The Sixth Crusade started in 1228 as an attempt to regain Jerusalem. It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade and involved little actual fighting; the diplomatic maneuvering of the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, Frederick II, resulted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem regaining some control over Jerusalem for much of the ensuing fifteen years as well as over other areas of the Holy Land. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, had involved himself broadly in the Fifth Crusade, sending troops from Germany, but he failed to accompany the army directly, despite the encouragement of Honorius III and Gregory IX, as he needed to consolidate his position in Germany and Italy before embarking on a crusade. However, Frederick again promised to go on a crusade after his coronation as emperor in 1220 by Pope Honorius III. In 1225 Frederick married Isabella II of Jerusalem, daughter of John of Brienne and Maria of Montferrat. Frederick now had a claim to the truncated kingdom, reason to attempt to restore it.
In 1227, after Gregory IX became pope and his army set sail from Brindisi, for Acre, but an epidemic forced Frederick to return to Italy. Gregory took this opportunity to excommunicate Frederick for breaking his crusader vow, though this was just an excuse, as Frederick had for years been trying to consolidate imperial power in Italy at the expense of the papacy. Gregory stated that the reason for the excommunication was Frederick's reluctance to go on crusade, dating back to the Fifth Crusade. Frederick attempted to negotiate with the pope, but decided to ignore him, sailed to Syria in 1228 despite the excommunication, arriving at Acre in September. Instead of heading straight for the Holy Land, Frederick first sailed to Cyprus, an imperial fiefdom since its capture by Richard the Lionheart on his way to Acre during the Third Crusade; the emperor arrived with the clear intent of stamping his authority on the kingdom, but was treated cordially by the native barons until a dispute arose between him and the constable of Cyprus, John of Ibelin.
Frederick claimed that his regency was illegitimate and demanded the surrender of John's mainland fief of Beirut to the imperial throne. Here he erred, for John pointed out that the kingdoms of Cyprus and Jerusalem were constitutionally separate and he could not be punished for offences in Cyprus by seizure of Beirut; this would have important consequences for the crusade, as it alienated the powerful Ibelin faction, turning them against the emperor. Acre, as the nominal capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the seat of the Latin Patriarchate, was split in its support for Frederick. Frederick's own army and the Teutonic Knights supported him, but Patriarch Gerald of Lausanne followed the hostile papal line. Once news of Frederick's excommunication had spread, public support for him waned considerably; the position of the Knights Hospitaller and Knights Templar is more complicated. The native barons greeted Frederick enthusiastically at first, but were wary of the emperor's history of centralization and his desire to impose imperial authority.
This was due to Frederick's treatment of John of Ibelin in Cyprus, his apparent disdain for the constitutional concerns of the barons. With the military orders on board, Frederick's force was a mere shadow of the army that had amassed when the crusade had been called, he realised that his only hope of success in the Holy Land was to negotiate for the surrender of Jerusalem as he lacked the manpower to engage the Ayyubid empire in battle. Frederick hoped that a token show of force, a threatening march down the coast, would be enough to convince al-Kamil, the sultan of Egypt, to honor a proposed agreement, negotiated some years earlier, prior to the death of al-Muazzam, the governor of Damascus; the Egyptian sultan, occupied with the suppression of rebellious forces in Syria, agreed to cede Jerusalem to the Franks, along with a narrow corridor to the coast. In addition, Frederick received Nazareth, Sidon and Bethlehem. Other lordships may have been returned to Christian control, it was, however, a treaty of compromise.
The Muslims retained control over the Temple Mount area of Jerusalem, the al-Aqsa Mosque, the Dome of the Rock. The Transjordan castles stayed in Ayyubid hands, Arab sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's fortifications, although the Crusaders did in fact restore Jerusalem's defensive walls; the treaty was closed on the 18th of February, 1229, involved a 10-year truce. One of the results of the treaty was; the agreement is known sometimes as the Treaty of Jaffa and Tell Ajul to include the agreement signed by the different Ayyubid rulers at Tell Ajul near Gaza, of which, from al-Kamil's perspective, the treaty with Frederick was just an extension. This agreement should not be confused with the 1192 Treaty of Jaffa between Saladin and Richard Lionheart. Frederick entered Jerusalem on 17 March 1229, attended a crown-wearing ceremony the following day, it is unknown whether he intended this to be interpreted as his official coronation as King of Jerusalem. There is evidence to suggest that the crown Frederick wore was the imperial one, but in any case proclaiming his lordship over Jerusalem was a provocative act.
