The Portuguese Empire, known as the Portuguese Overseas, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire. It existed for almost six centuries from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the grant of sovereignty to East Timor in 2002, the first era of the Portuguese empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery. Initiated by the Kingdom of Portugal, it would eventually expand across the globe, in 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498, Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the secret design. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts, by 1571, a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. This commercial network and the trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth. Though the realms continued to be administered separately, the Council of Portugal ruled the country and its empire from Madrid.
As the King of Spain was King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain, the Dutch Republic and France. With its smaller population, Portugal was unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts. Eventually, Brazil became the most valuable colony of the era until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century. The third era represents the stage of Portuguese colonialism after the decolonization of the Americas of the 1820s. The colonial possessions had been reduced to the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, the disastrous 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Macau was returned to China in 1999, the origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. There were several motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese, the decision was taken to hold it while exploring along the Atlantic African coast.
At the time, Europeans did not know what lay beyond Cape Bojador on the African coast, under his sponsorship, soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Azores were reached and started to be settled producing wheat to export to Portugal. Fears of what lay beyond Cape Bojador, and whether it was possible to return once it was passed, were assuaged in 1434 when it was rounded by one of Infante Henrys captains, Gil Eanes. Once this psychological barrier had been crossed, it became easier to further along the coast
Battle of Cape Rachado
The Battle of Cape Rachado, off the present day Malaccan exclave of Tanjung Tuan in 1606, was an important naval engagement between the Dutch East India Company and Portuguese fleets. It marked the beginning of a conflict between the combined Dutch/Johor forces against the Portuguese and it was the biggest naval battle in the Malay Archipelago between two naval superpowers of the time with 31 ships. 130 years of Portuguese supremacy in the region ended with the fall of the city and fortress of Malacca, almost 30 years later, the Dutch East Indies Company decided that to expand further to the east, the Portuguese monopoly and especially Malacca must first be neutralised. The Oranje lead with Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge in command, the Dutch fleet set sail from Texel, Holland on 12 May 1605. The fleet departed with the sailors told that they were on a voyage as de Jonge was ordered to keep his true mission a secret. They passed Malacca on April 1606 and arrived at Johor on 1 May 1606 where de Jonge proceeded to negotiate for a term of alliance with Johor.
The pact was concluded on 17 May 1606 in which Johor had agreed to a combined effort with the Dutch to attempt to dislodge the Portuguese from Malacca. Unlike the Portuguese, the Dutch and Johor agreed to each others religion, the Dutch would get to keep Malacca. The Dutch would not attempt to interfere or wage war against Johor, in effect, the agreement served to limit Dutch influence on the Malay Peninsula in contrast to the islands of the archipelago which would become the Dutch East Indies. Matelief de Jonge started the assault by besieging the fortress and city of Malacca and he was hoping that by blockading and cutting the supplies to the Portuguese, prolonged hunger and direct assault would force them to capitulate. The Dutch, with few soldiers, could not afford a land offensive against their well-entrenched opponent, the Dutch maintained the siege for a time and the situation started to get worse for the Portuguese until 14 August 1606 when a Portuguese fleet from Goa arrived. Led by the Viceroy of Goa, Dom Martim Afonso de Castro, the two fleets traded cannon fire and the Portuguese ships began to move northward, drawing the Dutch away from Malacca.
On 16 August 1606, off the Portuguese lighthouse at Cape Rachado, heavy cannons salvoes opened the battle with each side trying to weaken the opponent before the ships closed on each other and the battle would have to be fought hand-to-hand. After a couple of days of cannon duels, on the morning of 18 August, with the wind in favour of the Portuguese, seeing the danger, ordered his ships to turn sail away from the oncoming ships to evade boarding. But for some reason, the VOC ship Nassau, failed to turn quickly, the Portuguese ship Santa Cruz dashed forth and boarded the Nassau. Matelief de Jonge ordered his own ship, the Oranje, to turn around to rescue the hapless Nassau. While the Dutch captains were busy disentangling their ships, Martim de Castros ship, the Dutch crew of the Nassau managed to jump into a lifeboat, leaving the fiercely burning Nassau behind. The entangled duo had now become a quartet, a furious battle raged between the hopelessly entangled ships, with point-blank cannonades quickly setting the ships ablaze, as much a danger to one as the other
Siege of Diu
The Siege of Diu occurred when an army of the Sultanate of Gujarat, aided by forces of the Ottoman Empire attempted to capture the city of Diu in 1538, held by the Portuguese. The Portuguese successfully resisted the four month long siege, since 1517, the Ottomans had attempted to combine forces with Gujarat in order to fight the Portuguese away from the Red Sea and in the area of India. Pro-Ottoman forces under Captain Hoca Sefer had been installed by Selman Reis in Diu, Diu in Gujerat, was with Surat, one of the main points of supply of spices to Ottoman Egypt at that time. However, Portuguese intervention thwarted that trade by controlling the traffic in the Red Sea, in 1530, the Venetians could not obtain any supply of spices through Egypt. Under the command of governor Nuno da Cunha, the Portuguese had attempted to capture Diu by force in February 1531, the Portuguese waged war on Gujarat, devastating its shores and several cities like Surat. The Portuguese seized the stronghold of Gogala near the city, bahadur Shah had appealed to the Ottomans to expel the Portuguese, which led to the 1538 expedition.
