyt Snizhne Engineering Factory Snizhnianskkhimmash, a factory of chemical engineering Sofyino-Brodska train station
Mariupol is a city of regional significance in south eastern Ukraine, situated on the north coast of the Sea of Azov at the mouth of the Kalmius river, in the Pryazovia region. It is the tenth-largest city in Ukraine, the second largest in the Donetsk Oblast with a population of 449,498 ; the city is and traditionally Russophone, while ethnically the population is divided about evenly between Russians and Ukrainians. Mariupol was founded on the site of a former Cossack encampment named Kalmius and granted city rights in 1778, it has been a centre for the grain trade and heavy engineering, including the Illich Steel & Iron Works and Azovstal. Mariupol has played a key role in the industrialization of Ukraine. Due to the Soviet authorities renaming cities after Communist leaders, the city was known as Zhdanov, after the Soviet functionary Andrei Zhdanov, between 1948 and 1989. Today, Mariupol remains a centre for industry, as well as business. Following the Russian intervention in Ukraine and the capture of Donetsk city by pro-Russian insurgents associated with the Donetsk People's Republic in 2014, Mariupol was made the provisional administrative centre of the Donetsk Oblast.
The city was secured on June 13, 2014 by Ukrainian troops, has come under attack several times since. During the late Middle Ages through the early modern period, here taken from the 12th through the 16th century, Mariupol lay within a broader region, devastated and depopulated by the intense conflict among the surrounding peoples, including the Crimean Tatars, the Nogai Horde, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Muscovy. By the middle of the 15th century much of the region north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea was annexed to the Crimean Khanate and became a dependency of the Ottoman Empire. East of the Dnieper river marked a desolate steppe, stretching to the sea of Azov, where the lack of water made early settlement precarious. Moreover, lying near the Kalmius trail, the region was subject to frequent raids and plundering by the Tatar tribes which prevented the area's permanent settlement, keeping it sparsely populated or an uninhabited no-man's land under Tatar rule. Hence it was known as the Wild Fields or the'Deserted Plains'.
In this region of the Eurasian steppes, the Cossacks emerged as a distinct people in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Below the Dnieper Rapids were the Zaporozhian Cossacks, composed of freebooters organized into small, loosely-knit, mobile groups that practised both pastoral and nomadic living; the Cossacks would penetrate the steppe for fishing and hunting, as well as for migratory farming and herding of livestock. Their independence from governmental and landowner authority attracted and enlisted large numbers of fugitive peasants and serfs fleeing the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy; the isolation of the region was increased further by the Treaty of Constantinople, which provided that there should be no settlements or fortifications on the coast of the Azov Sea to the mouth of the Mius River. Moreover, in 1709 in response to a Cossack alliance with Sweden against Russia, Tsar Peter the Great ordered the destruction of the Zaporozhian central stockade and their complete expulsion from the area, without allowance for their return.
In 1733, Russia was preparing for a new military campaign against the Ottoman Empire so it allowed the return of the Zaporozhians, although the territory belonged to Turkey. Under the terms of the Agreement of Lubny of 1734, the Zaporozhians regained all their former lands and, in return, they were to serve in the Russian army during wartime, they were permitted to build a new stockade on the Dnieper River, though the terms prohibited them from erecting fortifications, allowing only for living quarters. Upon their return, the Zaporozhian population in these lands was sparse, in an effort to establish a measure of control, they introduced a structure of districts; the nearest to modern Mariupol was the Kalmiusskya district, but its border did not extend to the mouth of the Kalmius River, although this area had been part of its migratory territory. After 1736, the Zaporozhian and the Don Cossacks came into conflict over the area, resulting in Tsarina Elizabeth issuing a decree in 1746 marking the Kalmius River as the divide between the two Cossack hosts.
Sometime after 1738, the treaties of Belgrade, Niš, the Russian-Turkish convention of 1741, concurrent or following the land survey of 1743–1746, the Zaporzhian Cassocks established a military outpost on "the high promontory right bank of the Kalmius river." Though the details of its construction and history are obscure, excavations revealed Cossack and other artifacts within the enclosure of 120m by 120m. The outpost was a modest structure in that it lay within the territory of the Ottoman Empire, the constructions of fortifications on the Sea of Azov were prohibited by the Treaty of Niš; the last Tatar raid, launched in 1769, covered a vast area, overrunning the New Russia province with a huge army in severe winter weather. It destroyed the Kalmius burned all the Cassock winter lodgings. In 1770, the Russian government, not waiting for the end of the war with Turkey, moved its border with the Crimean Khanate southwest by more than two hundred kilometres, initiating the Dnieper fortified line (running fr
Khartsyzk or Khartsyzsk is an industrial city in Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine. It is administratively incorporated as city of oblast significance. Population: 57,845 . Starting Mid-April 2014 pro-Russian separatists took control of several towns in Donetsk Oblast. Unknown armed men took control of Khartsyzk city hall on 13 April 2014 and declared it to be part of the so-called Donetsk People's Republic. Since the city is controlled by this unrecognized state. A pro-Ukrainian unity rally, one of the few at that time in the region, was held in the town on 22 April 2014. Ethnicity as of the 2001 Ukrainian Census: Ukrainians: 52.4% Russians: 44.1% Belarusians: 0.9% Armenians: 0.3% Greeks: 0.3% Georgians: 0.2%