He was only regent fo
The Ninth Crusade, sometimes grouped with the Eighth Crusade, is considered to be the last major medieval Crusade to the Holy Land. It took place in 1271–1272. Louis IX of France's failure to capture Tunis in the Eighth Crusade led Henry III of England's son Edward to sail to Acre in what is known as the Ninth Crusade; the Ninth Crusade saw several impressive victories for Edward over Baibars. The Crusaders were forced to withdraw, since Edward had pressing concerns at home and felt unable to resolve the internal conflicts within the remnant Outremer territories, it is arguable. It foreshadowed the imminent collapse of the last remaining crusader strongholds along the Mediterranean coast. Following the Mamluk victory over the Mongols in 1260 at the Battle of Ain Jalut by Qutuz and his general Baibars, Qutuz was assassinated, leaving Baibars to claim the sultanate for himself; as Sultan, Baibars proceeded to attack the Christian crusaders at Arsuf, Haifa, Jaffa and Caesarea. As the Crusader fortress cities fell one by one, the Christians sought help from Europe, but assistance was slow in coming.
In 1268 Baibars captured Antioch, thereby destroying the last remnant of the Principality of Antioch, securing the Mamluk northern front and threatening the small Crusader County of Tripoli. Louis IX of France, having organized a large crusader army with the intent of attacking Egypt, was diverted instead to Tunis, where Louis himself died in 1270. Prince Edward of England arrived in Tunis too late to contribute to the remainder of the crusade in Tunis. Instead, he continued on his way to the Holy Land to assist Bohemund VI, Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli, against the Mamluk threat to Tripoli and the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. On May 9, 1271, Edward arrived at Acre, he brought a small but not insignificant contingent of no more than 1,000 men, including 225 knights. It was decided that Edward, along with Louis' brother Charles of Anjou, would take their forces onward to Acre, capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the final objective of Baibars' campaign; the army of Edward and Charles arrived in 1271, just as Baibars was besieging Tripoli, which as the last remaining territory of the County of Tripoli was full of tens of thousands of Christian refugees.
Edward arrived at Acre. His arrival caused Baibars to turn away from Acre; the forces under Edward's command were much too small to take on the Mamluks in a straight battle, being unable to stop the Mamluks from seizing the nearby Teutonic Montfort Castle. They settled for launching a series of raids. After capturing Nazareth by storm and putting its inhabitants to the sword, Edward raided St Georges-de-Lebeyne, but accomplished little other than burning some houses and crops, on top of losing a few men to the heat; the arrival of additional forces from England and Hugh III of Cyprus, under the command of Edward's younger brother Edmund, emboldened Edward. He launched a larger raid with the support of the Templar and Teutonic Knights on the town of Qaqun; the Crusaders surprised a large force of Turcomans killing 1,500 of them and taking 5,000 animals as booty. These Turcomans were relatively new additions to Baibars' army, being integrated in 1268 and given horses and lands in return for military service after the Turkmen migrations following the Mongol invasions.
Muslim sources list. On top of that, the Muslim commander of the castle was forced to abandon his command. However, Edward did not take the castle itself, retreated before Baibars could respond in kind. In December 1271, Edward and his troops saw some action when they repelled an attack by Baibars on the city of Acre. Baibars abandoned his siege of Tripoli, but the exact reason is not known. Contemporary accounts state that Edward's attacks on Baibars' interior lines forced him to abandon the siege; some modern observers reject this interpretation, saying he instead abandoned it to avoid overcommitting himself in one direction due to a lack of intelligence on the Crusaders' true capabilities. As soon as Edward arrived in Acre, he made some attempts to form a Franco-Mongol alliance, sending an embassy to the Mongol ruler of Persia Abagha, an enemy of the Muslims; the embassy was led by Reginald Rossel, Godefroi of Waus and John of Parker, its mission was to obtain military support from the Mongols.
