Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC)
The Siege of Jerusalem occurred during Pompey the Great's campaigns in the east, shortly after his successful conclusion of the Third Mithridatic War. Pompey had been asked to intervene in a dispute over inheritance to the throne which turned into a war between Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II for the throne of the Hasmonean Kingdom, his conquest of Jerusalem, spelled the end of Jewish independence and the incorporation of Judea as a client kingdom of the Roman Republic. The death of Hasmonean queen Alexandra Salome plunged Judea into a civil war between her two sons and Aristobulus. After Aristobulus ousted his elder brother from both the throne and the high priesthood in Jerusalem, Antipater the Idumean advised Hyrcanus to enlist the aid of King Aretas III of Nabataea. In return for the promise of territorial concessions, Aretas provided Hyrcanus with 50,000 soldiers, their joint forces besieged Aristobulus in Jerusalem. Pompey had followed the successful conclusion of the Third Mithridatic War with the creation of the Province of Syria and had spent 64 and 63 BC bringing law and order to the region.
Events in Judea prompted Pompey's legate in Damascus, to arrive in Jerusalem. Scaurus was approached by both parties, but the issue was settled by a bribe from Aristobulus, Scaurus ordered Arestas to lift his siege of the city; as the Nabataean army withdrew towards Philadelphia, Aristobulus set off in pursuit and defeated the Nabataeans at Papyron. When Pompey himself arrived in Damascus in 63 BC, both Hyrcanus and Aristobulus visited him there. Pompey put off resolving the issue, informing the opposing parties he would resolve it once he arrived in Judea in person. Aristobulus did not wait for Pompey's decision and left Damascus to shut himself away at his fortress of Alexandrium; this angered Pompey who marched his forces at the sight of which Aristobulus yielded. When Aulus Gabinius led a force to take Jerusalem, Aristobulus' supporters refused to let the Roman troops in. Incensed, Pompey had Aristobulus prepared to besiege the city; when Pompey arrived in Jerusalem, he surveyed the city: for he saw the walls were so firm, that it would be hard to overcome them.
Hyrcanus II still had supporters in the city. They opened a gate situated in the northwestern part of the city wall, let the Romans in; this allowed Pompey to take hold of Jerusalem's upper city, including the Royal Palace, while Aristobulus' party held the eastern portions of the city—the Temple Mount and the City of David. The Jews consolidated their hold by breaking down the bridge over the Tyropoeon Valley connecting the upper city with the Temple Mount. Pompey offered them the chance to surrender, but when they refused, he began prosecuting the siege with vigour. Pompey had his forces construct a wall of circumvallation around the areas held by the Jews and pitched his camp within the wall, to the north of the Temple. Here stood a saddle allowing access to Temple, it was therefore guarded by the citadel known as the Baris, augmented by a ditch. A second camp was erected south-east of the Temple; the troops set about filling the ditch protecting the northern part of the Temple enclosure and building two ramparts, one next to the Baris and the other on the west, while the defenders, from their superior position, sought to hinder Roman efforts.
When the banks were complete, Pompey erected siege towers and brought up siege engines and battering rams from Tyre. Under the protection of slingers driving the defenders from the walls, these began to batter the walls surrounding the Temple. After three months, Pompey's troops managed to overthrow one of the Baris' towers and were able to enter the Temple precinct, both from the citadel and from the west. First over the wall was Faustus Cornelius Sulla, son of the former dictator and a senior officer in Pompey's army, he was followed by two centurions and Fabius, each leading a cohort, the Romans soon overcame the defending Jews. 12,000 were slaughtered. Pompey himself entered the Temple's Holy of Holies which only the High Priest was allowed to enter, thereby desecrating it, he did not remove anything, neither its treasures nor any funds, the next day ordered the Temple cleansed and its rituals resumed. Pompey headed back to Rome, taking Aristobulus with him for his triumphal procession; the siege and conquest of Jerusalem was a disaster for the Hasmonean kingdom.