Pasha Suleiman forbade any shipping out of the Red Sea to avoid leaking information to the Portuguese in India, there were delays however due to the Siege of Coron in the Mediterranean, and the Ottoman-Safavid war of 1533-1535. It carried over 400 artillery pieces in total, over 10,000 sailors and rowers and 6,000 soldiers, the Pasha employed a Venetian renegade, Francisco, as captain of 10 galleys, plus 800 Christian mercenaries. In July 20,1538, the armada set sail from Jeddah, at Aden, Pasha Suleiman captured the city after inviting the Sultan, Sheikh Amir bin Dawaud, favourable towards the Portuguese, aboard his ships, hanging him. Thus, Aden was occupied without a siege and it was the largest Ottoman fleet ever sent into the Indian Ocean. The captain of Diu at the time was the experienced António da Silveira, former captain of Bassein, the Portuguese fortress housed about 3,000 people, of which solely 600 were soldiers. For the following two months the Gujaratis were unable to threaten the besieged with more than a low-intensity bombardment, on September 4, the Ottoman fleet arrived in Diu, catching the Portuguese garrison by surprise and thus blockading the fortress by sea.
The janissaries attempted to scale the walls but are repelled with 50 dead. On September the 14th, four foists from Goa and Chaul arrived with reinforcements, in September 10 the army of Khadjar Safar bombarded the fortlet with Turkish artillery pieces before attempting to assault it with the aid of janissaries but are repelled. Khadjar Safar ordered a craft be filled with timber and tar, with which he hoped to place by the redoubt and smoke the Portuguese out. Realizing his intentions, António da Silveira sent Francisco de Gouveia with a crew on a craft to burn the device with fire bombs under cover from the night. Another assault on September 28 with 700 janissaries failed after a prolonged bombardment, the Portuguese garrison resisted until its captain Pacheco agreed to surrender to the Pasha on October 1, who had granted them safe passage to the fortress unarmed. When they surrendered however, Suleiman promptly had them imprisoned on his galleys, to which da Silveira dictated out-loud his reply to be sent to the Pasha, ahead of the whole fortress, Most honored captain Pasha
Battle of Guinea
The Battle of Guinea took place on the Gulf of Guinea, in western Africa,1478, between a Portuguese fleet and a Castilian fleet in the context of the War of the Castilian Succession. The outcome of the battle of Guinea was probably decisive for Portugal reaching a very favourable sharing of the Atlantic and territories disputed with Castile in the Peace of Alcáçovas. All with the exception of the Canary Islands stayed under Portuguese control, Cape Verde, Azores, Portugal won exclusive rights over the lands discovered or that were to be discovered south of the Canary Islands. When the Portuguese fleet of ships arrived at the Gulf of Guinea. Cheap goods like shells, old clothes, brass bracelets and other items were being traded in exchange for gold, the Castilian fleet was anchored in a harbor near Mina when the Portuguese fleet initiated an attack early in the morning. The captured fleet was taken to Lisbon. The large amount of gold captured by the Portuguese was enough to finance King Afonso V of Portugal military campaign in Castile, and all the islands already discovered and to be discovered, and any other island which might be found and conquered from the Canary Islands beyond toward Guinea.
History of Portugal Portuguese Empire House of Avis Henry the Navigator Age of Discovery Treaty of Tordesillas Elmina Castle Bailey Wallys Diffie, George Davison Winius, Foundations of the Portuguese empire, 1415-1580. U of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0-8166-0782-6 John W. Blake, READ BOOKS, ISBN 978-1-4437-2447-0 M. D. D. Newitt, A history of Portuguese overseas expansion, 1400-1668
Second Siege of Diu
The Second Siege of Diu was a siege of the Portuguese Indian city of Diu by the Gujarat Sultanate in 1546. It ended with a major Portuguese victory, at the beginning of the 16th century, the Muslim Sultanate of Gujarat was the principal seapower in India. Gujarat fought the Portuguese fleets in collaboration with the Mamluks, the Portuguese were defeated by a combined Mamluk-Gujarati fleet in 1508, which was in turn destroyed by a Portuguese fleet in the Battle of Diu. By 1536, the Portuguese had gained control of Diu. In 1538, the Ottomans, who had taken over Egypt and Aden and they besieged Diu in 1538, but had to retreat. After the failed siege of 1538, the Gujarati General Khadjar Safar besieged Diu again in an attempt to recapture the island, the siege lasted seven months from 20 April 1546 to 10 November 1546, during which João de Mascarenhas defended Diu. The siege ended when a Portuguese fleet under Governor João de Castro arrived and routed the attackers, Khadjar Safar and his son Muharram Rumi Khan were both killed during the siege.