In an answer dated 4 September 1271, Abagha agreed on cooperation and asked on what date the concerted attack on the Mamluks should take place. At the end of October 1271, a Mongol army arrived in Syria; however Abagha, occupied by other conflicts in Turkestan could only send 10,000 horsemen under general Samagar, a force made up of the occupation army in Seljuk Anatolia and auxiliary Seljukid troops. Despite the small force though, their arrival still triggered an exodus of Muslim populations as far south as Cairo; the Mongols defeated the Turcoman troops that protected Aleppo, raided southwards, sending the other garrisons fleeing for Hama, devastating the lands down to Apamea. But the Mongols did not stay, when the Mamluk leader Baibars mounted a counter-offensive from Egypt on 12 November the Mongols had retreated beyond the Euphrates, laden with booty. In the interim, Baibars came to suspect. Feeling his position sufficiently threatened
The First Crusade was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095. Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks; the resulting military expedition of Frankish nobles, known as the Princes' Crusade, not only re-captured Anatolia but went on to conquer the Holy Land, which had fallen to Islamic expansion as early as the 7th century, culminated in July 1099 in the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The expedition was a reaction to the appeal for military aid by Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. Urban's convocation of the Council of Clermont was dedicated to this purpose, proposing siege warfare against the occupied cities of Nicaea and Antioch though Urban's speech at Clermont in the testimony of witnesses writing after 1100 was phrased to allude to the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the Holy Land as additional goals.
The successful Princes' Crusade was preceded by the "people crusade", a popular movement instigated by Peter the Hermit in the spring of 1096. Mobs of peasants and laymen travelled to Anatolia where they came up against the Turks, on the way attacking populations of Jews in the Rhineland, they were decisively defeated at the Battle of Civetot in October. The Princes' Crusade, by contrast, was a well-organized military campaign, starting out in late summer of 1096 and arriving at Constantinople between November 1096 and April 1097; the crusaders marched into Anatolia, capturing Nicaea in June 1097 and Antioch in June 1098. They arrived at Jerusalem in June 1099 and took the city by assault on 7 July 1099, massacring the defenders. A brief attempt by the Saracens to recapture Jerusalem was repulsed at the Battle of Ascalon. During their conquests, the crusaders established the Latin Rite crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Edessa.
This was contrary to the wishes of the Eastern Rite Byzantines, who wanted the land that the Muslims took from them returned, rather than occupied by Latin Catholics. After the retaking of Jerusalem, most of the crusaders returned home; this left the crusader kingdoms vulnerable to Muslim reconquest during the Second and Third Crusades. The causes of the Crusades in general, of the First Crusade, is debated among historians. While the relative weight or importance of the various factors may be the subject of ongoing disputes, it is clear that the First Crusade came about from a combination of factors in both Europe and the Near East, its origin is linked both with the political situation in Catholic Christendom, including the political and social situation in 11th-century Europe, the rise of a reform movement within the papacy, as well as the military's and religious confrontation of Christianity and Islam in the East. Christianity had been adopted throughout the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, but in the 7th to 8th centuries, the Umayyad Caliphate had conquered Syria and North Africa from the predominantly Christian Byzantine Empire, Hispania from the Visigothic Kingdom.
In North Africa, the Umayyad empire collapsed and a number of smaller Muslim kingdoms emerged, such as the Aghlabids, who attacked Italy in the 9th century. Pisa and the Principality of Catalonia began to battle various Muslim kingdoms for control of the Mediterranean Basin, exemplified by the Mahdia campaign of 1087 and battles at Majorca and Sardinia. Between the years of 1096 and 1101, the Byzantine Greeks experienced the crusade as it arrived in Constantinople in three separate waves. In the early summer of 1096, the first large unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople; this wave was reported to be ill-equipped as an army. This first group is called the Peasants' Crusade or the People's Crusade, it was led by Walter Sans Avoir. The second wave was not under the command of the Emperor and was made up of a number of armies with their own commanders. Together, this group and the first wave numbered an estimated 60,000; the second wave was led by Count of Vermandois, the brother of King Philip I of France.
Among the second wave were Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse and the army of Provençals. "It was this second wave of crusaders which passed through Asia Minor, captured Antioch in 1098 and took Jerusalem 15 July 1099."The third wave, composed of contingents from Lombardy and Bavaria, arrived in Jerusalem in the early summer of 1101. At the western edge of Europe and of Islamic expansion, the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula was well underway by the 11th century, it was intermittently ideological, as evidenced by the Codex Vigilanus compiled in 881. In the 11th century foreign knights from France, visited Iberia to assist the Christians in their efforts. Shortly before the First Crusade, Pope Urban II had encouraged the Iberian Christians to reconquer Tarragona, using much of the same symbolism and rhetoric, used to preach the crusade to the people of Europe; the heart of Western Europe had been stabilized after the Christianization of the Saxon and Hungarian peoples by the end of the 10th century.