Pompey reinstated Hyrcanus II as the High Priest but stripped him of his royal title, though Rome recognized him as an ethnarch in 47 BC. Judea remained autonomous but was obliged to pay tribute and dependent on the Roman administration in Syria; the kingdom was dismembered. Several Hellenistic cities were granted autonomy to form the Decapolis, leaving the state diminished. Barker, Margaret; the Great High Priest: The Temple Roots of Christian Liturgy. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-567-08942-7. Josephus, Flavius. William Whiston, A. M. translator. The Works of Flavius Josephus. Auburn and Buffalo, New York: John E. Beardsley. Retrieved 15 July 2010. Losch, Richard R.. All the people in the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2454-7. Malamat, Abraham. A history of the Jewish people. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-39731-6. Rocca, Samuel; the Fo
A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is understood to be continuous, though not named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such. A point is considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water, less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a tight meander is sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the loop of water. In English, the plural versions of peninsula are peninsulas and, less peninsulae. List of peninsulas Isthmus
Mithridates VI of Pontus
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI known as Mithradates the Great and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia from about 120–63 BC. Mithridates is remembered as one of the Roman Republic’s most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the prominent generals from the late Roman Republic in the Mithridatic Wars: Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Lucius Licinius Lucullus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, he has been called the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus. Mithridates VI was a prince of Greek ancestry, he claimed descent from Cyrus the Great, the family of Darius the Great, the Regent Antipater, the generals of Alexander the Great as well as the kings Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Seleucus I Nicator. Mithridates was born in the Pontic city of Sinope, was raised in the Kingdom of Pontus, he was the first son among the children born to Mithridates V of Pontus. His father, Mithridates V, was a prince and the son of the former Pontic monarchs Pharnaces I of Pontus and his wife-cousin Nysa.
His mother, Laodice VI, was a Seleucid princess and the daughter of the Seleucid monarchs Antiochus IV Epiphanes and his wife-sister Laodice IV. Mithridates V was assassinated in about 120 BC in Sinope, poisoned by unknown persons at a lavish banquet which he held, he left the kingdom to the joint rule of Mithridates' mother, Laodice VI, his younger brother, Mithridates Chrestus. Neither Mithridates nor his younger brother were of age, their mother retained all power as regent for the time being. Laodice VI’s regency over Pontus was from 120 BC to 116 BC and favored Mithridates Chrestus over Mithridates. During his mother’s regency, he escaped from his mother's plots against him, went into hiding. Mithridates emerged from hiding, returning to Pontus between 116 BC and 113 BC and was hailed as king. By this time he had grown to become a man of physical strength, he could combine extraordinary energy and determination with a considerable talent for politics and strategy. Mithridates removed his mother and brother from the throne, imprisoning both, becoming the sole ruler of Pontus.
Laodice VI died in prison, ostensibly of natural causes. Mithridates Chrestus may have died in prison or may have been tried for treason and executed. Mithridates gave both royal funerals. Mithridates first married his younger sister Laodice, aged 16, his goal was to preserve the purity of their bloodline, solidify his claim to the throne, to co-rule over Pontus, to ensure the succession to his legitimate children. Mithridates entertained ambitions of making his state the dominant power in the Black Sea and Anatolia, he first subjugated Colchis, a region east of the Black Sea, prior to 164 BC, an independent kingdom. He clashed for supremacy on the Pontic steppe with the Scythian King Palacus; the most important centres of Crimea, Tauric Chersonesus and the Bosporan Kingdom surrendered their independence in return for Mithridates' promises to protect them against the Scythians, their ancient enemies. After several abortive attempts to invade the Crimea, the Scythians and the allied Rhoxolanoi suffered heavy losses at the hands of the Pontic general Diophantus and accepted Mithridates as their overlord.