Siege of Diu First Siege of Diu
Battle of Diu (1509)
It marks the beginning of European colonialism in Asia. Since Vasco da Gama arrived in 1498, the Portuguese had been fighting Calicut while allying with its local rival Kingdom of Cochin, where they established their headquarters. In 1505, the King of Portugal, Manuel I, sent his first viceroy, Dom Francisco de Almeida with twenty one vessels to strengthen the fledgling Portuguese empire in East Africa, sultan Mahmud Begada of Gujarat allied with the Kozhikkodu Samutiri when Portugal threatened his field. He asked his partners, the Mamluks, for help. In 1507, Portuguese forces under command of Afonso de Albuquerque had conquered Socotra, at the mouth of the Red Sea and, for a short time, Ormuz in the Persian Gulf. The Mamluks and their European trade partners, the Venetians, had become wealthy from monopolising the flow of spices from India to Europe. Venice broke diplomatic relations with Portugal and started to look for ways to counter its intervention in the Indian Ocean, venice negotiated for Egyptian tariffs to be lowered to facilitate competition with the Portuguese, and suggested that rapid and secret remedies be taken against the Portuguese.
The sovereign of Calicut, the Zamorin, had sent an ambassador asking for help against the Portuguese. These vessels, which Venetian shipwrights helped disassemble in Alexandria and reassemble on the Red Sea coast, had to brave the Indian Ocean, the galley warriors could mount light guns fore and aft, but not along the gunwales because these cannon would interfere with the rowers. The native ships, with their sewn wood planks, could carry no heavy guns at all, most of the coalitions artillery was archers, whom the Portuguese could easily outshoot. The Mamluk-Ottoman fleet, called by the Portuguese by the generic term, joined by Gujarat admiral Malik Ayyaz, governor of Diu, they fought for over three days and won the Battle of Chaul. The Mamluk fleet isolated Lourenço de Almeidas ship, but let the others escape and they killed the Portuguese commander and took nine captives back to Diu. The Mirat Sikandari, a Persian account of the Kingdom of Gujarat, having taken the prisoners, they headed to Diu.
Enraged at the death of his son, the Portuguese viceroy Francisco de Almeida sought revenge, Diu was a critical outpost in the overall spice trade from India. The Portuguese attempt to trade with India would require the breaking of this strongly defended. In addition to enforcing Portuguese rule, the battle was undertaken as an issue by Portuguese viceroy Francisco de Almeida to avenge the death of his son Lourenço at the hands of the Mirocem. He was so enraged at his sons death that he is supposed to have said, He who ate the chick must eat the rooster, or pay for it. Francisco de Almeida had rushed to chase the Mamluks fleet because Afonso de Albuquerque arrived on 6 December 1508 with orders from the King of Portugal to replace him as the next viceroy
Capture of Ormuz (1507)
The Capture of Ormuz in 1507 occurred when the Portuguese Afonso de Albuquerque attacked Hormuz Island to establish the Castle of Ormuz. This conquest gave the Portuguese full control of the trade between India and Europe passing through the Persian Gulf, a fleet under Tristão da Cunha was sent to capture the Muslim fort on Socotra in order to control the entrance to the Red Sea, this was accomplished in 1507. The main part of the fleet left for India, with a few ships remaining under Albuquerque. Albuquerque disobeyed orders and left to capture the island of Ormuz and he obtained the submission of the local king to the king of Portugal, as well as the authorisation to build a fort using local labour. With the support of the sovereign of Ormuz, the rebellious captains fought the forces of Albuquerque in early January 1508, after a few days of battle, Albuquerque was forced to withdraw from the city, abandoning the fort under construction. He sailed away in April 1508 with the two remaining ships and he returned to Socotra where he found the Portuguese garrison starving.
He remained in the Gulf of Aden to raid Muslim ships and he again returned to Ormuz, and set sail to India on board a merchant ship he had captured. In March 1515, Albuquerque returned to Ormuz, leading a fleet of 27 vessels, with a strength of 1,500 soldiers and 700 malabaris, determined to regain it. He held the position of the ancient fortress on 1 April, referring to the building, now under a new name, Fort of Our Lady of the Conception. In 1622, an Anglo-Persian force combined to take over the Portuguese garrison at Hormuz Island in the Capture of Ormuz, the capture of Ormuz by an Anglo-Persian force in 1622 entirely changed the balance of power and trade. Kingdom of Ormus Portuguese Empire Sir Percy Molesworth Sykes, narrative of a Journey Into Khorasan, in the Years 1821 and 1822