However, the breakdown of the Carolingian Empire gave rise to an entire class of warriors who now had little to do but fight among themselves. The random violence of the knightly class was condemned by the church, in response, it established the Peace and Truce of God to prohibit fighting on certain days of the year. At the same time, the reform-minded papacy came into conflict with the Holy Roman E
March of Montferrat
The March of Montferrat was a frontier march of the Kingdom of Italy during the Middle Ages and a state of the Holy Roman Empire. The margraviate was raised to become the Duchy of Montferrat in 1574. Part of the March of Western Liguria established by King Berengar II about 950, the area of Montferrat was constituted as the marca Aleramica for his son-in-law Aleramo; the earliest secure documentation of Aleramo and his immediate family is derived from the founding charter of the Abbey of Grazzano in 961. Occasioned by the recent death of Aleramo's son Gugliemo. After King Otto I of Germany had invaded Italy in 961 and displaced Berengar II, he began, in a manner much like his predecessors Berengar and Hugh of Arles, to redefine the great fiefs of Italy, he reorganised the northwest into three great marches. Western Liguria he restored to Aleramo, Eastern Liguria or the marca Januensis he gave to Oberto I, Turin he made a march for Arduin Glaber. Aleram's descendants were obscure until the time of Marquess Rainier in the early twelfth century.
About 1133 Rainier's son Marquess William V married Judith of Babenberg, a half-sister of King Conrad III of Germany, so increased his family's prestige. He entered into the Italian policies of Conrad and the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, setting a Ghibelline precedent for his successors, with his sons became involved in the Crusades. Marquess Boniface I was the leader of the Fourth Crusade and established the Kingdom of Thessalonica in the Latin Empire of Greece. Reuniting Thessalonica, inherited by Boniface's Greek son Demetrius, with Montferrat became a goal of Boniface's Italian heirs, though nothing came of their endeavours. In the thirteenth century, Montferrat waffled between the Guelph and Ghibelline parties under Boniface II and William VII, they had to wage several long wars against the independence-minded communes of Asti and Alessandria and they became the standard-bearers of a renewed Lombard League forged to fight the spread of Angevin influence into northern Italy. The capital of Montferrat at this time was the centre of the margraves' power.
In 1305, the last Aleramici margrave died and Montferrat was inherited by the Greek imperial Palaiologos dynasty, who held it until 1533, during a period of diminishing territoriality. In that year, Montferrat was seized by the Spanish under Emperor Charles V of Habsburg, who restored it to Federico II, Duke of Mantua from the illustrious House of Gonzaga in 1536, his son Margrave William X was elevated to a Duke of Montferrat in 1574 and the "march" ceased to exist as an entity, though it had undergone the significant change from a feudal collection of frontier counties to one of the petty states of Renaissance Italy, divided into two separated territories. List of rulers of Montferrat, for a list of margraves and dukes Iudiciaria Torrensis Duchy of Montferrat Haberstumpf, Walter. Regesti dei Marchesi di Monferrato. Alessandria: San Giorgio Editrice. Ruggiero, Michele. Storia del Piemonte. Torino: Piemonte in Bancarella
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms against the pagan Baltic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, to a lesser extent against Orthodox Christian Slavs. The crusades took place in the 12th and 13th centuries and resulted in the subjugation and forced baptism of indigenous peoples; the most notable campaigns were Prussian crusades. Some of these wars were called crusades during the Middle Ages, but others, including most of the Swedish ones, were first dubbed crusades by 19th-century romantic nationalist historians. However, crusades against northern pagans were authorized by Pope Alexander III in the bull Non parum animus noster, in 1171 or 1172; the official starting point for the Northern Crusades was Pope Celestine III's call in 1195, but the Catholic kingdoms of Scandinavia and the Holy Roman Empire had begun moving to subjugate their pagan neighbors earlier.