The young king turned his attention to Anatolia, where Roman power was on the rise. He contrived to partition Galatia with King Nicomedes III of Bithynia, it was on the occasion of the Paphlagonian invasion of 108 BC that Mithridates adopted the Bithynian era for use on his coins in honour of the alliance. This calendar era began with the first Bithynian king Zipoites I in 297 BC, it was in use in Pontus by 96 BC at the latest. Yet it soon became clear to Mithridates that Nicomedes was steering his country into an anti-Pontic alliance with the expanding Roman Republic; when Mithridates fell out with Nicomedes over control of Cappadocia, defeated him in a series of battles, the latter was constrained to enlist the assistance of Rome. The Romans twice interfered in the conflict on behalf of Nicomedes, leaving Mithridates, should he wish to continue the expansion of his kingdom, with little choice other than to engage in a future Roman-Pontic war. By this time Mithradates had resolved to expel the Romans from Asia.
The next ruler of Bithynia, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, was a figurehead manipulated by the Romans. Mithridates plotted to overthrow him, but his attempts failed and Nicomedes IV, instigated by his Roman advisors, declared war on Pontus. Rome itself was involved in a civil war with its Italian allies. Thus, in all of Roman Asia Province there were only two legions present in Macedonia; these legions combined with Nicomedes IV's army to invade Mithridates' kingdom of Pontus in 89 BC. Mithridates won a decisive victory, his victorious forces were welcomed throughout Anatolia. The following year, 88 BC, Mithridates orchestrated a massacre of Roman and Italian settlers remaining in several Anatolian cities wiping out the Roman presence in the region. 80,000 people are said to have perished in this massacre. The episode is known as the Asiatic Vespers; the Kingdom of Pontus comprised a mixed population in its Ionian Anatolian cities. The royal family moved the capital from Amasya to the Greek city of Sinope.
Its rulers tried to assimilate the potential of their subjects by showing a Greek face to the Greek world and an Iranian/Anatolian face to the Eastern world. Whenever the gap between the rulers and their Anatolian subjects became greater, they would put emphasis
Chalcedon was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. It was located directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari and it is now a district of the city of Istanbul named Kadıköy; the name Chalcedon is a variant of Calchedon, found on all the coins of the town as well as in manuscripts of Herodotus's Histories, Xenophon's Hellenica, Arrian's Anabasis, other works. Except for a tower no above-ground vestiges of the ancient city survive in Kadıköy today; the site of Chalcedon is located on a small peninsula on the north coast of the Sea of Marmara, near the mouth of the Bosphorus. A stream, called the Chalcis or Chalcedon in antiquity and now known as the Kurbağalıdere, flows into Fenerbahçe bay. There Greek colonists from Megara in Attica founded the settlement of Chalcedon in 685 BC, some seventeen years before Byzantium; the Greek name of the ancient town is from its Phoenician name qart-ħadaʃt, meaning "New Town", whence Karkhēd, as is the name of Carthage. The mineral chalcedony is named for.
The mound of Fikirtepe has yielded remains dating to the Chalcolithic period and attest to a continuous settlement since prehistoric times. Phoenicians were active traders in this area. Pliny states that Chalcedon was first named Procerastis, a name which may be derived from a point of land near it: it was named Colpusa, from the harbour probably. Chalcedon originated as a Megarian colony in 685 BC; the colonists from Megara settled on a site, viewed in antiquity as so inferior to that visible on the opposite shore of the Bosphorus, that the 6th-century BC Persian general Megabazus remarked that Chalcedon's founders must have been blind. Indeed and Pliny relate that the oracle of Apollo told the Athenians and Megarians who founded Byzantium in 657 BC to build their city "opposite to the blind", that they interpreted "the blind" to mean Chalcedon, the "City of the Blind". Trade thrived in Chalcedon. Chalcedonia, the territory dependent upon Chalcedon, stretched up the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus at least as far as the temple of Zeus Urius, now the site of Yoros Castle, may have included the north shore of the Bay of Astacus which extends towards Nicomedia.