The non-Christian people who were objects of the campaigns at various dates included: the Polabian Wends and Obotrites between the Elbe and Oder rivers the Finns proper in 1150s in the First Crusade by the Swedes. Livonians, Latgallians and Estonians. Semigallians and Curonians. Old Prussians. Lithuanians and Samogitians. Armed conflict between the Baltic Finns and Slavs who dwelt by the Baltic shores and their Saxon and Danish neighbors to the north and south had been common for several centuries before the crusade; the previous battles had been caused by attempts to destroy castles and sea trade routes and gain economic advantage in the region, the crusade continued this pattern of conflict, albeit now inspired and prescribed by the Pope and undertaken by Papal knights and armed monks. The campaigns started with the 1147 Wendish Crusade against the Polabian Slavs of what is now northern and eastern Germany; the crusade occurred parallel to the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, continued irregularly until the 16th century.
The Swedish crusades were campaigns by Sweden against Finns and Karelians during period from 1150 to 1293. The Danes are known to have made two crusades to Finland in 1191 and in 1202; the latter one was led by the Bishop of Lund Anders Sunesen with his brother. By the 12th century, the peoples inhabiting the lands now known as Estonia and Lithuania formed a pagan wedge between powerful rival Christian states – the Orthodox Church to their east and the Catholic Church to their west; the difference in creeds was one of the reasons they had not yet been converted. During a period of more than 150 years leading up to the arrival of German crusaders in the region, Estonia was attacked thirteen times by Russian principalities, by Denmark and Sweden as well. Estonians for their part made raids upon Sweden. There were peaceful attempts by some Catholics to convert the Estonians, starting with missions dispatched by Adalbert, Archbishop of Bremen in 1045-1072. However, these peaceful efforts seem to have had only limited success.
Moving in the wake of German merchants who were now following the old trading routes of the Vikings, a monk named Meinhard landed at the mouth of the Daugava river in present-day Latvia in 1180 and was made bishop in 1186. Pope Celestine III proclaimed a crusade against the Baltic heathens in 1195, reiterated by Pope Innocent III and a crusading expedition led by Meinhard's successor, Bishop Berthold of Hanover, landed in Livonia in 1198. Although the crusaders won their first battle, Bishop Berthold was mortally wounded and the crusaders were repulsed. In 1199, Albert of Buxhoeveden was appointed by the Archbishop Hartwig II of Bremen to Christianise the Baltic countries. By the time Albert died 30 years the conquest and formal Christianisation of present-day Estonia and northern Latvia was complete. Albert began his task by touring the Empire, preaching a Crusade against the Baltic countries, was assisted in this by a Papal Bull which declared that fighting against the Baltic heathens was of the same rank as participating in a crusade to the Holy Land.
Although he landed in the mouth of the Daugava in 1200 with only 23 ships and 500 soldiers, the bishop's efforts ensured that a constant flow of recruits followed. The first crusaders arrived to fight during the spring and returned to their homes in the autumn. To ensure a permanent military presence, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword were founded in 1202; the founding by Bishop Albert of the market at Riga in 1201 attracted citizens from the Empire and economic prosperity ensued. At Albert's request, Pope Innocent III dedicated the Baltic countries to the Virgin Mary to popularize recruitment to his army and the name "Mary's Land" has survived up to modern times; this is noticeable in one of the names given to Livonia at Terra Mariana. In 1206, the crusaders subdued the Livonian stronghold in Turaida on the right bank of Gauja River, the ancient trading route to the Northwestern Rus. In order to gain control over the left bank of Gauja, the stone castle was built in Sigulda before 1210. By 1211, the Livonian province of Metsepole and the mixed Livonian-Latgallian inhabited county of Idumea was converted
The Third Crusade was an attempt by the leaders of the three most powerful states of Western Christianity to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187. It was successful, recapturing the important cities of Acre and Jaffa, reversing most of Saladin's conquests, but it failed to recapture Jerusalem, the major aim of the Crusade and its religious focus. After the failure of the Second Crusade of 1147-1149, the Zengid dynasty controlled a unified Syria and engaged in a conflict with the Fatimid rulers of Egypt. Saladin brought both the Egyptian and Syrian forces under his own control, employed them to reduce the Crusader states and to recapture Jerusalem in 1187. Spurred by religious zeal, King Henry II of England and King Philip II of France ended their conflict with each other to lead a new crusade; the death of Henry, meant the English contingent came under the command of his successor, King Richard I of England. The elderly German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa responded to the call to arms, leading a massive army across Anatolia, but he drowned in a river in Asia Minor on 10 June 1190 before reaching the Holy Land.
His death caused tremendous grief among the German Crusaders, most of his troops returned home. After the Crusaders had driven the Muslims from Acre, Philip - in company with Frederick's successor, Leopold V, Duke of Austria - left the Holy Land in August 1191. On 2 September 1192 Richard and Saladin finalized the Treaty of Jaffa, which granted Muslim control over Jerusalem but allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims and merchants to visit the city. Richard departed the Holy Land on 9 October 1192; the successes of the Third Crusade allowed Westerners to maintain considerable states in Cyprus and on the Syrian coast. The failure to re-capture Jerusalem inspired the subsequent Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204, but Europeans would only regain the city, albeit in the Sixth Crusade in 1229. After the failure of the Second Crusade, Nur ad-Din Zangi had control of Damascus and a unified Syria. Eager to expand his power, Nur ad-Din set his sights on the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt. In 1163, Nur ad-Din sent Shirkuh, on a military expedition to the Nile.
Accompanying the general was his young nephew, Saladin. With Shirkuh's troops camped outside of Cairo, Egypt's sultan Shawar called on King Amalric I of Jerusalem for assistance. In response, Amalric sent an army into Egypt and attacked Shirkuh's troops at Bilbeis in 1164. In an attempt to divert Crusader attention from Egypt, Nur ad-Din attacked Antioch, resulting in a massacre of Christian soldiers and the capture of several Crusader leaders, including Bohemond III, Prince of Antioch. Nur ad-Din sent the scalps of the Christian defenders to Egypt for Shirkuh to proudly display at Bilbeis for Amalric's soldiers to see; this action prompted both Shirkuh to lead their armies out of Egypt. In 1167, Nur ad-Din again sent Shirkuh to conquer the Fatimids in Egypt. Shawar again opted to call upon Amalric to defend his territory; the combined Egyptian-Christian forces pursued Shirkuh. Amalric breached his alliance with Shawar by turning his forces on Egypt and besieging the city of Bilbeis. Shawar pleaded with Nur ad-Din, to save him from Amalric's treachery.
Lacking the resources to maintain a prolonged siege of Cairo against the combined forces of Nur ad-Din and Shawar, Amalric retreated. This new alliance gave Nur ad-Din rule over all of Syria and Egypt. Shawar was executed for his alliances with the Christian forces, Shirkuh succeeded him as vizier of Egypt. In 1169, Shirkuh died unexpectedly after only weeks of rule. Shirkuh's successor was his nephew, Salah ad-Din Yusuf known as Saladin. Nur ad-Din died in 1174, leaving the new empire to As-Salih, it was decided that the only man competent enough to uphold the jihad against the Franks was Saladin, who became sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. Amalric died in 1174, leaving Jerusalem to his 13-year-old son, Baldwin IV. Although Baldwin suffered from leprosy, he was an effective and active military commander, defeating Saladin at the battle of Montgisard in 1177, with support from Raynald of Châtillon, released from prison in 1176. Raynald forged an agreement with Saladin to allow free trade between Muslim and Christian territories.