Important villages in Chalcedonia included Panteicheion. Strabo notes that "a little above the sea" in Chalcedonia lies "the fountain Azaritia, which contains small crocodiles". In its early history Chalcedon shared the fortunes of Byzantium; the 6th-century BC Persian satrap Otanes captured it. The city vacillated for a long while between the Athenian interests. Darius the Great's bridge of boats, built in 512 BC for his Scythian campaign, extended from Chalcedonia to Thrace. Chalcedon formed a part of the kingdom of Bithynia, whose king Nicomedes willed Bithynia to the Romans upon his death in 74 BC; the city was destroyed by Mithridates. The governor of Bithynia, had fled to Chalcedon for safety along with thousands of other Romans. Three thousand of them were killed, sixty ships captured, four ships destroyed in Mithridates' assault on the city. During the Empire, Chalcedon recovered, was given the status of a free city, it fell under the repeated attacks of the barbarian hordes who crossed over after having ravaged Byzantium, including some referred to as Scythians who attacked during the reign of Valerian and Gallienus in the mid 3rd century.
Chalcedon suffered somewhat from its proximity to the new imperial capital at Constantinople. First the Byzantines and the Ottoman Turks used it as a quarry for building materials for Constantinople's monumental structures. Chalcedon fell to armies attacking Constantinople from the east. In 361 AD it was the location of the Chalcedon tribunal, where Julian the Apostate brought his enemies to trial. In 451 AD an ecumenical council of Christian leaders convened here. See below for this Council of Chalcedon; the general Belisarius spent his years of retirement on his estate of Rufinianae in Chalcedonia. Beginning in 616 and for at least a decade thereafter, Chalcedon furnished an encampment to the Persians under Chosroes II, it fell for a time to the Arabs under Yazid. Chalcedon was badly damaged during the Fourth Crusade, it came definitively under Ottoman rule under Orhan Gazi a century before the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople. Chalcedon was an episcopal see at an early date and several Christian martyrs are associated with Chalcedon: The virgin St. Euphemia and her companions in the early 4th century.
St. Sabel the Persian and his companions, it was the site of various ecclesiastical councils. The Fourth Ecumenical Council, known as'the' Council of Chalcedon, was convened in 451 and defined the human and divine natures of Jesus, which provoked the schism with the churches composing Oriental Orthodoxy. After the council, Chalcedon became a metropolitan without suffragans. There is a list of its bishops in Le Quien, completed by Anthimus Alexoudes, revised for the early period by Pargoire. Among others are: a martyr. Cosmas and Nicetas, during the Iconoclastic period.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla. In the culmination of over twenty years of continuous military and government service, he became the main conqueror of the eastern kingdoms in the course of the Third Mithridatic War, exhibiting extraordinary generalship in diverse situations, most famously during the Siege of Cyzicus, 73–72 BC, at the Battle of Tigranocerta in Armenian Arzanene, 69 BC, his command style received unusually favourable attention from ancient military experts, his campaigns appear to have been studied as examples of skillful generalship. Lucullus returned to Rome from the east with so much captured booty that the whole could not be accounted, poured enormous sums into private building and aquaculture projects which shocked and amazed his contemporaries by their magnitude, he patronized the arts and sciences lavishly, transforming his hereditary estate in the highlands of Tusculum into a hotel-and-library complex for scholars and philosophers.
He built the horti Lucullani, the famous Gardens of Lucullus, on the Pincian Hill in Rome, in general became a cultural innovator in the deployment of imperial wealth. He died during the winter of 57-56 BC. and was buried at the family estate near Tusculum. The conquest agnomen of Ponticus is sometimes falsely appended to his name in modern texts. In ancient sources it is only attributed to his consular colleague Marcus Aurelius Cotta after the latter's capture and brutal destruction of Heraclea Pontica during the Third Mithridatic War. Lucullus was included in the biographical collections of Roman leading generals and politicians, originating in the biographical compendium of famous Romans published by his contemporary Marcus Terentius Varro. Two biographies of Lucullus survive today, Plutarch's Lucullus in the famous series of Parallel Lives, in which Lucullus is paired with the Athenian aristocratic politician and Strategos Cimon, # 74 in the slender Latin Liber de viris illustribus, of late and unknown authorship, the main sources for which appear to go back to Varro and his most significant successor in the genre, Gaius Julius Hyginus.
Lucullus was a member of the prominent gens Licinia, of the family, or stirps, of the Luculli, which may have been descended from the ancient nobility of Tusculum. He was grandson of Lucius Licinius Lucullus, son of Lucius Licinius Lucullus, convicted for embezzlement and exiled in 102/1 from his Sicilian command of 103-2; the family of his mother Caecilia Metella was one of the most powerful of the plebeian nobilitas, was at the height of its success and influence in the last quarter of the 2nd century BC when Lucullus was born. She was the youngest child of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Calvus, half-sister of two of the most important members of the Optimates of their time, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, Lucius Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus, the father of Sulla's third wife Caecilia Metella, his first known military service was as tribune of soldiers serving in Sulla's army in Campania during the bellum Italicum, when he is said to have distinguished himself for daring and intelligence.
Lucullus was elected Quaestor in winter 89-88 at the same elections in which Sulla was returned as Consul with his friend Quintus Pompeius Rufus, whose son was married to Sulla's eldest daughter, Cornelia. Lucullus was the Quaestor mentioned as the sole officer in Sulla's army who could stomach accompanying the Consul when he marched on Rome. In autumn of the same year Sulla sent Lucullus ahead of him to Greece to take over the command of the Mithridatic War in his name; as the Roman siege of Athens was drawing towards a successful conclusion, Sulla's strategic attention began to focus more on subsequent operations against the main Pontic forces, combating Mithridates' control of the sea lanes. He sent Lucullus to collect such a fleet as may be possible from Rome's allies along the eastern Mediterranean seaboard, first to the important but disturbed states of Cyrene and Ptolemaic Egypt. Lucullus set out from the Piraeus in mid winter 87-6 BC with three Greek yachts and three light Rhodian biremes, hoping to evade the prevailing sea power of the Pontic fleets and their piratic allies by speed and taking advantage of the worst sailing conditions.
He made Crete, is said to have won over the cities to the Roman side. From there he crossed to Cyrene where the famous Hellenic colony in Africa was in dire condition following a vicious and exhausting civil war of nearly seven years' duration. Lucullus' arrival seems to have put a belated end to this terrible conflict, as the first official Roman presence there since the departure of the proconsul Caius Claudius Pulcher, who presided over its initial administrative incorporation into the Roman Republic in 94 BC, he sailed to Egypt to try and secure ships from king Ptolemy IX Soter II. In Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt's capital, he was well received. Ptolemy had decided to sail a safe course between Pontus. From Alexandria Lucullus sailed to Cyprus; the Rhodians supplied him with additional ships. Rhodos was famous for the marine acumen of its sailors. In the waters near Rhodos Lucullus' fleet defeated a Mithridatic contingent, he secured Cnidus and Cos, drove the Mithridatic military from Chios, attacked Samos.
From there he would work his
Kingdom of Pontus
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty, which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty. The kingdom was proclaimed by Mithridates I in 281 BCE and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BCE, it reached its largest extent under Mithridates VI the Great, who conquered Colchis, Bithynia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos, for a brief time the Roman province of Asia. After a long struggle with Rome in the Mithridatic Wars, Pontus was defeated; as the greater part of the kingdom lay within the region of Cappadocia, which in early ages extended from the borders of Cilicia to the Euxine, the kingdom as a whole was at first called'Cappadocia by Pontus' or'Cappadocia by the Euxine', but afterwards simply'Pontus', the name Cappadocia henceforth being used to refer to the southern half of the region included under that name. Culturally, the kingdom was Hellenized, with Greek the official language.
The Kingdom of Pontus was divided into two distinct areas: the coastal region and the Pontic interior. The coastal region bordering the Black Sea was separated from the mountainous inland area by the Pontic Alps, which run parallel to the coast; the river valleys of Pontus ran parallel to the coast and were quite fertile, supporting cattle herds and fruit trees, including cherry and pear. The coastal region was dominated by Greek cities such as Amastris and Sinope, which became the Pontic capital after its capture; the coast was rich in timber and olives. Pontus was rich in iron and silver, which were mined near the coast south of Pharnacia. There were copper, lead and arsenic; the Pontic interior had fertile river valleys such as the river Lycus and Iris. The major city of the interior was Amasia, the early Pontic capital, where the Pontic kings had their palace and royal tombs. Besides Amasia and a few other cities, the interior was dominated by small villages; the kingdom of Pontus was divided into districts named Eparchies.