He raided caravans throughout the region and expanded his piracy to the Red Sea by sending galleys to raid ships, to assault the city of Mecca itself. These acts enraged the Muslim world, giving Raynald a reputation as the most hated man in the Middle East. Baldwin IV died in 1185, the kingdom was left to his nephew Baldwin V, whom he had crowned as co-king in 1183. Raymond III of Tripoli again served as regent; the following year, Baldwin V died before his ninth birthday, his mother Princess Sybilla, sister of Baldwin IV, crowned herself queen and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, king. Raynald again had its travelers thrown in prison. Saladin demanded that their cargo be released; the newly crowned King Guy appealed to Raynald to give in to Saladin's demands, but Raynald refused to follow the king's orders. Full article: Battle of Hattin. Raymond advised patience, but King Guy, acting on advice from Raynald, marched his army to the Horns of Hattin outside of Tiberias; the Frankish army and demoralized, was destroyed i
Siege of Zara
The Siege of Zara or Siege of Zadar was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade and the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders. The crusaders had an agreement with Venice for transport across the sea, but the price far exceeded what they were able to pay. Venice set the condition that the crusaders help them capture Zadar, a constant battleground between Venice on one side and Croatia and Hungary on the other, whose king, pledged himself to join the Crusade. Although some of the crusaders refused to take part in the siege, the attack on Zadar began in November 1202 despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding such an action and threatening excommunication. Zadar fell on 24 November and the Venetians and the crusaders sacked the city. After spending the winter in Zadar the Fourth Crusade continued its campaign, which led to the Siege of Constantinople. Shortly after his election as pope in 1198, Pope Innocent III published several papal encyclicals calling for the invasion and recapture of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
His plan to accomplish this differed from the earlier unsuccessful Second and Third crusades in several ways. Instead of the secular nobles who led the earlier crusades, this one would be, in theory under papal control. Innocent's plan called for the invading armies to travel to Egypt by sea and seize the Nile Delta, which would be used as a base from which to invade Palestine, his call was at first poorly received among the ruling families of Europe, but by 1200, an army of 35,000 was formed. Innocent III negotiated an agreement with the Republic of Venice, Europe's dominant sea power at the time, involving the construction of a fleet of warships and transports; the deal stipulated that about 35,000 crusaders would need transport and the Venetians would be paid 94,000 marks of silver, to be paid in installments. A council held at Soissons in June 1201 chose Boniface of Montferrat to lead the expedition; the agreement between the Venetians and the crusaders had set the date for the arrival of the host in Venice before the end of April 1202, in order to provide for a departure in time for a summer crossing at the end of June.
The crusade leaders had counted on raising the money still owed to the Venetians through the collection of passage money from the individual crusaders. However, the first crusader groups did not leave France until April and May, others straggled along throughout the summer and some of the French nobles chose to sail instead from Marseilles and other ports. Therefore, after the Venetians had suspended their regular commercial operations for a year to build and crew the ships, only about 12,000 crusaders showed up at Venice to man and pay for them. Boniface and the nobles added what money they could spare, pledged their gold and silver plate to the Venetian moneylenders. Still the crusaders found themselves only able to pay 51,000 marks to the Venetians. In response, the Venetians indicated that they would accept the invasion of Zara, a Catholic city on the coast of the Adriatic, as well as nearby Trieste, in lieu of payment for the time being. Zara had rebelled against the Venetian Republic in 1183, placed itself under the dual protection of the Papacy and King Emeric of Hungary.
Though a large group of crusaders found the scheme repulsive and refused to participate, the majority agreed, citing it as necessary to attain the larger goal of taking Jerusalem. Once the agreement was made, the crusaders and Venetians began boarding the ships; the crusaders used the 50 amphibious transports, 100 horse carriers and 60 warships designed and built for them by the Venetians. Their transports were 30 m long, 9 m wide and 12 m high, with a crew of 100; each one could carry up to 600 infantry. The horse carriers featured specially designed slings to carry their cargo of horses, featured a fold-out ramp below the waterline that could be opened to allow mounted knights to charge directly onto shore; the Venetian warships were powered by 100 oarsmen each and featured a metal-tipped ram just above the waterline as their primary weapon. They carried more than 300 siege weapons; the Venetian fleet led by Doge Enrico Dandolo left harbor on 1 October towards Istria and imposed Venetian supremacy over Trieste and Pula.
Most of the Crusader forces left Venice on 8 October. The two armies sailed together towards Zadar. Doge Dandolo was in no hurry. On the eve of St. Martin's Day the fleet arrived at Zadar; the attack on Zadar took the form of an amphibious landing followed by a brief siege. Chains and booms were laid across the mouth of Zadar's harbor as a defense, but the crusaders burst through them in their Venetian ships and landed their troops and equipment near the city, where they made a camp. Citizens of Zadar hung flags with crosses on the walls; some of the Crusader leaders, including Simon de Montfort, Robert de Boves and Guy of Vaux-de-Cernay, refused to take part in the siege and requested that the city be spared. On behalf of the Pope, Guy of Vaux-de-Cernay forbade the conquest of the city "because it is a city of Christians, you are pilgrims". However, most of the crusaders sided with Enrico Dandolo, while Simon de Montfort and other crusaders who refused to participate in the siege camped further away from the city.
On 13 November siege engines were used to bombard the city's walls. Zadar fell on 24 November 1202, and