The division between coast and interior was cultural. The coast was Greek and focused on sea trade; the interior was occupied by the Anatolian Cappadocians and Paphlagonians ruled by an Iranian aristocracy that went back to the Persian empire. The interior had powerful temples with large estates; the gods of the Kingdom were syncretic, with features of local gods along with Persian and Greek deities. Major gods included the Persian Ahuramazda, termed Zeus Stratios, the Moon god Men Pharnacou and Ma. Sun gods were popular, with the royal house being identified with the Persian god Ahuramazda of the Achaemenid dynasty. Indeed, the name used by the majority of the Pontic kings was Mithridates, which means "given by Mithras". Pontic culture represented a synthesis between Iranian and Greek elements, with the former two associated with the interior parts, the latter more so with the coastal region. By the time of Mithridates VI Eupator, Greek was the official language of the Kingdom though Anatolian languages continued to be spoken in the interior.
The region of Pontus was part of the Persian satrapy of Cappadocia. The Persian dynasty, to found this kingdom had, during the 4th century BCE, ruled the Greek city of Cius in Mysia, with its first known member being Mithridates of Cius, his son Ariobarzanes II became satrap of Phrygia. He became a strong ally of Athens and revolted against Artaxerxes, but was betrayed by his son Mithridates II of Cius. Mithridates II remained as ruler after Alexander's conquests and was a vassal to Antigonus I Monophthalmus, who ruled Asia Minor after the Partition of Triparadisus. Mithridates was killed by Antigonus in 302 BCE under suspicion that he was working with his enemy Cassander. Antigonus planned to kill Mithridates' son called Mithridates but Demetrius I warned him and he escaped to the east with six horsemen. Mithridates first went to the city of Cimiata in Paphlagonia and to Amasia in Cappadocia, he ruled from 302 to 266 BCE, fought against Seleucus I and, in 281 BCE, declared himself king of a state in northern Cappadocia and eastern Paphlagonia.
He further expanded his kingdom to the river Sangrius in the west. His son Ariobarzanes captured Amastris in its first important Black sea port. Mithridates allied with the newly arrived Galatians and defeated a force sent against him by Ptolemy I. Ptolemy had been expanding his territory in Asia Minor since the beginning of the First Syrian war against Antiochus in the mid-270s and was allied with Mithridates' enemy, Heraclea Pontica. We know little of Ariobarzanes' short reign, except that when he died his son Mithridates II became king and was attacked by the Galatians. Mithridates II received aid from Heraclea Pontica, at war with the Galatians at this time. Mithridates went on to support Antiochus Hierax against his brother Seleucus II Callinicus. Seleucus was defeated in Anatolia by Hierax and the Galatians. Mithridates attacked Sinope in 220 but failed to take the city, he married Seleucus II's sister and gave his daughter in marriage to Antiochus III, to obtain recognition for his new kingdom and create strong ties with the Seleucid Empire.
The sources are silent on Pontus for the years following the death of Mithridates II, when his son
Cyzicus was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey. It was located on the shoreward side of the present Kapıdağ Peninsula, a tombolo, said to have been an island in the Sea of Marmara only to be connected to the mainland in historic times either by artificial means or an earthquake; the site of Cyzicus, located on the Erdek and Bandırma roads, is protected by Turkey's Ministry of Culture. The city was said to have been founded by Pelasgians from Thessaly, according to tradition at the coming of the Argonauts. Alcibiades defeated the Lacedaemonians there. Eudoxus of Cnidus had a school at Cyzicus and went with his pupils to Athens, visiting Plato, returned to Cyzicus, where he died 355 B. C; the era of Olympiads in Cyzicus was reckoned from 135 or 139. Owing to its advantageous position it speedily acquired commercial importance, the gold staters of Cyzicus were a staple currency in the ancient world till they were superseded by those of Philip of Macedon.
Its unique and characteristic coin, the cyzicenus, was worth 28 drachmae. During the Peloponnesian War Cyzicus was subject to the Lacedaemonians alternately. In the naval Battle of Cyzicus in 410 during the Peloponnesian War, an Athenian fleet routed and destroyed a Spartan fleet. At the peace of Antalcidas, like the other Greek cities in Asia, it was made over to Persia. Alexander the Great captured it from the Persians in 334 BC and was claimed to be responsible for the land bridge connecting the island to the mainland; the history of the town in Hellenistic times is connected with that of the Attalids of Pergamon, with whose extinction it came into direct relations with Rome. Cyzicus was held for the Romans against King Mithridates VI of Pontus who besieged it with 300,000 men in 74 BC, but it withstood him stoutly, the siege was raised by Lucullus: the loyalty of the city was rewarded by an extension of territory and other privileges; the Romans recognized its municipal independence. Cyzicus was the leading city of Northern Mysia as far as Troas.
Under Tiberius, it was incorporated into the Roman Empire but remained the capital of Mysia and became one of the great cities of the ancient world. Cyzicus was captured temporarily by the Arabs led by Muawiyah I in AD 675, it appears to have been ruined by a series of earthquakes beginning in 443, with the last in 1063. Although its population was transferred to Artake before the 13th century when the peninsula was occupied by the Crusaders, in 1324 the metropolitan of Cyzicus was one of three sees in Anatolia, able to contribute a temporary annual subsidy to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Following its conquest by the Ottomans it underwent hard times. From a point between 1370 and 1372 until 1387, the metropolitan was empty. In the 14th century, the sees of Chalcedon and certain patriarchal possessions in Bithynia and Hellespont were bestowed on the metropolitan of Cyzicus. In the Ottoman era, it was part of the kaza of Erdek in the province of Brusa. Cyzicus, as capital of the Roman province of Hellespontus, was its ecclesiastical metropolitan.
In the Notitiae Episcopatuum of Pseudo-Epiphanius, composed in about 640, Cyzicus had 12 suffragan sees. The province included two autocephalous archiepiscopal sees: Parium and Proconnesus. Cyzicus had a catalogue of bishops beginning with the 1st century. A more complete list is found in Nicodemos, in the Greek "Office of St. Emilian", 34–36, which has eighty-five names. Of particular importance are the famous Arian theologian Eunomius of Cyzicus. Another saint who came from Cyzicus, Saint Tryphaena of Cyzicus, is the patron saint of the city. Gelasius, a historian of Arianism, who wrote about 475, was born at Cyzicus. George Kleidas, Metropolitan of Cyzicus in ca. 1253–61 Theodore Skoutariotes, Metropolitan of Cyzicus in ca. 1277 Daniel Glykys, Metropolitan of Cyzicus in 1285–89 Methodius, Metropolitan of Cyzicus from 1289 Niphon I, Patriarch of Constantinople in 1310–14, was Metropolitan of Cyzicus in 1303–10 Athanasios, Metropolitan of Cyzicus in 1324–47 Theodoretos, proedros of Cyzicus in 1370–72 Sebasteianos, Metropolitan of Cyzicus in 1381–86 Matthew I, Patriarch of Constantinople in 1397–1410, was Metropolitan of Cyzicus in 1387–97 Theognostos, Metropolitan of Cyzicus in 1399–1405 Makarios, Metropolitan of Cyzicus in 1409 Metrophanes II, Patriarch of Constantinople in 1440–43, was Metropolitan of Cyzicus in 1436–40 Cyril IV, Patriarch of Constantinople in 1711–13, was Metropolitan of Cyzicus before thatCyzicus remained a metropolitan see of the Greek Orthodox Church until the 1923 Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations emptied it of Greek Orthodox faithful, whether they spoke Greek or Turkish.
The last bishop of the see died in 1932. Today it is a titular metropolis of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Since 1885, the Catholic Church lists Cyzicus as a titular see. of the highest rank, but v